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Treatment of Disc Prolapse
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Patient Review Highlights
Brain surgery involves several medical procedures, which incorporate fixing issues with the brain, including changes in the tissues of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and brain blood flow. Brain surgery is quite a complicated method of surgery and the type of surgery to be conducted depends on the underlying conditions.
Reasons for Brain Surgery:
Brain surgery is performed for the correction of physical brain abnormalities. These abnormalities could occur because of diseases, birth defects and injuries. A brain surgery is required when the following conditions arise in the brain:
- Abnormal blood vessels
- Blood clots in the brain
- When the protective tissue or dura is damaged
- Due to nerve damage
- Parkinson's disease
- Any kind of pressure after an injury
- Skull fractures
- In case of stroke and tumors
A surgery may not be required for all the above mentioned conditions, but in case of many, a brain surgery is very important as the conditions may worsen health problems.
Types of brain surgeries:
- Craniotomy: During this open brain surgery, an incision is made in the scalp, and a hole is created in the skull, near the area, which is being treated. After this process is complete, the hole or bone flap is secured in its place using plates or wires.
- Biopsy: This form of brain surgery helps in the removal of a small amount of brain tissues or tumors. After removal, the tissues or tumors are examined under a microscope. The creation of a small incision and a hole in the skull is indicated as a part of this process.
- Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: This form of brain surgery enables the removal or lesions and tumors via the nose and sinuses. Private parts of the brain can be accessed without creating an incision. An endoscope is utilized in the process which is used to examine tumors all across the brain.
- Minimally Invasive neuroendoscopy: This process is similar to the minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery. This method also involves the use of an endoscope for removal of brain tumors. Small, dime sized holes may be made in the skull to access some brain parts.
Brain surgeries may be associated with several risks. They may be:
- Allergic reactions to anesthesia
- Blood clot formations
- Swelling of the brain
- A state of coma
- Impairment in speech, coordination and vision.
- Problems in memory
- Strokes and seizures
- Infections in the brain
A brain surgery is a serious and very complex surgery. There are different kinds of brain surgeries, which are conducted depending on the condition and severity of the disease.
Spine surgeries are complicated and have serious repercussions if the procedure doesn’t go as planned. Probing your doctor is therefore very critical to ensure a safe operation and early post-op recovery. Questions can range from the type of treatment chosen for speedy recovery to side effects. Here is a list of questions that you need to ask your spine surgeon:
1. Why is the surgery recommended?
Typically, there could be more than one treatment option for a particular problem. Your doctor should be able to tell you very precisely as to why the surgery is recommended and how it is going to address the problem.
2. Is there any non-surgical option?
Many spine related issues can be treated with medicines and physiotherapy. Ask your doctor if such options exist.
3. Explain the surgical procedure in detail
Your doctor should explain the whole surgical procedure, explaining the minute details and help will help you to understand the implications.
4. What is the duration of the surgery?
Spine surgeries do not take more than 2 hours. It, however, depends on the procedure that is being performed.
5. How will the surgery address the pain?
It is important to know the source of the pain. Exploratory surgeries are not performed on the spine. Ask your doctor how he intends to address the pain through the surgery.
6. What are the risks involved?
Risks and side effects vary from patient to patient. For instance, a person with obesity, spondylitis and smoking has greater chances of complications associated with the operation.
7. Will the doctor perform the whole procedure or he will use practicing surgeons and intern for the job?
Many senior surgeons use interns and junior surgeons to perform a minor procedure. Get a clear understanding of the role of the doctor and his assistants. It is a good idea to know the background if the surgical team who is going to perform the procedure.
8. What is the success rate of the doctor for the procedure he is going to perform?
A successful spine surgeon should be able to give you valid data on his/her success rate and the overall success rate of surgeons all across the country.
9. How many days do you need to spend in hospital?
Your hospital stay is directly related to your insurance. It is essential to get a clear picture on the same.
11. What is the time required for recovery?
The recovery greatly varies from patient to patient. What you should ask your Doctor is the expected time required for you to join your job/school.
12. Will there be any physical limitation after the operations?
Many spine surgeries require you to refrain from strenuous jobs for a while. For instance, certain surgeries require you to stay away from driving for a while. Address all these apprehensions from your doctor.
A spinal cord injury is a damage to the spinal cord. It’s an extremely serious type of physical trauma that’s likely to have a lasting and significant impact on most aspects of daily life.
The spinal cord is responsible for sending messages from the brain to all parts of the body. It also sends messages from the body to the brain. We are able to perceive pain and move our limbs because of messages sent through the spinal cord.
If the spinal cord sustains an injury, some or all of these impulses may not be able to ‘get through’. The result is a complete or total loss of sensation and mobility below the injury. A spinal cord injury closer to the neck will typically cause paralysis throughout a larger part of the body than one in the lower back area.
A spinal cord injury is often the result of an unpredictable accident or violent event. The following can all result in damage to the spinal cord:
- a violent attack such as a stabbing or a gunshot
- diving into water that’s too shallow and hitting the bottom
- trauma during a car accident (specifically, trauma to the face, head and neck region, back, or chest area)
- falling from a significant height
- electrical accidents
- severe twisting of the middle portion of the torso
Some symptoms of a spinal cord injury include:
- Problem in walking
- Loss of control of the bladder or bowels
- Inability to move the arms or legs
- Feelings of spreading numbness or tingling in the extremities
- Pain, pressure, stiffness in the back or neck area
- Signs of shock
- Unnatural positioning of the head
If you suspect that someone has a back or neck injury:
- Don’t move the injured person – permanent paralysis and other serious complications may result
- Keep the person still
- Place heavy towels on both sides of the neck or hold the head and neck to prevent them from moving until emergency care arrives
- Provide basic first aid, such as stopping any bleeding and making the person comfortable, without moving the head or neck
Because spinal cord injuries are often due to unpredictable events, the best you can do is reduce your risk.
Some risk-reducing measures include:
- always wearing a seatbelt while in a car
- wearing proper protective gear while playing sports
- never diving into water unless you’ve examined it first to make sure it’s deep enough and free of rocks. Consult an Expert & get answers to your questions!
The brain is not a stagnant realm fed with a granted quota of intelligence and memory at birth. It is always in a state of flux. Exercising your brain in various ways accelerates its ability to perform better. It is in your hands to have a sharper take on situations and occurrences. Playing games that require brainstorming, solving quizzes, crosswords or playing chess makes you feel rejuvenated and tired at the same time; the reason being activated brain cells. A healthy brain will affect your life decisions positively and you probably will think rightly before you leap.
Tips to exercise those brain cells:
- Meditate and calm your mind: Ten minutes of meditation each day can help you get over anxiety. When your mind is at peace you think out pros and cons with enhanced insight. This composure reflects in each of your actions. Meditation demands your brain to be quiet when it is accustomed to work; you therefore have greater control over it.
- Music can improve your brain abilities: Music is the best antidote for a sloppy brain. Music excites the neurons healing a bruised memory. It gifts you with clarity of thought. Apart from listening to music one must try to play a musical instrument. Teaching yourself things puts your mind through a strict regimen of constructive activities.
- Take out time to learn a new language: We are paralyzed the minute our brain gives up. Due to several external and internal reasons each one of us is likely to suffer from cognitive disorders on being subjected to extreme pressure or shock. Trying to learn a new language motivate your brain cells to have a wider vocabulary, which further restricts your chances of brain damage.
- Mental mathematics could better your intelligence: Calculators, computers and phones are ridding us of our ability to compute individual data. Computation and consolidation of data helps your mind to work faster with precision. So, you now know those lessons on mental mathematics in childhood were actually the key to a well rounded brain.
- Think of something novel: The more the number of neurons the merrier is your brain. Take pains to direct your mind on a novel track. Thinking beyond what is given and expected helps your brain grow new neurons. It builds up your creativity letting you discover more of your capabilities. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a neurosurgeon.
A Brain Tumour can be defined as an abnormal growth of the tissues in the brain, which can disrupt the proper brain functions. Generally, the cells in the human body die and are replaced by new cells, while in the case of a tumour, the old cells do not die and form an accumulation and continues to grow to form a mass as more and more cells are added to it.
Symptoms of Brain Tumour:
- Headache: Having headache on regular basis, without any history of having such frequent headaches in past, which becomes worse because of other pressure related activities, such as sneezing, coughing, exercising might be a possible symptom of brain tumour and issues related to such sudden and frequent headaches should be taken up with the doctor without any further delay.
- Seizures: Seizures (fits) are amongst the most common symptoms of brain tumour, which might be limited to a particular body part or the whole body. Seizures might even continue after the treatment of brain tumour because of the left scar tissues in the brain.
- Numbness in arms/legs: Numbness in any body part, especially arms and legs should also be get evaluated timely, so that, if the possible reason behind them is a brain tumour, then the same could be treated well on time.
- Balancing problems: Poor coordination and balancing problems also arise as the most prominent symptom for the brain tumour and hence such small changes must be evaluated and the person suffering should be taken to a doctor immediately to get treated without any delay.
- Memory problems: Lack of concentration, poor memory and short term memory loss are few of the possible symptoms that indicate the presence of tumour.
- Nausea or vomiting: Nausea or vomiting might be the symptoms of many other possible health issues, but a headache supported by nausea and/or vomiting is one of the many symptoms of a brain tumour and hence should not be ignored.
- Facial paralysis: The inability to keep the facial activities under control also indicates the presence of a possible brain tumour and the same should also be diagnosed as soon as one experiences it.
- Change in vision: A person suffering from brain tumour might also experience changes in the vision, dizziness, blurry vision, among other sight related issues.
- Change in speech: The inability to speak properly and changes in the speech of a person may also indicate a possible presence of a tumour.
- Hearing problems: Sudden occurrence of hearing problems and other hearing related disorders might have the brain tumour as a possible reason.
Diagnosing a brain tumour may include one or more of many tests, including CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Angiogram and biopsy. One should never ignore the symptoms of the brain tumour and should get himself/herself checked since the brain tumours might result into permanent damages to the brain; hence such issues should never be ignored. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a neurologist.
Comes regular fits / mirgi attacks after every one or two months. My mother age is about 60 years. This epilepsy problem is 45 years old effects head ache, gas problem loud hichki, kabj,sickness. She is thin weight is about 50 kg. Muh se jhhag niklte he, daant / teeth Kas leti he kayi daant toot gaye he. Dora aane par hosh nhi rahta. Khade se gir jaati he. Fire v water pas me hone par jyada aate he. Khana banate huye kayi baat jal burn huyi he. Bhookh nhi lagti. Ab kayi baar se raat me sote samay Dore fits aate he. One year me 6 ya 7 baar fits aate he. Medha vati v homeopathic medicine ka koi fayda nhi Hoya v allopathic medicine head achhe v chakkar SAR bharipan problem ho jaati he medicine. Please give effective best treatment.
In the year 2011 a epilepsy seizure has occur in me and then I become unconscious. My family member took me to hospital and when I came conscious I feel very pain in my waist from back side. The pain is always coming in winter season yearly. It is difficult to me to sit and stand again.
As the famous quote says, 'prevention is better than cure', let us take you through some preventive measures to keep you and your loved ones away from the dreadful brain stroke. Brain stroke occurs due to an interruption in the regular blood flow to the brain or bursting of a blood vessel or due to the bursting of blocked artery, which reduces the supply of oxygen and nutrients, leading the brain cells to die.
Top 8 things that will reduce the likelihood of having a brain stroke:
- Eat well: Having good eating habits are not just good for a healthy outlook of the body, but also benefits the body in many other ways. Eating a plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, fibre rich diet, reducing salt and fat content can prevent stroke.
- Stay Active: Regular exercising not just makes you feel and look good, but also reduces the odds of developing a brain stroke. Exercising regularly or keeping the physical activities regularly will keep you away from suffering a stroke. Pick any physical activity, but do work out to stay away from the brain stroke.
- Say no to Smoking and drugs: Yes! The more you smoke, the more are the chances of you of suffering the deadly brain stroke.
- Control your blood pressure: The ideal blood pressure for a healthy person is 120/88 mm HG. Regular check-up of blood pressure is advisable to control the chances of suffering a stroke as high blood pressure can result into damage of arteries, which causes brain stroke.
- Drink in limits: Limit the amount of alcohol you consume, as alcohol increases the blood pressure, which is one of the main reasons behind the stroke. The high amount of alcohol can increase the blood pressure to a higher level very quickly. Consulting a doctor is the best option in case you are not able to control your alcohol intake.
- Cholesterol: People suffering from high cholesterol are at higher risk of strokes as the cholesterol can travel to the arteries in the body making the arteries narrow and the body more prone to suffer a stroke. Choosing healthy lifestyle helps in reducing the cholesterol level.
- Diabetes: High level of diabetes is one of the most prominent reasons behind stroke. One should get his diabetes level checked and keep it under control since the arteries might get blocked because of fatty deposits because of higher sugar levels.
- Depression/Stress: Any kind of depression or stress, generally leads to avoidance of all or some of the points discussed above and hence becomes a reason for an unhealthy body, which is more prone to strokes. Consultation with a doctor and/or psychiatrist is advisable in case a person if suffering from depression.
Improving your health and taking charge of your life should be the top most priority and should never be ignored.
Undergoing Brain Surgery can be a very traumatic experience, and it is common for many patients recovering from brain surgery to face depression, spells of dizziness, confusion and weakness post the surgery. It can be very critical that family members and friends talk to the patient and be empathetic towards them.
It takes approximately 12-18 months for the brain to heal after a brain surgery and slowly and gradually the patient will regain all his normal functions and get back to his daily routine. However in that time they need the complete support and understanding of their families, as well may need help from therapists. This will help the patient in gaining back their independence as well as confidence in their abilities.
Here are some tips that will help you deal with a patient recovering from Brain Surgery:
After brain surgery, a person may feel disoriented and have some speech or understanding disability for a while. Family members and friends are advised to take pause when talking to the patient, so that he/she can easily understand the conversation. Speaking slowly is not recommended, as patients may recognize it and have an emotional outburst or feel hurt.
Caretakers and family members should also keep reminding the conversation topic at different points to the patient, so that it is easier for them to participate in the conversation.
Family members should also not react adversely in case of emotional outbursts, instead show love and patience to a person recovering from brain surgery.
Caregivers should make sure that the person recovering from brain surgery gets enough sleep and rest to recuperate.
People interacting with someone recovering from brain surgery should understand that the person's ability to learn and remember will improve daily, and any lapses in attention by the patient are not caused by any act of obstinacy. Your care and understanding will be essential for a person to recover.
Family members should also make sure just to give enough care and not smother the brain surgery survivor. It is essential for them to regain their confidence and a sense of competence.
Family members should take the patient for a neuropsychological examination--after treatment, 6 months later, and a year later to see if they are recovering properly. Caregivers should watch out for emotional outbursts, like rage, uncontrollable laughter, withdrawal and depression. In case of such symptoms it is advisable to take the patient for a check up with medical practitioner. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
The word epilepsy brings to mind visions of people frothing at the mouth and rolling on the ground. However, epilepsy affects each patient in a different way. This can make it hard to recognize at times. In the more serious cases of epilepsy, an epileptic attack can make a patient injure himself or develop other life threatening conditions. In rare cases, epilepsy can even cause death. Thus it becomes imperative to understand how to deal with epilepsy.
Treatment options for epilepsy can be categorized as medication, surgical procedures and dietary changes.
Medication: Medication for epilepsy is prescribed on the basis of the symptoms presented and the type of epilepsy the patient is suffering from. In most cases, seizures can be controlled with a single type of medication, but in others, the doctor may need to prescribe a combination of medicines to control epilepsy. These forms of medication do have side effects and hence any reactions to the medication must be immediately brought to the doctor's notice. The dosage for epilepsy medication may need to be varied with time. An epileptic patient should never discontinue medication on their own.
Surgery: Depending on the type of seizures and the area of the brain affected, a doctor may advise surgery in cases of severe epilepsy. Surgery can help reduce the number of seizures experienced or completely stop them. Surgery to treat epilepsy is of many types. Some of the common procedures are:
- Surgery to remove tumor of any such conditions that may be triggering the epileptic attacks
- Surgery to remove a small section of the brain from where a seizure originates. This may also be referred to as a lobectomy.
- Multiple subpial transaction or a surgery that involves making a series of cuts in the brain to prevent the seizures from spreading to other parts of the brain.
- Surgery to sever the neural connections between the right and left hemispheres of the brain.
- Surgery to remove half the brain's cortex or outer layer
Dietary changes: A diet rich in fats and low in carbohydrates can help reduce seizures. This is known as a ketogenic diet and aims at making the body break down fats instead of carbohydrates. It can cause a buildup of uric acid in the body and thus should be practiced only under the guidance of a dietician. In cases where epileptic attacks are triggered by malnutrition and birth defects, taking vitamin supplements can help lower the frequency of seizures.