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Treatment of Nerve And Muscle Disorders
Treatment of Paralysis
Cerebral Palsy Treatment
Brain Tumor Surgery
Electroconvulsive Therapy (Ect) Treatment
Surgery Of The Facial Nerve
Radiofrequency Neurotomy Procedure
Spine Surgery Treatment
Traumatic Brain Injury (Tbi) Treatment
Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury (Tbi)
Assistive Walking Device Training
Vagus Nerve Stimulation ( Epilepsy )
Deep Brain Stimulation Procedure
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Alzheimer's disease is a dynamic disease that causes loss of memory and other vital mental functions. To start with, someone with Alzheimer's disease may witness light confusion in the beginning and trouble recalling. In the long run, individuals with the disease may even overlook important individuals in their lives and experience emotional identity changes.
- Dementia: Alzheimer’s disease is the most widely recognised reason for dementia — a gathering of brain issues that causes the loss of intellectual and social abilities. In Alzheimer's disease, the brain cells deteriorate and die, bringing on an enduring decrease in memory and mental capacity.
- Brain Cells: Despite the fact that the reasons for Alzheimer's is not yet completely comprehended, its impact on the brain is clear. Alzheimer's disease harms the brain cells. A mind influenced by Alzheimer's has fewer cells and fewer associations among surviving cells than a solid mind.
- Brain Shrinkage: As more brain cells start to die, Alzheimer's prompts critical brain shrinkage. At the point when specialists inspect Alzheimer's brain tissue under the magnifying instrument, they see two sorts of irregularities that are considered to cause Alzheimer’s. These are:
- Plaque: These clusters of a protein called beta-amyloid may harm and crush brain cells in a few ways, meddling with cell-to-cell functioning. In spite of the fact that a definitive reason for brain cell passing in Alzheimer's is not known, the accumulation of beta-amyloid on the outside of brain cells is a prime reason.
- Tangles: Brain cells rely upon an inner support and transport framework to carry the supplements and other fundamental materials through their long extensions. This framework requires the typical structure and working of a protein called tau. In Alzheimer's, strings of tau protein turn into strange tangles inside the brain cells. This may also cause the decrease of brain cells.
Here are some more causes that can lead to this disease:
- Age: Age is a most critical cause in the development of Alzheimer's disease. The probability of building up the condition increases after you reach sixty-five years of age.
- Family history: The qualities you acquire from your parents can add to your danger of building up Alzheimer's infection. This may also contribute to the environmental factors which can cause this condition. In some families, a single gene creates Alzheimer’s disease and the dangers of the condition being passed on are much higher.
- Head injuries: Individuals who have had serious head damage have been observed to be at higher risk of building up Alzheimer's disease.
- Cardiovascular diseases: Research demonstrates that few lifestyle components and conditions connected with cardiovascular disease can build the danger of Alzheimer's disease. These include smoking, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and high cholesterol.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
It is common belief that alcohol consumption is a social menace and is injurious to health. It is the third leading lifestyle causes of death in the United States and takes a toll on the health care costs of the country. Many organs like the liver, kidney, heart, and brain are affected in people who are addicted to alcohol. However, it has been proven that alcohol consumption in minor amounts can have beneficial effects on the human body including the heart.
The side effects depend on a number of factors listed below.
- Type of alcohol consumption (social or habitual drinker)
- Amount of alcohol consumed
- Frequency of drinking
- Age, gender, and genetic predisposition of the person to develop alcohol-related diseases
- Family history of alcoholism and its related diseases
- Age at which the person started drinking
- The number of years that a person has been consuming alcohol
- Overall health condition of the person
- Exposure to alcohol as a fetus
Like the adage goes, anything in excess is bad. It is not necessary that a habitual or social drinker who consumes a drink or two per week would end up with these issues. In fact, if recent studies are to be believed, mild to moderate intake of alcohol does have a benefit to overall health.
- The cardiovascular benefits are the most prominent. Red wine and beer, in particular, are shown to provide benefits against cardiovascular damage in the long run. This could be due to the antioxidant properties of red wine. Alcohol itself (ethanol or ethyl alcohol) also has a positive effect. Some varieties of beer, porter and stout varieties in particular, are also shown to be beneficial. The anti-inflammatory properties and antiatherogenic (effect on plaque formation in the blood vessel) are what contribute to these positive effects.
- There is evidence to show that cholesterol profile is improved (good cholesterol increase) and clotting function is improved in people who have mild alcohol consumption.
- The insulin sensitivity is also better, leading to better control of sugar levels.
- Light alcohol consumption also is believed to reduce the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. However, heavy alcohol consumption is believed to increase the risk of stroke and other cerebral events.
- Limited use of alcohol is also linked to reduced risk of dementia. Heavy consumption leads to faster memory decline.
- The key to note is that these benefits are only when the alcohol consumption is mild to moderate. In excess, the negative effects of alcohol are well established and numerous.
Some of the most significant ones being cirrhosis of the liver and cancers of various organs including mouth, liver, larynx, oesophagus, colon, breast, pancreas, etc. To reduce these effects, alcohol screening and brief counselling to reduce habituation are helpful.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Parkinson’s disease is a disorder involving the nervous system. It can start with a mere tremor of one hand and advances to slow movement and stiffness. The face might show little no symptoms in the beginning but the speech might become slurred. With every passing day, the condition worsens. This condition has no permanent cure but the symptoms can be improved with proper medication.
What are the symptoms?
Some unmistakable symptoms include the following:
- A sudden shaking of the limb. A sudden tremor of the hand is a very common symptom of this disease.
- A stiffness of the muscles that can limit the range of motion and sharp pain.
- The posture of the body might get compromised. Often balancing problems are witnessed among many patients.
- There could be problems with speech leading to soft, slurry or quick speech. The speech in some cases can become monotonous devoid of inflexions.
- Parkinson’s disease can lead to slow movement and makes performing of simple tasks difficult.
- Patients often find writing very difficult
What are the possible causes of Parkinson’s disease?
- Specific genetic mutation can lead to Parkinson’s disease in folks who have a family history of Parkinson’s disease. Certain variations of the gene increase the risk of this disease
- Exposure to certain environmental factors or certain toxins can trigger Parkinson’s disease in an individual.
- Certain cells in the brain known as Lewy bodies can trigger Parkinson’s disease.
- A certain kind of protein cells within the brain known as alpha-synuclein can trigger the Parkinson’s disease in an individual
What are the risk factors?
- Heredity: Having an immediate family member or a close relative suffering from Parkinson’s disease can increase the risk of getting this disease in an individual
- Age: Although not a prime risk factor, but an individual over the age of over 60 have an increased risk of getting this disease
- Toxins: Exposure to pesticide or certain herbicide increase the risk of Parkinson’s
- Sex: Men are more likely to get Parkinson’s disease than women
What is the medication for Parkinson’s disease?
- Carbidopa-levodopa: This is a natural chemical that gets passed to the brain and is converted to dopamine by the body. The benefits of this medication might reduce with increased symptoms.
- Carbidopa-levodopa infusion: A popular drug in this category is known as the Duopa. It is administered directly into the small intestine in the form of gel through a feeding tube.
- MAO-B inhibitors: Drugs from this group include rasagiline and selegiline. This is a powerful medicine. Many patient experiences hallucination during the initial days of consuming these drugs.
- Anticholinergics: This medication is mainly used to counter tremors of the limbs in the early stage of the Parkinson’s disease.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The brain is like the central processing unit of a computer that controls the entire body’s function. Both structurally and functionally, it is an extremely complex and vital organ and disorders occur due to a variety of reasons – old age, internal injury, accidents/trauma, infections, and malignancy being the most common. The brain has a highly sophisticated network of nerves which arise out of it and the spinal cord and ensures the body works in complete synchrony and coordination. The neurological disorder is a generic term that is used to denote problems in all these – brain, spinal cord, and associated nerves.
The different categories of neurologic disorders include are listed below along with some details on how they affect the individual as a whole.
- Developmental defects like spina bifida and hydrocephalus
- Genetic disorders like Huntington’s disorder and muscular dystrophy
- Infections (bacterial, viral, parasitic) are another major category of neurological disorders, causing symptoms both from the infection per se and aftereffects.
- Degenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s, different types of dementias, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, etc.
- Traumatic injuries as a result of sports, accidents, etc.
- Functional issues like epilepsy, migraine and other headaches
- Vascular issues like stroke and haemorrhages.
- Malignancy including benign and malignant brain tumours
- Malnutrition related disorders.
Let us look at some of the most common ones
- Epilepsy: This happens due to inappropriate firing in the brain, resulting in convulsions. While it is hereditary in some people, the exact cause is not identified in most people. Effective medications are available which can completely cure the condition.
- Stroke: When a blood vessel is blocked due to plaque formation, blood supply is cut off to that part of the brain, leading to paralysis and sometimes even death. Timely intervention can, however, lead to the arrest and even reversal of symptoms.
- Parkinson’s disease: This is gradual degeneration causing reduced pace of movements (bradykinesia), tremors of the hands and feet, rigidity of movements, and loss of balance. The disease progression happens over a number of years, and it is usually genetic. Medications are available to manage the condition, but a complete cure is still under evaluation.
- Headaches: While headache can be a disorder in itself, it is also often the symptom of another neurological disorder. Migraines are very common, especially in women, and are characterised by throbbing, pounding headaches associated with sensitivity to light and noise and vomiting. There are usually triggers like menstruation, chocolates, alcohol, etc., which can be managed. Medications are useful in controlling the pain symptoms.
If detected in the early stages, the progression of most neurological disorders can be arrested and in some cases, symptoms even reversed.
The brain is a very complex organ, both structurally and functionally, and presents with symptoms elsewhere in the body if there is a problem within. It is akin to a central processing unit of a computer which controls the functioning of the entire body. In addition to ageing, trauma, injury, and infection can also lead to neurological symptoms which require intervention by a neurologist.
The following are some common symptoms indicative of the need to see a neurologist.
- Numb chin syndrome (NCS): This sudden numbness is often unilateral and has no dental/oral cause. NCS could either be the first indication of multiple sclerosis or systemic malignancy. Breast cancer, prostate cancer, and small cell lung cancer are shown to metastasize first to the trigeminal area and so numbness in the chin should be further investigated.
- Muscle twitches: The quivering, twitching and flickering of certain muscles is common for most of us, which is medically known as fasciculations. These occur due to muscle overuse, tiredness, or due to old age. However, when these get progressive, spread to more and more muscles, and are more regular, then it is a cause for concern. This could be the first indication of underlying motor neurone disease, and it is good to rule it out in the early phase.
- Poor vision: Vision is blurred or lost for short periods of time, usually affecting both eyes and lasting for just about a few seconds. This happens due to increased intracranial pressure, which causes sudden vision loss. However, it could also be due to underlying brain tumours that are enlarging and encroaching intracranial space.
- Bowel/bladder incontinence: Inability to control bowel or bladder movements along with symptoms like leg stiffness could mean spinal cord compression and should be discussed immediately with a neurologist. Left unattended, it could progress and lead to severe complications.
- Droopy eyelid: Whether or not it is painful, whether or not it is seen on both sides, a droopy eyelid is definitely a cause for concern. This could be due to aneurysm of an artery which can press on the cranial nerve and cause more severe symptoms.
- Banging headache: A headache as if someone hit you with a cricket bat could be the result of an internal haemorrhage in the subarachnoid space. Diagnosis needs to be confirmed with a lumbar puncture to see if the fluid has blood in it.
- Saddle anaesthesia: A tumour in the spinal column compressing on the lower spinal nerves presents as loss of anaesthesia around the genitals and buttocks. This again needs to be immediately looked at by the neurologist.
If you have any of the above symptoms, visit your neurologist, and ruling out serious causes is reason enough to cheer!
A brain stroke can affect anyone at any point of time when the supply of blood to the brain is interrupted. It can threaten major physical functions and can prove to be fatally dangerous at times. The brain stem which is placed right above the spinal cord controls the breathing, heartbeat and levels of blood pressure. It is also in charge of controlling some elementary functions such as swallowing, hearing, speech and eye movements.
What are the different types of strokes?
There are three main kinds of stroke: ischemic strokes, hemorrhagic strokes and transient ischemic attacks. The most common type of brain stroke is the ischemic stroke is caused by narrowing or blocking of arteries to the brain, which prevents the proper supply of blood to the brain. Sometimes it so happens that the blood clot that has formed elsewhere in the body have travelled via the blood vessels and has been trapped in the blood vessel which provides blood to the brain. When the supply of blood to a part of the brain is hindered, the tissue in that area dies off owing to lack of oxygen. The other variant of brain stroke is termed as hemorrhagic stroke is caused when the blood vessels in and around the brain burst or leak. Strokes need to be diagnosed and treated as quickly as possible in order to minimize brain damage. Remembering the F.A.S.T. acronym can help with recognizing the onset of stroke (Face, Arms, Speed, Time - explained below).
What are the common symptoms of a brain stroke?
The symptoms of the brain stroke are largely dependent on the area of the brain that has been affected. It can interfere with normal functioning, such as breathing and talking and other functions which human beings can perform without thinking such as eye movements or swallowing. Since all the signals from the brain as well as other parts of the body traverse through the brain stem, the interruption of blood flow often leads to numbness or paralysis in different parts of the body.
Who is likely to have a stroke?
Anyone is at a risk of developing brain stroke although ageing is directly proportional to the risk of having a stroke. Not only that an individual with a family history of brain stroke or transient ischemic attack is at a higher risk of developing stroke. People who have aged over 65 accounts for about 33 percent of all brain strokes. It is important to point here that individuals with high blood pressure, high blood sugar, cholesterol, cancer, autoimmune diseases and some blood disorders are at a higher risk of developing brain stroke.
There are a few factors which can increase the risk of developing stroke beyond any control. But there are certain lifestyle choices as well which aids in controlling the chances of being affected by stroke. It is crucial to refrain from long-term hormone replacement therapies as well as birth control pills, smoking, lack of physical activity, excessive use of alcohol and drug addiction. A brain stroke is a life-threatening medical condition, and when an individual has symptoms that resemble that of stroke, it is crucial to seek immediate medical help.
Treatment for stroke
- Treatment depends on the type of stroke.
- Ischemic strokes can be treated with 'clot-busting' drugs.
- Hemorrhagic strokes can be treated with surgery to repair or block blood vessel weaknesses.
- The most effective way to prevent strokes is through maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
What is TPA?
TPA is a thrombolytic or a “Clot Buster” drug. This clot buster is used to break-up the clot that is causing a blockage or disruption in the flow of blood to the brain and helps restore the blood flow to the area of the brain. It is given by intravenous (IV). This can be given only within 4.5 hrs of the onset of symptoms
Time is brain
- Remember Every second Loss means brain cells die.
- Rush to the nearest Stroke Centre whenever you experience such symptoms.
- U can save the brain cells dying if you reach within 4.5 hrs by the CLOT BUSTER.
Another treatment option is an endovascular procedure* called mechanical thrombectomy, strongly recommended, in which trained doctors try removing a large blood clot by sending a wired-caged device called a stent retriever, to the site of the blocked blood vessel in the brain
The good news is that 80 percent of all strokes are preventable. It starts with managing key risk factors, including
- High blood pressure,
- Cigarette smoking,
- Atrial fibrillation and
- Physical inactivity.
- More than half of all strokes are caused by uncontrolled hypertension or high blood pressure, making it the most important risk factor to control.
The best way to get better after a stroke is to start stroke rehabilitation ("rehab"). In stroke rehab, a team of health professionals works with you to regain skills you lost as the result of a stroke. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
You might be aware that the Parkinson’s diseases is related to the nervous system and is a progressive disorder that impairs movement. The cause of the illness is still unknown, but certain factors like environmental triggers and genetics may play a part in this regard. There are several myths about this condition that are prevalent among people. Some of them are listed below along with the facts.
Myth #1: Parkinson’s disease occurs only in aged persons
This is one of the biggest misconceptions that people have about this disease. The misconception arises because the disease is usually diagnosed at an old age. But according to various researches that are conducted the disease may start developing at a younger age.
Myth #2: The disease symptoms include only impaired movement
Impaired movement maybe one of the biggest symptoms of the diseases but not the only one. There are other symptoms which affect day-to-day activities but are still unnoticed. These symptoms include constipation, sleep disorders, sweating, abnormal bladder functioning, fatigue, sexual dysfunction, cognitive symptoms, depression and even anxiety. But the symptoms that are non-motor are treatable unlike the problems with movement.
Myth #3: There is no hope for patients who are diagnosed with the disease
Patients who are diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease are often told that they do not have any hope towards a cure. It is true that the disease is a progressive one, but it is not true that it cannot be controlled. Certain devices have been discovered which when used sends a signal to the brain which helps in reducing the tremors which are one of the well-known symptoms of the disease. So, no need to lose hope.
Myth #4: Medications are the only way in which you can undertake treatment for Parkinson’s disease
Some people believe that they cannot do anything except for taking medications to control the disease. But this is not true. Doing regular exercise and changing your food habits are at many times helpful in treating this particular condition. Have a balanced diet which will have enough fiber is also helpful. To increase your stability and flexibility, a daily workout routine is quite recommendable, and it will even increase your self-confidence and your feeling of independence.
Myth #5: Everything about the disease can be predicted
The disease is not at all predictable. If it were, a cure would have been in place by now. Everything from the symptoms to the treatment procedure varies from person to person. The disease may take years to develop in one individual but may develop instantly in someone else.
Don’t go by hearsay evidence about a disease. Medical science has improved a lot over the years. If you have any doubt regarding your health condition reach out to your doctor and clarify them at once.
Headaches and migraines can vary drastically depending on their duration, specific symptoms and the person they are affecting. The more you know about your specific type of headache or migraine, the better prepared you will be to treat them—and possibly even prevent them. The two types of migraine are-
- Migraine without aura: The majority of migraine sufferers have Migraine without Aura.
- Migraine with aura: Migraine with Aura refers to a range of neurological disturbances that occur before the headache begins, usually lasting about 20-60 minutes.
Symptoms of migraine vary and also depend on the type of migraine. A migraine has four stages: prodrome, aura, headache and postdrome. But it is not necessary that all the migraine sufferers experience all the four stages.
Prodrome: The signs of this begin to appear a day or two days before the headache starts. The signs include depression, constipation, food cravings, irritability, uncontrollable yawning, neck stiffness and hyperactivity.
Migraine Aura: Auras are a range of symptoms of the central nervous system. These might occur much before or during the migraine, but most people get a migraine without an aura. Auras usually begin gradually and increase in intensity. They last for an hour or even longer and are:
- Visual: Seeing bright spots, various shapes, experiencing vision loss, and flashes of light
- Sensory: Present in the form of touch sensations like feeling of pins and needles in the arms and legs
- Motor: Usually related with the movement problems like the limb weakness
- Verbal: It is related with the speech problems
Headache: In case of a migraine attack one might experience:
- Pain on both sides or one side of the head
- Pain is throbbing in nature
- Vomiting and nausea
- Sensitivity to smells, sound and light
- Vision is blurred
- Fainting and lightheadedness
Postdrome: This is the final phase of the migraine. During this phase one might feel fatigued, though some people feel euphoric.
Red flags that the patient may be having underlying serious disorder not migraine
- Onset of headaches >50 years
- Thunderclap headache - subarachnoid haemorrhage
- Neurological symptoms or signs
- Immunosuppression or malignancy
- Red eye and haloes around lights - acute angle closure glaucoma
- Worsening symptoms
- Symptoms of temporal arteritis
These patients require CT scan / MRI or CSF examination. Most Migraine patients do not need these tests.
Diagnosis of Migraine: Usually migraines go undiagnosed and thus are untreated. In case you experience the symptoms regularly then talk to the doctor, who evaluates the symptoms and can start a treatment. You can also be referred to a neurologist who is trained to treat the migraines and other conditions. During the appointment the neurologist usually asks about the family history of headaches and migraines along with your symptoms and medical history.
The doctor might advise for some tests like:
- Blood Tests: These reveal problems with the blood vessel like an infection in the spinal cord and brain.
- CT scan: Used to diagnose the infections, tumors, brain damage, and bleeding that cause the migraines.
- MRI: This helps to diagnose the tumors bleeding infections, neurological conditions, and strokes.
- Lumbar Puncture: For analyzing infections and neurological damages. In lumbar puncture a thin needle is inserted between the two vertebrae to remove a sample of the cerebrospinal fluid for analysis.
Migraine treatments can help stop symptoms and prevent future attacks.
Many medications have been designed to treat migraines. Some drugs often used to treat other conditions also may help relieve or prevent migraines. Medications used to combat migraines fall into two broad categories:
- Pain-relieving medications. Also known as acute or abortive treatment, these types of drugs are taken during migraine attacks and are designed to stop symptoms.
- Preventive medications. These types of drugs are taken regularly, often on a daily basis, to reduce the severity or frequency of migraines.
Your treatment strategy depends on the frequency and severity of your headaches, the degree of disability your headaches cause, and your other medical conditions.
Some medications aren't recommended if you're pregnant or breast-feeding. Some medications aren't given to children. Your doctor can help find the right medication for you.
Antibiotics are something which have changed are lives for eternity as well as for the better, to say the very least. With each day that passes, there are greater strides of advancement which are made in the field. Of late, it is said that antibiotics also have the potential to stop new cells in the brain from growing, which is quite a risk when it comes to their usage among people are sick.
Research has found that if the brain of the person under treatment is subject to sustained use of antibiotics, it is true that the brain can lose its functionality for a quicker time than what one would consider to be normal. So it can be said, this usually is not the advisable way to go.
Like most testing practices when it comes to medication, antibiotics which were tested on the brains of the subjects i.e. those of mice had an effect of mitigating their high-level memory. How this happened to be is rather interesting, to say the very least.
How dangerous can antibiotics be?
It is often said that eating right does wonder for a person’s brain. Well, the mice that were not treated with the antibiotics were seen to lose the healthy bacteria present in their stomachs. In addition to this, they lost new brain cells. This led on to them performing worse in mental tests than their peers who had had some antibiotics administered to them on a consistent basis.
Now a cynic may point out that what is seen to be true for mice may really not hold true when it comes to humans being considered. However, if it is taken into due account that a lot of path-breaking research is carried out on mice, there is quite some credence to the results of the study.
To supplement the evidence even further, it was also seen that for mice which were in possession of low levels of monocytes, which are a type of white blood cells. It was seen that there was a great dependency on monocytes for the generation of white blood cells. The part of the brain which is hindered by generating new cells on account of the sustained use of antibiotics is the hippocampus.
Antibiotics are the proverbial shot in the arm which can aid recovery by destroying the threat to a person’s wellness. However, it is to be considered that they are not safe in general as there is collateral damage!
Epilepsy is a neurological disease which is characterised by recurring epileptic seizures. These seizures can be brief or can persist for prolonged periods. Vigorous episodes which last long can result in physical injuries such as broken bones. Mention that 6th February is International epilepsy day.
Causes of Epilepsy
The cause of this condition isn’t very evident; however, most medical practitioners attribute epileptic seizures to brain injury, tumours, infections in the brain or birth defects. Some doctors believe that epilepsy is caused due to genetic mutations and is an outcome of abnormal activity of cells in the brain. Other causes for this condition can be alcohol or narcotics withdrawal and electrolyte problems.
- Repeated seizures
- Impaired memory
- Bouts of fainting
- Short spans of blackout
- Sudden bouts of blinking and chewing
- Inappropriate repetitive movements
Types of Seizures
A seizure, also known as fit, is usually a brief episode characterised by uncontrollable jerking movement and loss of awareness due to abnormal neuronal activity in your brain. A collective occurrence of these seizures causes epilepsy.
There are three types of seizures an epileptic person usually encounters.
- Idiopathic: This kind of seizure has no apparent cause
- Cryptogenic: The doctors believe that there is a cause for the seizure but cannot detect it
- Symptomatic: These seizures occur due to a reason.
- Medication: Medication is the most common treatment in case of epilepsy. Drugs taken on a regular basis can stop the seizure partially. But in very severe cases, they seem to have no effect at all.
- Surgery: For symptomatic seizures which are caused due to abnormal brain function, surgery can be a way to get rid of seizures. In some minor cases, nerve stimulation in the brain and special diets can be prescribed to control the epileptic seizures.
Five facts about epilepsy you need to know:
- Epilepsy is not psychosis or madness and can be treated easily
- Popular celebraties with epilepsy include Aristotle, Alfred Nobel, Alexander the great, Sir Isaacs Newton, Martin Luther and Julius Caesar etc.
- Woman with epilepsy can have a normal pregnancy
- Newer medicines for epilepsy are effective and very safe
- Surgery can cure epilepsy in some patients. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurologist.