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Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. A person’s mood and emotions can be altered drastically due to bipolar disorder, but they do not have more than one personality. Split personalities problem is more commonly seen in those with personality/dissociative disorders.
There are four basic types of bipolar disorder; all of them involve clear changes in mood, energy, and activity levels. These moods range from periods of extremely “up,” elated, and energized behavior (known as manic episodes) to very sad, “down,” or hopeless periods (known as depressive episodes). Less severe manic periods are known as hypomanic episodes.
- Bipolar I Disorder— defined by manic episodes that last at least 7 days, or by manic symptoms that are so severe that the person needs immediate hospital care. Usually, depressive episodes occur as well, typically lasting at least 2 weeks. Episodes of depression with mixed features (having depression and manic symptoms at the same time) are also possible.
- Bipolar II Disorder— defined by a pattern of depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes, but not the full-blown manic episodes described above.
- Cyclothymic Disorder (also called cyclothymia)— defined by numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms as well numerous periods of depressive symptoms lasting for at least 2 years (1 year in children and adolescents). However, the symptoms do not meet the diagnostic requirements for a hypomanic episode and a depressive episode.
- Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders— defined by bipolar disorder symptoms that do not match the three categories listed above.
The disorder has two strong phases: 1) Bipolar Mania and 2) Depression.
Mania is a state of heightened energy and euphoria - an elevation of mood. It is in direct contrast to depression. Mania can vary in severity from hypomania, where, in addition to mood and energy elevation, the person shows mild impairment of judgement and insight, to severe mania with delusions and a level of manic excitement that can be so exhausting that hospitalisation is required to control the episode.
The mood, energy and other related symptoms define both mania and hypomania, with psychotic features being an 'add on' component experienced by a sub-set of individuals.
You have an intense sense of well-being, energy and optimism. It can be so strong that it affects your thinking and judgement. You may believe strange things about yourself, make bad decisions, and behave in embarrassing, harmful and - occasionally - dangerous ways.
Like depression, it can make it difficult or impossible to deal with day-to-day life. Mania can badly affect both your relationships and your work. When it isn't so extreme, it is called 'hypomania'.
If you become manic, you may notice that you are:
- very happy and excited
- irritated with other people who don't share your optimistic outlook
- feeling more important than usual.
- full of new and exciting ideas
- moving quickly from one idea to another
- hearing voices that other people can't hear.
- full of energy
- unable or unwilling to sleep
- more interested in sex.
- making plans that are grandiose and unrealistic
- very active, moving around very quickly
- behaving unusually
- talking very quickly - other people may find it hard to understand what you are talking about
- making odd decisions on the spur of the moment, sometimes with disastrous consequences
- recklessly spending your money
- over-familiar or recklessly critical with other people
- less inhibited in general.
If you are in the middle of a manic episode for the first time, you may not realise that there is anything wrong – although your friends, family or colleagues will. You may even feel annoyed if someone tries to point this out to you. You increasingly lose touch with day-to-day issues – and with other people's feelings.
The feeling of depression is something we all experience from time to time. It can even help us to recognise and deal with problems in our lives. In clinical depression or bipolar disorder, the feeling of depression is much worse. It goes on for longer and makes it difficult or impossible to deal with the normal things of life. If you become depressed, you will notice some of these changes:
- feelings of unhappiness that don't go away
- feeling that you want to burst into tears for no reason
- losing interest in things
- being unable to enjoy things
- feeling restless and agitated
- losing self-confidence
- feeling useless, inadequate and hopeless
- feeling more irritable than usual
- thinking of suicide.
- can’t think positively or hopefully
- finding it hard to make even simple decisions
- difficulty in concentrating.
- losing appetite and weight
- difficulty in getting to sleep
- waking earlier than usual
- feeling utterly tired
- going off sex.
- difficulty in starting or completing things – even everyday chores
- crying a lot – or feeling like you want to cry, but not being able to
- avoiding contact with other people.
- Biological Causes: Experts say that patients with bipolar disorder often show physical changes in their brains. Nobody is sure why the changes lead to the disorder.
- Genetic Traits: Researchers are involved in finding out whether or not the causes of bipolar disorder arise out of genes and other hereditary factors. If you have a first-degree relative or a sibling who is/was affected by this condition, you would probably have it too.
- Neurotransmitters: Mood swing disorder is caused by an imbalance in brain chemicals known as ‘neurotransmitters’.
Initial Treatment: The initial treatment method is to take medications to balance and control the mood swings. After the symptoms are in control, one has to start working with his/her trusted doctor for chalking out an effective and practical long-term treatment procedure.
Recovery from substance abuse: Problems related to excessive alcohol and drug abuse are solved by this therapy. Failing this step, this disorder can be unmanageable.
Day care treatment: Day care treatment programs can be recommended by your doctor. This treatment method includes counseling and support which keep the bipolar traits under control.
Hospitalization: Hospitalization or immediate medical support is recommended in case of suicidal thoughts or when a person starts exhibiting erratic behavior (being psychotic).
Medications: Medications include the administration of antipsychotics (such as ziprasidone, olanzapine), antidepressants (usually in combination with a mood stabilizer or an anti-psychotic), mood stabilizers (such as valproic acid, lithium, divalproex sodium) and anti-anxiety medications.
I want to quit smoking, please suggest the best way, is use of nicotine gum or 2baconill tts30 is worked? Any side effects? please suggest best aid. Thank you.
Nowadays, drug abuse is a universally condemned action such that selling certain drugs are illegal. Children are not allowed to take drugs until they reach a certain age such as 21 for most states in India. Lots of problems start occurring when you are addicted to a certain drug. It is also nearly impossible to stop since the nerve cells change the way they function due to drugs.
These nerve cells overstimulate the 'reward circuit' of the brain. This means that your brain constantly needs to be 'rewarded' and this reward comes in the form of drugs. There are many reasons why people become addicts and here are some of them.
- People want to get high: This is perhaps the most common reason why people become drug addicts. The moment they take in one drug, they love the feeling they get so much that they keep wanting to go back to it.
- People want to fit in: This is also a very common reason. When all your friends and perhaps even your bosses and other superiors are taking drugs, you do not want to feel left out or ostracized by your friend group. This is why many people start taking drugs.
- Unintentionally taking drugs due to injuries or medical conditions: Sometimes a doctor prescribes a medicine for a certain time period but it does not work or works too well and so you keep taking the drug so that you will feel better. This happens more often than you think.
- People take drugs to relieve stress: This is another very common reason why people take drugs. You may easily rationalize with them thinking that taking drugs is a good way to relax from work and family pressures. However, the long term effects of taking drugs are much worse than the stress.
- Boredom from daily life: In young teens and adolescents especially, life can be so boring that they want to try something new and thus resort to drug abuse. Drugs like opium or other opioids cuse delayed ejaculation so many people take to enhance sexual power.
Loss and grief are two unfortunate partners where the latter follows the former. While the type of grief or the nature of the loss may differ from person to person, there are five distinct stages of loss and grief that all people universally go through, when faced with such a situation.
Here are the five stages of this process and the different ways in which one can cope with each stage:
- Denial and Isolation: In this phase, the patient usually ends up blocking out the words as well as the thoughts and reactions that surround this sad event, which can lead to a numbing action of the brain. While we all do this in some measure during such situations, some people take it especially hard by acting as if nothing has happened at all. If this phase does not come to pass within a short frame of time, then psychological and medical intervention may be required.
- Anger: When a person begins to acknowledge the loss, there is a sense of unfairness which can lead to frustration and anger that is basically the way the person may be dealing with the re-emergence of the pain and the fact that it is here to stay. Therapy and sedation may be required if this frustration and repeated spells of tantrums carries on for a prolonged period. Do not hesitate to talk things out rather than flaring up at this point, as the unchangeable has already happened.
- Bargaining: In this phase, desperation enters the mind of the patient where a lot of 'what ifs' come up. The patient begins to question what if things had been done differently and other such aspects. If not dealt with in an engaging manner and with empathy, this phase can lead back to anger and frustration.
- Depression: Private mourning of the loss and regret to do with the practical aspects of loneliness and the cost of the loss can strike at this stage. Here, the patient must be made aware of rights as well as the people around him or her who can help out to prevent this depression from becoming a full-fledged condition.
- Acceptance: In this final stage, the patient becomes more accepting of this new reality. Yet, even this must be taken up cautiously as a grief-stricken heart may lead to a variety of mental ailments in the long run.
The way to deal with these stages is with therapy and proper guidance where the patient is allowed to channel all the thoughts and anger before accepting the situation. Do not hesitate to ask for counseling and embrace the changes in your life without regret, guilt and depression. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Addiction is a organic disorder in which neuroreceptor are involved. It has long term treatment. Substance addiction includes a variety of substances apart from alcohol and drugs. Examples include porn, food, chocolate, nicotine, etc. Situation addiction includes gambling, shopping and sex among others. The problem in our society with addiction is it is treated like a choice than as a major problem faced by an individual. De-addiction is the process of ridding the individual of his dependence on certain substances or activities.
- Rehabilitation psychology studies the process of de-addiction and helps addicts blend with the normal lifestyle. Rehab centers offer several forms of therapy to reduce substance usage.
- Group therapy is always the go to form of therapeutic technique to deal with cases of addiction owing to the common feeling among users that people who aren’t addicted and do not know what they’re going through. In those cases, it is rather important to have support from a group of people who are exactly where they are.
- Family therapy is also essential to make the individual know how their loved ones feel and also remind them of the unconditional support. Some rehab centers also use the horse therapy (focuses on interaction with horses which facilitates emotional and occupational development in patients) which is rather interesting to witness.
- In addition to therapy, rehab centers teach life skills and cooperation. Apart from all this, drugs are also prescribed to deal with addiction along with the weekly scheduled personal therapy sessions.
Although an unfamiliar concept in India, halfway homes are the next step after the rehab. The individuals learn different skills and ways to manage themselves outside the house while still continuing their therapy. This is done to make sure one doesn’t relapse right after the rehabilitation has been completed. Most rehabs also suggest support group meetings. Even otherwise support groups are extremely effective in the de-addiction process. ‘Alcoholics Anonymous’ and ‘Narcotics Anonymous’ are two of the most widely managed support groups around the world.
Addiction is an immense issue which has spiraled out of control in today’s times. However, it is necessary to understand it isn’t the question of the individual’s morality. The removal of labels and stigma is essential in the entire process. Support from loved ones is an extremely important step towards de-addiction, right after the acceptance that one is addicted.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Kleptomania is a form of psychiatric disorder. It is a difficult disorder, and an affected person experiences a lot of shame, remorse, stress or feels guilt, which are associated with stealing. It is categorized as an impulse control disorder which affects the behavior of a patient. Kleptomania may be associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The patient develops an impulse to steal and cannot control this impulse and later feels guilty.
Here are several tips which you can use in order to deal with kleptomania.
- Understanding the situation: It must be clearly understood that a kleptomaniac person does not steal with the intention of becoming rich. It is done only for mental satisfaction and to pacify the urge of stealing that comes from within to an affected person. The patient usually does not care about the object he steals, but he only cares about the act of stealing. Usually, kleptomaniac patients steal insignificant things. When an affected patient becomes extremely nervous or fearful, they tend to steal an object. After the act, they feel much better and relieved. Later, a feeling of guilt arises in the person about his stealing act.
- Treat the affected person gently: A kleptomaniac person requires love, care and great understanding from his/her loved ones or family members in order to recover. The problem and the situation must be recognized and perceived carefully. A person close to the patient should deal with him gently and try to make him understand. In many situations, a kleptomaniac may be aware of his actions but does not confess to avoid harassment.
- The situation is different from stealing: It must be kept in mind that the actions of a kleptomaniac cannot be exactly termed as stealing. Stealing is an organized activity done by conscious individuals in order to gain something material or money related. Kleptomania is an act of impulse which a patient conducts for psychological satisfaction. The patients are fully aware that stealing is not the right thing, but yet they cannot control their impulse to steal.
- Treatment procedures: Once a kleptomaniac person accepts that they are suffering from a disorder, professional help must be taken. Cognitive Behavior Therapy is the primary treatment for kleptomania. This includes aversion therapy where a distraction is created when a person develops the impulse to steal an object. Systematic desensitization is another process where a patient is made to imagine a scenario to get over the urge of stealing. Covert desensitization makes a patient imagine negative impacts of the stealing act such as arrest or harassment.
The social life of a kleptomaniac becomes very difficult and both the patient, and his family are subjected to a lot of trouble and harassment. Necessary measures must be taken for kleptomania. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
I have daily masturbate from 12 years to 30 years ,18 years I have masturbate sir but i. Have not marry now searching for life partner future if any problem still I have depression problem last six year sir medical treatment for psychiatrist.
With age, most body organs begin to deteriorate in their function. This happens to the brain also, thereby reducing the overall speed of functioning of most organs. While slowing of bodily movement is visible, the internal organs functioning also slows down, which is not that obvious. Memory loss or dementia is one of the main manifestations of this degeneration of the brain.
Alzheimer’s is the most common form of dementia, and the associated symptoms includes reduced reasoning abilities and cognitive defects. Though it is seen only in the elderly, not all elderly people will have Alzheimer’s. The overall quality of life of the affected person is reduced with difficulty remembering things that were recently learned. It is a progressive disease and as it gets more severe, a full-time caretaker may be required.
Causes: The brain cells are affected by protein masses known as plaques and tangles. These hamper the way communication between the brain cells happens as well as affect nutrition from reaching all parts of the brain. This leads to shrinking of the brain, eventually leading to memory loss and other problems. There is also a strong genetic linkage, as most people with Alzheimer’s have the lipoprotein A gene.
Symptoms: Though memory loss is the most common symptom, there are other symptoms:
- Being confused about places, people, and times
- Inability to find the right words during conversations
- Regular objects are misplaced
- Becoming irritable, (in someone who was not so previously)
- Mood swings
- Personality changes
- Inability to organise thoughts
- Not able to make the right decisions
- Repetitive talks and actions
- Forgetfulness (not something the person always does)
- Difficulty with numbers (again, not something calculations
- Difficulty managing everyday tasks and minor problems
- Suspicion of others (like immediate family members and friends)
Risk factors: While age is definitely a risk factor, the fact that not all aged people develop Alzheimer’s is to be borne in mind. Other risk factors include the history of stroke, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, obesity, and poor lifestyle choices.
Diagnosis: While there is no definitive way to diagnose Alzheimer’s, symptoms along with brain scans and neuropsychological function testing are useful ways to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment: This is aimed at two things reducing the rate of disease progression and treat (or reverse) symptoms if possible.
Cholinesterase inhibitors improve cellular communication in the brain and also manage depression and agitation. Memantine is used to slow the pace of disease progression.
In people with the disease, small changes are useful to help them with the symptoms. These include keeping essential things like keys and wallet in the same place, keep a daily diary to help them remember things, keep pictures of friends and family within visible distance. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!