Doctors in Shreedevi Maternity and General Hospital
Treatment of Pregnancy and related Disorder
Treatment of Irregular Periods
Treatment of No Periods
Management of Pregnancy
Treatment of Ovarian Cysts
Management of Pregnancy Query
Management of Abortion
Treatment of Painful Periods
Avoiding Pregnancy Procedures
Birth Control Treatment
Treatment of Painful Sexual Intercourse
Treatment of Pregnancy Symptoms
Treatment of Heavy Periods
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Treatment of Breast Pain
Treatment of Vaginal Discharge
Treatment of Miscarriage
Treatment of Vaginal Itching
Treatment of Cervicitis
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Vaginal bleeding is something that most women experience between their periods when they are not due for a menstrual cycle. It is considered as an abnormal occurrence when you bleed before you are expecting your menstrual period, or after you are done with your monthly cycle. It is usually characterised by bouts of spotting where a thick brown reddish discharge may be experienced. Also, this kind of bleeding is considered abnormal if it occurs during pregnancy or menopause.
Here are a few causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding:
- Hormones: An imbalance in the hormones like the estrogen and progesterone can lead to abnormal vaginal bleeding. These are the hormones that help in regulation of the monthly menstrual cycles. An imbalance can occur due to side effects caused by birth control pills that may not suit the individual, a contraceptive patch, or even contraceptive implants and injections. Further, an intrauterine device may also be the cause for this kind of bleeding. The hormonal balance can also get affected due to internal ailments like a dysfunctional thyroid gland and ovaries.
- Pregnancy and Delivery: Some amount of spotting is considered normal in the first trimester of one's pregnancy. Yet, severe bleeding and persistent spotting must be reported to the gynaecologist immediately. Women also bleed for a while after the delivery of the baby, in the post-partum period. This may also happen when an abortion takes place as the uterus may not have come back to its original size and due to remaining foetal tissues within. Complications during the pregnancy like an ectopic pregnancy or a miscarriage can also lead to such kind of bleeding. An ectopic pregnancy is one where the egg gets implanted in the fallopian tube instead of entering and implanting itself in the uterus.
- Fibroids: Uterine fibroids are usually considered as non-malignant and non-cancerous growths within the uterus. These are common in many women who have gone through child birth. These fibroids can also cause some amount of bleeding and spotting.
- Infections: When there is an infection in the reproductive organs like the ovaries and uterus of the patient, there may be some amount of bleeding. An infection in this area can also cause inflammation, which is one of the primary causes of abnormal bleeding. This can also occur due to a sexually transmitted disease or STD, as well as painful intercourse and sexual abuse which can lead to scarring as well.
- Cancer: One of the least common causes includes cervical, ovarian and other forms of cancer.
During pregnancy, flu (influenza) can impose serious health implications for both the mother and the child. Due to pregnancy, the risk of developing complications like pneumonia are very high, which can pose as a problem during childbirth. Miscarriage, low birth weight, premature birth are some of the major issues, which might develop if the mother has suffered from flu during her pregnancy. Although flu vaccination during pregnancy has certain risks, it has been observed that in most cases the benefits of inactivated influenza vaccine outweigh the risks. However, Live attenuated influenza vaccine is not recommended at all during pregnancy.
Recommendations across the world suggest that prevention of influenza by administration of inactivated influenza vaccine is the best intervention in pregnancy. The vaccine for Flushould be administered before the onset of flu season. RANZCOG, NHS UK, RCOG, FOGSI recommends inactivated flu vaccine for all the pregnant women unless there are any contraindications.
Taking inactivated influenza vaccine can be beneficial in multiple ways:
1. Prevents maternal complications: During pregnancy, the heart and lungs go through extra stress. Pregnancy can also severely impact your immune system. Opting for a inactivated flu vaccine can decrease significantly, the chance of falling severely ill due to flu.
2. Prevents pregnancy problems due to flu: Getting infected by flu during pregnancy can increase the chance of miscarriage during childbirth. Administering inactivated flu shots can prevent miscarriage as well as premature birth and low birth weight.
3. Protects the baby after birth: Infants have a huge risk of getting infected with flu after birth. But as vaccines cannot be administered to them until they are 6 months old, it is the best recourse to opt for inactivated flu shots during pregnancy as the antibodies pass onto the child from the mother via placenta. The child can hence be protected from such diseases.
Often, one fear about the vaccine, is the development of Gullain Barre syndrome. This is very rare and the risk of GBS are higher following influenza like illness. Also, if the patient is allergic to eggs they are advised to consult a physician. Flu vaccines have traces of egg protein in it. Certain precautions are taken after studying the patient's medical history. The doctor may keep the patient under observation. Or in certain instances the physician might suggest alternative flu vaccine, which do not contain egg protein. Physicians decide it after studying any prior allergic reaction.
As per the WHO SAGE position paper, from 1990 to 2009 the vaccine adverse event reporting system database in USA reported only 20 serious adverse events following administration of trivalent influenza vaccine to an estimated 11.8 million pregnant women.
Nipple discharge is a common part of breast functioning, which normally occurs during breast-feeding or pregnancy. It is often associated with the changes of menstrual hormone. The milky discharge post breast-feeding usually continues for up to two years after stopping nursing. The condition normally gets resolved on its own but if the situation persists for a long time resort to medical assistance.
The following are some of the causes of normal nipple discharge:
- Stimulation: Normal nipple discharge can arise due to stimulation; chafing of your breast skin due to tight bras or vigorous exercises.
- Pregnancy: Most women tend to witness clear nipple discharge in the early stages of their pregnancy. Towards the later stages, this discharge usually turns watery and becomes milky in color
- Stopped Breast-feeding: In some cases, nipple discharge continues for some time after the mother has stopped breast-feeding her newborn
- Hormonal Imbalance: Some women notice tenderness in breasts and nipple discharge during their menstrual cycle
What is an abnormal nipple discharge: An abnormal nipple discharge is usually bloody in color and is accompanied with tenderness of the breast. Papilloma is a non-cancerous tumor that is often responsible for bloody nipple discharge. Continuous nipple discharge from one of the breasts or nipple discharge that arises without any stimulation or external irritation is abnormal in nature.
The possible causes of abnormal nipple discharge include:
- Abscess: It is an assortment of pus that get accumulated within the tissues of your body. It is usually accompanied by redness, pain and swelling. Boils and carbuncles are types of abscess. Formation of abscess in breasts may result in nipple discharge.
- Breast cancer: Breast cancer often results in bloody nipple discharge and is often found with a presence of lump in one of the breasts.
- Mastitis: It is a breast infection that affects the tissues of the breast and is usually prominent during breastfeeding. Fatigue, fever and body aches are common in this situation.
- Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): Normally characterized by the growth of cancerous cells in the milk ducts of your breasts, it is generally identified through mammography screening.
- Fibroadenoma: In this situation most young women witness an appearance of solid, tumor like structure
- Galactorrhea: Galactorrhea is nipple discharge of milk when not pregnant or breastfeeding. The discharge can vary in color and can be expressed from either or both breasts.
What Causes Galactorrhea: Galactorrhea is commonly caused by hyperprolactinemia, especially when it is associated with amenorrhea. Hyperprolactinemia is most often induced by medication or associated with pituitary adenomas or other sellar or suprasellar lesions.
The release of prolactin from the pituitary is held in check by dopamine from the hypothalamus. Prolactin release is encouraged by serotonin and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. This balance can be disrupted by medication (ie. antipsychotics), underactive thyroid function, pituitary tumors, hypothalamic tumors, damage to the pituitary stalk, nipple stimulation, chest trauma, herpes zoster, and emotional stress as well as a variety of other factors.
Nowadays, the entire world along with the inhabitants have become so fast-paced that the most common matter which affects almost everyone is stress. Getting stressed is not only unhealthy for your body and has an impact on every aspect of life including fertility. You might be wondering that how stress can affect your fertility as they sound unrelated. Read on to understand. Till date, though no direct correlation between stress and infertility has been established, it has been observed that if a couple who is trying their best to conceive is under stress, there appears to be a problem. Now, have a look at a few of the impacts that stress has on fertility.
How does stress affect fertility?
Too much stress has an impact on the proper functioning of the hypothalamus. It is that part of the brain which has the responsibility of sending as well as receiving all type of signals from the reproductive system. The menstrual cycle is one of the most complex communicating systems between the brain and ovaries, and thus stress may affect the fertility cycle. In this manner, stress may delay the ovulation, and in severe cases, it may also prevent the women from ovulating.
Another point that needs to be mentioned is that due to stress fewer mature eggs may be available. Some of the studies focus on the point that the women, who were stressful as well as anxious regarding their IVF (In-Vitro Fertilization), possessed approximately twenty percent fewer eggs than they usually could produce that are viable for fertilization.
Dealing with stress-
Different women have their way of dealing with stress. Thus, the impact this unwanted issue has on a woman might not be similar to the reactions of another woman. Many people start to gain weight in such stressful periods while some lose a lot of fat. A fact is sure that stress is not at all healthy and good for an aspiring mother.
So, now that you are aware of stress and infertility and how stress affects your fertility, the best possible course is to eliminate stress from your life as much as possible in a systematic manner. To reduce stress, you must have an adequate amount of sleep and also practice exercise on a regular basis. You may also opt for other habits like practicing yoga, meditation, prayer, seek counseling, etc.
Thus, the bottom-line is, if you are trying to get pregnant, either naturally or through IVF due to genetic or medical reasons, relieving yourself from stress is crucial.
Infertility is the incapability of a couple to conceive after indulging in unprotected sex multiple times over a long period. It can also be referred to as the biological inability of a man to cause conception or a woman to conceive as well as being unable to carry the pregnancy for the whole duration. Research has shown that female problems contribute to over half of all the infertility cases.
Causes of infertility in include:
Ovulation Disorders – This is regarded as the most common cause of infertility in women. The disorders can be caused due to conditions like PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome), Premature ovarian failure, poor quality of eggs, overactive or underactive thyroid gland and chronic conditions like cancer or AIDS.
Problems in fallopian tubes or uterus – Abnormalities in the uterus or fallopian tubes render the woman incapable of conceiving naturally. This might be due to conditions like Endometriosis, previous sterilization treatments or surgeries to correct past problems.
Medications or Treatments – There is a possibility of some treatments affecting infertility. Examples include NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy.
Usually, the initial steps for diagnosing infertility involve a review of the complete medical history of the patients as well as a physical exam. Post this check-up, some diagnostic tests are conducted for infertility. This might include-
Blood and Urine tests: For checking hormone levels.
Pap smear: For checking the health of your cervix.
X-ray: For outlining the internal shape of the uterus so that blockages in fallopian tubes can be identified.
Age – Increasing age tends to lower the quality as well as the quantity of a woman's eggs
Smoking – Besides damaging your cervix and fallopian tubes, smoking increases your risk of miscarriage. It is also believed to deplete your eggs at a premature stage, thereby reducing your chances of pregnancy.
Weight – Normal ovulation is hindered by being overweight or even significantly underweight. This is because lower levels of BMI (body mass index) reduces the frequency of ovulation, reducing the chances of pregnancy.
Even though it is possible to restore fertility in women using only one or two therapies, a number of treatments might be required before conception is possible. Some of these treatments include:
Intrauterine insemination (IUI): deliberately introducing sperm into the uterus of a woman for achieving pregnancy.
Stimulating ovulation with fertility drugs.
Surgery to restore fertility.
In situations where pregnancy does not happen spontaneously, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) can be used by couples to achieve a pregnancy. It is any form of fertility treatment which involves the handling of sperm and egg. The entire ART team consists of psychologists, physicians, embryologists, nurses and lab technicians.
One common ART technique is In vitro fertilization (IVF). It is a process where an egg and sperm are manually combined in a laboratory dish, followed by the transfer of the embryo to the uterus.
Menopause can be a turnaround for many women with respect to their health and body functioning. It can be disturbing and disruptive. When menstruation ends in women, various changes ranging from physical to emotional occurs which are discussed below.
- Perimenopause: The age of 40-45 years in women is the time when their hormones, progesterone, and estrogen start falling, as the production of these hormones from the ovaries decreases. The onset of menopause, however, begins from mid thirty’s. You can experience significant cramps while having your periods as well as heavy and irregular periods.
- Anxiety and Mood Swings: Mood swings are common during the days of your menstruation, but it becomes severe when you are going through the pre-menopausal and post-menopausal phase. This is a time when most of the women become more teary and emotional without much reason. They become irritated easily as well, and the best way to tackle them is to care and be kind and not flattery or insensible. The woman must understand the phase she is going through and must try to find ways to control her temper and mood swings.
- Night Sweats and Hot Flashes: Hot flashes and night sweats are common symptoms that you experience during menopause. Due to the fall in the levels of estrogen, the body gets heated up, and thus hot flashes are common during these days. The brain needs time to adjust to the changes in the estrogen level, and then this problem gets solved.
- Reduced Sex Drive: Due to the fall in the hormones, the sex drive or the libido in a woman falls right after having menopause.
- Aging: Menopause acts like the red mark on the age calendar of yours which pinpoint that now you are becoming old. This increases the agitation and the irritation of getting old. But talking about it in the open and being calm can reduce the irritation and also keeps you youthful all day.
- Affecting Your Thoughts: Perimenopause can also be symbolized by a reduction in the thought process and the memory of the women. Most of the women complain of having less energy at work and forgetting basic things. This is because of the drop in the estrogen as it helps in keeping you active as well as alert.
- Calcium Deficiency or Bone Loss: With the falling estrogen level, the loss of calcium from the body and thus affecting the mass of the bones is inevitable, and this thing can get serious that it can turn into osteoporosis. You need to have calcium along with Vitamin D from the natural food as much as possible so that the bone mass doesn’t get affected.
Dealing with menopause is more a challenge to a woman. However, being aware of the changes happening in her body and accepting them is aging gracefully, indeed.