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Treatment of Abdominal Pain
Treatment of Swelling
Treatment of Hemorrhoids
Treatment of Kidney Stones
Treatment of Colic
Treatment of Black eye
Treatment of Hernia
Treatment of Blood in Urine
Treatment of Hydrocele
Treatment of Varicose Vein Disorder
Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombois
Breast Cancer Surgery Treatment
Treatment of Breast Cancer
Treatment of Gallstones
Treatment of Burns
Treatment of Bladder Stones
Treatment of Anal Fissure
Treatment of Keloid
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In recent years there has been a rise in gastrointestinal disease due to lifestyle changes. Conditions like irritable bowel syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver, cancer of colon, liver and pancreas have been affecting the young and the elderly equally.
The advancement of medical science has given rise to a series of laparoscopic surgeries relating to gastrointestinal diseases. These surgeries are minimally invasive compared to open surgeries. Let’s have a look at the various forms of gastrointestinal surgeries.
Conditions Cured through Gastrointestinal Surgeries:
Gastrointestinal surgery can be used to prevent and treat the following health disorders.
• Peptic ulcer disease
• Barrett’s Esophagus
• Hiatal hernia
• Radiation bowel injury
• Gastrointestinal tumours
• Inflammatory bowel disease
• Malignant disease of the pancreas
• Malignant disease of the biliary tract
• Infectious disease of the colon and rectum
Types of Gastrointestinal Surgeries:
Some examples of gastrointestinal surgeries include –
• Colon Cancer Surgery - It may involve local excision which is done in the early stage of colon cancer. Here the doctor inserts a cutting tool into the colon to remove the cancerous growth. Colectomy is the next stage that is performed only when the cancer has spread to the nearby tissues.
• Oesophagal Cancer Surgery - It includes esophagectomy or removing the oesophagus partially leaving the patient with the ability to swallow.
• Gall Bladder Cancer Surgery - It involves four stages of treatment namely Cholecystectomy, Surgical Biliary Bypass, Endoscopic Stent Placement and Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage. Each procedure is performed at different stages depending on the severity of the condition.
• Liver Disease Surgery - Liver disease surgery involves Partial Hepatectomy, Liver Transplant and Ablation used at different stages of cancer.
• Pancreatic Cancer Surgery - The four stages of pancreatic cancer surgery includes Whipple procedure, Total Pancreatectomy, Distal Pancreatectomy and Gastric Bypass.
Apart from these open surgeries, the laparoscopic procedures include -
• Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy
• Laparoscopic Appendectomy
• Laparoscopic Nephrectomy
• Laparoscopic Splenectomy
Benefits of a Gastrointestinal Surgery:
• Minimally invasive due to which scarring is less
• Shorter recovery period
• Reduced chances of infection
• Reduced chances of reoccurrence of the disease
Most of these benefits apply specifically to the gastrointestinal surgeries performed using the laparoscopic technique.
With the rampant increase in gastrointestinal diseases among the masses the wide ranges of gastrointestinal surgeries have made treatment and prevention easier and more accessible.
You probably think many more things can go wrong during a surgery as compared to after a surgery. However, you are wrong. The chances of infection after a surgery are very high and it used to be the highest cause of unsuccessful surgery in the past before it was known just how deadly an infection is.
A doctor, however, cannot monitor everything afterwards. Therefore, it is crucial you know and take care after the surgery. Here are some ways in which you can do so:
1. Keep it dry
It is crucial that you keep the incision dry for whatever period of time the doctor tells you to keep it dry as otherwise the chances of infection increase dramatically. Some of the things you should do to keep it dry is to not take a bath, scrub the incisions or put lotions on it. In fact, you should also not expose it to sunlight.
2. Keep the incisions
You must trust your doctor as the doctor is trained and usually knows better than you. Therefore, if the doctor tells you to keep the incisions then keep them. Do not scrub, rub or put powder on them either.
3. Check for signs of infection
This may be the easiest thing to do as there are many symptoms of an infection. These include a change in the color, size, or odor of the incision, fever, redness, hardening or heating of the surrounding area or in extreme cases more bleeding and pain than usual.
4. Changing a dressing
This is a major cause of infections among surgery patients and the only way to prevent it is to follow the doctor's instructions to a tee. Once again, trust your doctor and remember to wash your hands and put on medical gloves. Do not put alcohol, iodine or hydrogen peroxide either.
The bowel is a very important part of your body within the digestive system as it plays a vital role in the absorption of nutrients and minerals within your body as well as excreting toxic matter.
The bowel contains the small bowel or small intestine as well as the large bowel or the large intestine. However, parts of the bowel may be infected or damaged in such a manner that they may need to be removed in order to save further worsening. Thus, the removal of sections of the bowels is known as bowel resection surgery.
How is bowel resection surgery performed?
In this procedure, sections of either the large intestine or the small intestine are removed which have either become diseased, infected or have malignant growths within them. The doctors and surgeons first identify the sections that need to be removed and then perform the surgery wherein a section of the tissue is excised and then two ends of the bowel are stitched together to form a new section of continuous small intestine or large intestine.
Types of bowel resection
There are two types of bowel resection, namely small bowel resection performed on the small intestine and large bowel resection performed on the large intestine. The indications for both of them are mentioned below:
Small Bowel resection: Some of the cases wherein small bowel resection may be required are as follows:
1. Cancerous or benign polyps or growth
2. Precancerous growths and polyps
3. Damage to the small intestine due to injuries
4. Congenital defects in the small intestine
5. Blockages in the intestine
7. Infections within the intestines
8. Other disorders of the small intestine
Large bowel resection: Large bowel resection is also carried out due to many of the same reasons as mentioned above. However, some of the specific reasons for large bowel resection are mentioned below:
1. Colon cancer
2. Diverticulitis, disorder that specifically affects the large intestine
3. Bowel inflammation or ulcerative colitis
4. Abnormal twisting of the bowel also known as volvulus
5. Intestines which slide into another section of the intestine; also known as intussusception
Risks of the bowel resection
Like any other surgery, bowel resection also carries its own risks just as any other form of surgery. Some of the common risks of bowel resection are –
1. Adverse reaction to anesthesia
3. Heart attacks or strokes during the operation
5. Excessive bleeding among others
Specific risks for large and small bowel resections are mentioned as follows:
1. Small bowel resection: Certain common risks include accumulation of pus in the abdomen, internal bleeding within the intestine after surgery, diarrhea, infection of the incision area and the stitched area breaking open among others
2. Large bowel resection: In this case, tissues protruding through the cut causing an incisional hernia is the most common element of risk. Nearby organs may be damaged as well; scar tissue, problems with the passage of material within the colon among others are some of the other complications.
However, these issues occur rarely and resections are performed very successfully and quite regularly by surgeons.
Ever heard of that phrase “I can taste bile at the back of my mouth”? It is generally used to express disgust. However, in medical parlance, ‘bile’, the English synonym for disgust, plays an important role in the digestive system. It helps in the digestion of fats (breaks the fats down to smaller particles) and contains the waste products of the blood. Bile is secreted from the gallbladder which is a small organ (sac-shaped) present below the liver.
Gallbladder surgery is carried out to treat gallbladder related problems such as gallbladder stones. Presence of gallstones in the gallbladder can hamper bile production. The symptoms that you may experience include feeling unwell and fatigued, the color of the skin turning yellow and an intense tummy ache. The first method of treatment for gallstones is to dissolve them with the help of natural means. However, if this does not work, then gallbladder surgery is done.
A pre-surgery assessment is carried out by the doctor a few weeks prior to the surgery. A general health check and blood tests are carried out to determine the procedure of the surgery. Your concerns regarding the surgery are addressed by the doctor; he/she also advises you on how to prepare for your surgery.
Gallbladder surgery can be performed in two ways; an open surgery or a laparoscopic surgery. The type of surgery you will undergo will depend on your tests.
- Laparoscopic surgery: In this procedure, an incision is made on the belly button (naval region). Following this, two or three other incisions are made on the right side of the stomach. Carbon dioxide is then pumped into the stomach to make the abdomen inflated and a laparoscope is then inserted to see the insides of the abdomen. Through the other incisions, surgical instruments are inserted to remove the gallbladder. Once the removal procedure is completed, the carbon dioxide is pumped out and the incisions are closed.
- Open surgery: In an open surgery, a larger incision (as compared to laparoscopic surgery) is made in the abdomen, right below the ribs. The gallbladder is removed using surgical instruments and then the incision is closed.
- Post-surgery: In case of laparoscopic surgery, the recovery period is shorter; around two weeks. An open surgery, on the other hand, requires a longer recovery period of 6-8 weeks. You can live a normal life without the gallbladder, as the bile will then directly travel to the digestive system. Mild symptoms of diarrhea and bloating may be experienced. However, they should be temporary and subside within a few days.
Surgery using a laparoscope is the most common way to remove the gallbladder. A laparoscope is a thin, lighted tube that lets the doctor see inside our belly. It is a minimally invasive surgery in which small incisions and specialized tools are used to remove a diseased or infected gallbladder.
The gall bladder is a small organ that sits right under the liver and is credited with bile storage, which can help the body in breaking down various kinds of fats that enter it. So, what all do you need to know about this operation? Read this list.
Reasons for Gall Bladder Operation: The gall bladder is not a very efficient organ. It can lead to blockages and choking as the bile it stores can become very thick and difficult to handle. Also, this bile can start to harbour deposits that are hard ball like substances, usually known as gall bladder stones. The size of these stones can vary from the size of a grain to the size of a golf ball.
Further, these gall bladder stones can cause infections which can lead to symptoms like nausea, vomiting, bloating and more. Another reason can also be the gall bladder disease known as chloelithiasis, which can cause abdominal pain. Inflammation in the pancreas, also known as pancreatitis, can lead to gall bladder open removal surgery.
Risk: While the gall bladder removal surgery is usually considered a safe one, with little or no complications, there are risks attached to this surgery too. These include sudden and excessive bleeding and the creation of blood clots, allergic reactions to the drugs used as well as anaesthesia, blood vessel damage, accelerated heart rate which leads to an increased risk of contracting a heart attack or heart disease, infections, inflammation or swelling in the pancreas, and injuries caused to the bile duct during surgery.
You might also need this type of surgery if you have the following:
1. Biliary dyskinesia, which occurs when the gallbladder doesn't fill or empty correctly due to a defect
2. Choledocholithiasis, which occurs when gallstones move to the bile duct and potentially cause a blockage that prevents the gallbladder from draining
3. Colecystitis, which is an inflammation of the gallbladder
4. Pancreatitis, which is an inflammation of the pancreas
Preparation: To prepare for your gall bladder removal surgery, the doctor may ask you to have a prescription fluid so that your bowels are flushed clean. You may also be asked to fast for at least six hours before the surgery so that there is no hindrance to the same. Also, the use of an antibacterial soap to bathe is usually prescribed so that the risk of contracting infections decreases.
While this surgery can be a simple one, you will have to take due care after the surgery to ensure that the recovery is fast and virtually pain free.
This surgery involves the removal of gallbladder, which is a pear-shaped organ that lies right beneath the right side of the liver. The main function of the gallbladder is to collect and concentrate bile, which is a digestive juice produced by liver after eating, aiding digestion. The most common disorder of the digestive system is presence of Gallstones, which are the stones made up of a mixture consisting of cholesterol, bile pigment and calcium salts.
These gallstones don’t cause any problems in most cases. But prompt treatment is required if stones block ducts and cause infections and inflammation in the pancreas. This may lead to removal of the gallbladder through a surgery, known as cholecystectomy, which further includes techniques such as laparoscopic (keyhole) cholecystectomy or open surgery. Although it is a less vital organ, the body can cope up even after removal.
Procedure of surgery:
1. The surgery involves removal of gallbladder and gallstones through several incisions in the abdomen. In order to see clearly, the surgeon inflates the abdomen with air or carbon dioxide.
2. A lighted scope attached to a video camera is inserted into one incision near the belly button. The video monitor is used as a guide for inserting other surgical instruments into the other incisions to remove the gallbladder.
3. Intraoperative cholangiography is the X-ray procedure which shows the anatomy of bile ducts. This is done before the surgeon removes the gallbladder.
4 Bile flows from the liver through the common bile duct after the surgery into the small intestine. As the gallbladder has been removed, the gallbladder can no longer store bile between meals but has no effect or little effect on digestion.
5. In case of open surgery, the surgeon reaches the gallbladder through a large, single incision in the abdominal wall.
Complications after gallbladder surgery:
This surgery carries some degree of risk like any other surgery. Complications such as internal bleeding, infection, injury to nearby digestive organs, injury to the bile duct and injury to blood vessels.
Types of gallstones:
There are three main types of gallstones. They are -
1. Mixed stones: They are made up of cholesterol and salts. They tend to develop in batches.
2. Cholesterol stones: Mainly made of cholesterol, which is crucial to many metabolic processes. They can grow large enough to block the bile ducts.
3. Pigment stones: The colour of bile is greenish-brown, due to some particular pigments.
Medical factors to consider before cholecystectomy:
The most important factor is a consideration of your medical history. This is because the pre-existing conditions influence decisions on surgery and anaesthetic and information about any bad reactions or side effects from any medications would be helpful for surgery.
Self-care after the surgery:
Taking rest is the most important thing after surgery. Avoid things such as heavy lifting and physical exertion. The usual recovery period after the surgery is one week.
Colorectal surgery is the broad term for surgical procedures performed on the colon, the rectum and the anus. There are various different surgical procedures which fall under colorectal surgery and these are used to treat a vast array of disorders, such as:
The surgeries under colorectal surgery are performed after diagnostic tests such as proctoscopy, sigmoidoscopy and defecating proctography. The most common diagnostic test is colonoscopy. These help to identify the origin and nature of the problem and decide which surgical procedure is to be followed. The procedures under colorectal surgery are as follows:
This procedure involves removal of a section of the large intestine. This is known as partial colectomy. In extreme cases, such as advanced cancer or severe gastrointestinal infection, the entire colon is removed and this is called total colectomy. Sometimes, the rectum is also taken out along with the colon and this is called proctocolectomy.
2. Colonic polypectomy
An abnormal growth of tissues of the inner lining of an organ is known as a polyp. Colonic polypectomy is done to eliminate polyps from the colon and rectum before they become malignant. This can be done endoscopically. Surgery is required in case of large polyps.
Chronic or repeated bowel inflammation causes scar tissue to accumulate in the large intestine. This results in the narrowing of the colon. Stricturoplasty removes the scar tissue so that proper flow of digestive contents is resumed.
4. Colostomy or Ileostomy
A damaged section of the colon is removed and the shortened intestine is then attached to another opening (stoma) in the anterior wall of the abdomen.
This surgical process is used for swollen hemorrhoids or blood vessels which form in the anal canal. Hemorrhoidectomy is extremely effective in removing hemorrhoids but the surgery also involves a number of complications.
Anoplasty or imperforate anus correction is done to correct birth defects in the rectum and the anus. The structural flaw does not allow the stool to pass properly from the rectum and so it is repaired using surgery.
When an organ residing in a cavity such as the abdomen tries to push through the muscular layer it resides, it is called as hernia.
Though said to be genetic, hernias can be caused by things such as improper heavy lifting, incorrect posture, or chronic constipation and as a result of surgical complication or injury. Factors like obesity, pregnancy, smoking and chronic lung disease aggravate the severity of the hernia. It is believed that about 27% of all males and 3% of females can have a hernia during their lifetime.
Types of hernias:
Inguinal hernia - The groin is the most common area, where the abdomen pushes through a weak spot in the lower abdominal wall, causing a protrusion into the inguinal canal. More common in men than women.
Hiatal hernia - The abdomen has the diaphragm separating it from the thoracic cavity in the upper border. When it pushes through the diaphragm, a hernia is caused and there is almost always associated food reflux in these cases. Though the most common cause is associated old age, due to muscle weakness, there also are cases of congenital hiatal hernias.
Umbilical hernia - The abdomen finds a weak layer along its length and protrudes through the skin on the stomach. Most commonly seen in babies around the bellybutton, it gradually corrects itself on its own. Quiet rare in adults, seen during pregnancy and in chronic obese people.
Incisional - These are post-surgical, and happen when the organ protrudes through the weakened wall due to surgery. The abdomen is again the most common area and the hernia can happen either onto the external surface or internally, when they are called ventral hernias.
These are the most frequent types, though hernia affects other organs like the spine, brain, appendix, etc.
Treatment - This includes a combination of constant monitoring followed by a decision to do surgical treatment. Hiatal hernias and umbilical hernias can be monitored for a while before deciding on surgery. Inguinal hernias may require surgery earlier in the stage. Post-surgery, a mesh is placed to hold back the tissue in its corrected place. The umbilical hernia in children could be self-limiting. If it does not get auto-corrected in the first year of life, that also would qualify for a surgical treatment.
Dependent on each patient, hernias need to be managed under medical supervision.
Cleft palate or palatoschisis is a common genetic abnormality that leads to a horde of problems and is presently a growing challenge to medicine practitioners. The major developmental stages affected due to this particular irregularity include feeding, speech development, dentition and maxillofacial growth which are rather important to the normal overall developmental pace of an individual. Even though the cleft palate deformity was defined centuries ago, no fixed management algorithm exists for patients suffering from the condition in the present day scenario.
Cleft palate may be successfully fixed using reconstructive surgery. Multiple specialists are involved in the reconstruction surgery including plastic surgeons, otolaryngologists, nutritionists, oromaxillofacial surgeons and speech pathologists. Some hospitals also consider psychological therapy for the patient and the family to help get through the emotional trauma and the issues faced due to developmental backlogs.
The treatment for cleft palate usually begins around 9 to 12 months of age. If left untreated, it may cause major deformities. It takes about some years before the whole procedure is completed although it depends on the type and severity of the deformity.
The process involves the administration of anaesthesia after which the palate repair closes the inner, middle and final layers and at the same time realigning of the palatal muscles in a technique called anintravelarveloplasty is conducted. This ensures that the muscles are adjusted in a normal position which facilitates the best functioning of the palate during feeding, swallowing and speaking. It is possible that the child might require more than one surgery to completely close the palate.
Some of the risks involved during the process include:
1. Abnormal reactions to the medications
3. Problems in breathing
4. Need for more surgery
Although complicated and time consuming, cleft palate must be given immediate attention to avoid serious developmental issues. The reconstruction surgery and therapy combined ensures a normal development for the child in the longer run, given the surgery was done at the correct time. The child would be required to remain at the hospital for about 5-7 days. Complete recovery takes a time period of 4 weeks. Keeping the wound of the surgery clean is of the utmost importance and it should not be strained.