Doctor in Prabhu Women Hospital
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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Patient Review Highlights
Pregnancy is one of the most wonderful, but exhausting times of a woman's life. There are a quite a few precautions you need to take and quite a few factors you need to consider before doing anything. Take for example working during pregnancy.
Working while you're pregnant can be challenging, but if you keep these do's and don'ts in mind, it can become an easy task.
Do: Get Adequate Rest
The first few weeks of pregnancy can take a toll on your body. If your sleep schedule is off, you need to fix it and sleep for the usual 8-9 hours a day. If you undertake a lot of physically strenuous work or even if have a desk job, you need to take a break as it can get very taxing for you. To avoid work-related exhaustion and stress, take frequent breaks to give your body the rest it requires. Speak to a doctor or trainer for simple stretches that will help you alleviate stress on your joints and keep you muscles relaxed.
Do: Be Smart About Your Work
Jobs that require heavy lifting must be avoided at all costs as they can give rise to severe complications during pregnancy. When you're pregnant you should also avoid work that regularly exposes you to radiation, harmful chemicals, lead and X-rays. Ask your supervisor to shift the sort of work you are doing as often it's illegal to continue working in conditions that actively harm your pregnancy.
Do: Take Multivitamins and Necessary Supplements
Work often doesn't leave you with enough time to take good care of yourself. You may end up skipping meals due to a hectic work schedule, which can lead to vitamin and mineral deficiencies. To keep the worst effects of this kind of a lifestyle at bay, make sure to take your multivitamins and supplements religiously and regularly.
Do: Be Super Hygienic
It is extremely important to maintain high standards of personal hygiene and sanitation during your pregnancy. This becomes even more important if you work in an environment that exposes you to infectious diseases, raw meats and children. Keep a hand sanitizer with you at all times, and make sure you don't ingest anything that has come into contact with contagions.
Don't: Go For Long Stretches Without Eating
Keeping your stomach empty during pregnancy can have a lot of unwanted effects ranging from bloating, acidity and gas to nausea and vomiting. Have a light breakfast and keep snacking on small portions of nutritious food throughout the day. Also, ensure that you maintain optimum fluid intake. The regular 8-10 glasses of water a day is an absolute must.
Don't: Be stressed
Stress during pregnancy can have damaging effects on your and your baby's health, severely affecting the physical and mental development of your unborn child. Avoid taking on extra work for the duration of your pregnancy. Lighten your workload as much as you can and make sure to take meditation and baby-safe yoga classes to keep your stress in check.
As long as you take these simple precautions, you can continue to work throughout your pregnancy. So, remember to follow these guidelines to ensure a safe and healthy experience for both you and your growing baby.
The ovaries are the egg producing organs, an essential part of the female reproductive system, they are responsible for the production of estrogen and release and egg every month. If the egg fertilizes with a sperm it can result in a pregnancy.
Ovarian cysts are quite common among women. Ovarian cysts are known to be small sacs filled with fluid that are situated in the ovaries.
Causes of ovarian cysts
Among ovarian cysts, the most common one is called the functional cyst. This type of cyst generally forms during the process of ovulation, during which either the eggs do not successfully release from the sac or the sac (follicle) fails to disintegrate properly after the release of the egg. Certain factors that can cause ovarian cysts are-
1. Age- Ovarian cysts are more likely to occur in women who have reached menopause.
3. Being overweight or obese
4. Consumption of fertility drugs
5. Hormone replacement therapy
6. Family history of ovarian cysts and cancer
7. Early menstruation, that is, the onset of the period before the age of 11
Symptoms related to ovarian cysts
Generally, ovarian cysts show no specific symptoms and are generally only located during a physical examination or an ultrasound. But, in case you suffer from large cysts or those that have ruptured, you may experience certain signs like-
1. Pain while having sex. Great discomfort may be felt, particularly when deep penetration is attempted.
2. Pain in the lower abdominal and pelvic region. This pain may be intermittent or persistent. It can also vary from being mild to quite sharp.
3. Irregularity in the menstrual cycle.
4. An uncomfortable pressure in the lower abdominal and pelvic area.
5. Acute pain in the pelvic area and the lower back all throughout the menstrual period.
6. Pain in the pelvic area after a session of vigorous exercise or strenuous physical activity.
7. A feeling of discomfort or pain while urinating or during bowel movements.
8. Nausea, followed by vomiting.
9. Pain in the vaginal area, or light bleeding
11. Problems with healthy bowel movements
Miscarriage is termed as the loss of the fetus in or before 20th week of pregnancy. Medically, miscarriage is known as spontaneous abortion though the word spontaneous is more of a keyword as it is not an abortion.
Symptoms of Miscarriage
Cause of Miscarriage
Common cause of miscarriage is when the fetus is known to have fatal genetic problems and these are not related with the mother. The other causes are:
- Infection, medical problems like thyroid and diabetes, immune system rejection, hormonal imbalance, abnormalities of the uterus, and physical problems of the mother.
If a woman is over 35 years of age, has thyroid and diabetes and has had an earlier miscarriage then that woman is at a high risk of getting a miscarriage.
Sometimes a miscarriage might take place due to the cervical insufficiency. This is due to the weak cervix, also known as the incomponent cervix, which is unable to hold the pregnancy. A miscarriage in this condition usually occurs in the second trimester. Though there are a very few symptoms in this but there might be a feeling of sudden pressure that the water is going to break and tissues from the placenta and fetus are released without any pain. This can however be treated by a stitch in the cervix at 12 weeks.
This stitch helps to hold the cervix until the full term is completed. If it is first pregnancy and cervical insufficiency is diagnosed then also a stitch can be applied thus resulting in full term and avoiding miscarriage.
Diagnosis of Miscarriage:
- The doctor does a pelvic test, an ultrasound and blood tests to confirm a miscarriage
- Blood tests are done to analyze the pregnancy hormone hCG. This is monitored regularly if miscarriage is suspected
- Genetic tests, blood tests and medication are important in women who have a history of prior miscarriages
- Pelvic ultrasound and hysterosalpingogram are tests which are done when there are repeated miscarriages
- Test like hysteroscopy is also done. In this the doctor observes the inside of the uterus with a device which is thin and like a telescope. This is inserted in the vagina and cervix.
- If the cervix is dilated, then the woman might be diagnosed with an incompetent cervix and this can be corrected by cerclage - a procedure done to close the cervix.
- If the blood type of the pregnant woman is Rh negative, she is prescribed a blood product called Rh immune globulin (Rhogam). This prevents from forming antibodies which could turn to be harmful for the baby.
For the benefit of couples suffering from infertility, modern medical science has introduced several innovative procedures. Some of the popular procedures are In-vitro Fertilization (IVF), Intrauterine Insemination (IUI), Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT), Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), donor eggs and embryos and so on. In addition to these, there are several drugs and surgical procedures that help the couple in getting rid of infertility. Among all these procedures, IUI has gained popularity in the field of gynaecology and infertility treatmentprocedures. The IUI treatment is also popularly called as artificial inseminationprocedure. Although this is a popular procedure, it is appropriate that you should also understand its pros and cons.
IUI procedure in brief:
In simple terms, the IUI procedure involves placing the sperm inside the womb or uterus, which in turn would assist in fertilization of the egg. As a result of this procedure, the sperm reaches the fallopian tube, which enhances the chances or rate of egg fertilisation.
Conditions precedent of IUI Procedure:
Before initiating the IUI procedure, the fast moving eggs are separated from the slow moving eggs. This separation is done in the laboratory. Further, in order to undergo IUI procedure, the women should be less than 40 years of age. On the other hand, apart from healthy fallopian tube, the women should also have higher ovarian reserves. Also, the sperm should have minimum mortality rate. However, IUI procedure is adopted only if the fallopian tube is healthy. IUI procedure is suggested in case the couple is having difficulty in vaginal intercourse, either because of psychosexual reasons or for reasons of physical disability.
The IUI procedure can be performed either with the partner’s egg or with the donor’s egg. Some of the other important aspects of IUI procedure are briefly discussed here:
- The IUI procedure is a short duration procedure and it can be completed within a few minutes. This procedure does not cause any discomfort or pain. The procedure does not require any hospitalisation or administration of anesthesia. Further, the procedure also does not cause any side effects. In fact, compared to the IVF procedure, IUI is cost-effective.
- In order to enhance the level of success, the gynaecologist may suggest IUI procedure every month. In some cases, the gynaecologist may also prescribe a few medicines to simulate the ovulation procedure. Except this, IUI may not involve extensive medication.
You may undergo the IUI procedure under the supervision of sufficiently experienced gynaecologist. Further, you may also ensure the hospital is equipped with modern state of art machineries for carrying out the IUI procedure.
3D laparoscopy has made a landmark achievement in the field of surgery for Gynaecology. It helps to provide in-depth perception along with correct measurement of the dimensions related to the anatomical spaces. Thus, it contributes towards increasing the skills of the laparoscopic surgeon in his attempt towards dissecting tissues and in designing strategies related to the surgery. 3D Laparoscopy helps a surgeon to perform the intracorporeal suture in an absolutely perfect manner. This is regarded as the World’s Best 3D Laparoscopy System. The very first installation has taken place in Gujarat.
3D laparoscopy helps to reduce the time frame of a gynaecologist and along with it, it increases the accuracy level of the surgeon. Even the complications involved with carrying out this surgery are reduced.
Surgeries Performed With The Help of 3D Laparoscopy
There are a number of surgeries, which surgeons can perform with the help of 3D Laparoscopy.
- Radical Hysterectomy - This is an operation mainly performed to treat cancer that affects the uterine cervix.
- Parametrectomy - This is an extremely viable technique for women suffering from invasive cervical cancer or a recurrent endometrial cancer of vagina after having undergone hysterectomy previously.
- Difficult TLH (Frozen Pelvis and Endometriosis) - Difficult TLH aims to solve a case for all patients, who suffer from the problem of containing Double Uterus, Double Cervix and Double Vagina with Severe Pelvic Endometriosis along with Diffuse Pelvic Adhesion after having undergone Hemi-Subtotal Hysterectomy previously.
- Completion - This surgery gets conducted for all those who are suffering from Endometrium and Ovarian cancers.
- TLH - This surgery involves a laparoscopic ligation of the arteries and veins present in the ovaries, with the removal of the uterus either through the vagina or abdomen. Finally, it involves the laparoscopic closure of the vaginal cuff.
- Adenomyomectomy - The surgery is performed in order to conserve the uterus for future pregnancy in patients, who are suffering from massive adenomyosis.
- Myomectomy - It involves the surgical removal of uterine fibroids. This is an extremely effective procedure.
- Adnexal and Retroperitoneal Masses - This 3D Laparoscopic Surgery even helps to get rid of these masses and avoid complications.
- Prolapse of Uterus and Bladder - This condition is caused due to the weakening of the muscles and tissues that provide support to the organs in the pelvis. The surgery helps to attach the vaginal vault to the sacrum with surgical mesh.
- Tuboplasty - This surgery mainly attempts to restore patency along with the functioning of the Fallopian Tubes, which can help women to achieve pregnancy.
- Sling Surgeries - Those who suffer from urinary stress incontinence, sling surgery can help ease out the symptoms of incontinence.
- Fertility Enhancing Surgeries - 3D Laparoscopic surgeries can help to perform even all those surgeries to enhance the rate of fertility like Endoscopic Reproductive Surgery.
- Ectopic Pregnancy - There are times when ectopic pregnancy can lead to heavy bleeding. Under those circumstances, 3D Laparoscopic Surgery helps in conducting an emergency surgery through an abdominal incision.
Advantages of 3D Laparoscopy
There are quite a number of advantages related to the use of 3D Laparoscopy towards carrying out surgeries for different organs.
The advantages include:
- As this requires a minimum incision, hence there are almost no complications involved. So, there is a faster recovery period for the patients.
- Shorter stay in the hospital
- The improved manner of performing cosmesis or correction of a body part through surgeries.
- This method of surgery ensures lot lesser amount of blood loss.
- There is a very less amount of pain, which patients have to suffer after the surgery gets conducted.
What is premenstrual syndrome (PMS)? In layman's language, it is that time of the month you don't really want to unnecessarily bother a woman or you might have to face the brunt of an emotional outburst. In medical terms, it is a combination of emotional, physical, psychological changes that occur in a woman after ovulation and culminates with the ending of her menstrual flow.
The most common mood-related symptoms are irritability, depression, crying, oversensitivity, and mood swings. The most common physical symptoms are fatigue, bloating, breast tenderness, acne, and appetite changes with food cravings. In severe cases, anger, irritability, anxiety and tension leads to loss of the functioning ability of a woman. If you've been there or are suffering, you are not alone. There are scores of women around the world who experience these symptoms.
Here are ways to minimize and get rid of PMS.
1. Control PMS with diet changes: Certain food types in general are not a healthy choice but can cause more harm than good during PMS. Depending on what factor affects you the most, cut down on these types of food.
a. Salt: Excess salt can lead to bloating.
b. Caffeine: Can lead to anxiety, sleeplessness and irritability
c. Alcohol: The concoction for depression
d. Sugar: Can cause mood swings
As always, eating more fruits veggies and grains at the right time can keep you healthy and prepared for those dreaded days.
2. Exercise: Exercise is a mood lifter. It gets you into shape, adds to your stamina and slowly but steadily boosts your confidence to become slimmer, stronger, and fitter. The trick is to pick up on an exercise you love. Hit the road and run free with your thoughts or turn on the music and dance with aerobics.
3. Stock up on the vitamins: Hormonal imbalances are the primary cause behind PMS. Though it is not proven, stocking up on some essential vitamins like calcium, potassium and minerals can give you more strength to fight the symptoms.
4. Herbal remedies: They've been around for hundreds of years and you are likely to have an aunt or grandma swear by one of these cures. From ginger to primrose oil, these cures can balance your hormonal activity in a natural way. You will need to experiment to see what really suits your need.
5. Take a break: No matter what physical or emotional manifestation you suffer, it can double up because of stress and lack of sleep. Knowing your 'off' days, its best you find a way to take some time off for yourself at a spa or try meditation and deep breathing. Do what you love to do to keep your mind calm and clear. Listen to music, take a walk with your dog or simply read a good book.
To start with, change your diet, take a few supplements and herbs, and start exercising, and you should see the change in the first few cycles itself. But if doesn't help, you can consult a doctor here.
Once the reality of the positive pregnancy test sets in, dreaming about the yet-to-arrive begins. Curiosity about gender, options for names, ways to manage, shopping ideas, etc., begin to get discussed. And then totally out of the blue the news comes that there is a miscarriage. This is one of the most depressing phases.
It is very important for the family to be around and support each other. While the entire family is upset and hurt over the news, the mother needs most care as there is just not emotional but a huge physical component also to the episode. On the other hand, remember that miscarriages are extremely common, and is no indication of a fertility issue.
The first step would be to diagnose and confirm the miscarriage. After that, depending on whether it was complete or incomplete, some medical intervention might be required. In most cases, medications like misoprostol are given to expel the uterine contents. These help by clearing out the contents in about a couple of days' time. The sufferes of miscarriage should also undergo a Nuchal Scan (NT Scan) between 11 to 13 week from pregnancy.
In some cases, a D&C might be required if your doctor suspects that medication will not suffice. This also helps identify if there is any issue in the uterus that could have caused the miscarriage. While the above take care of the physical part, the emotional component also requires cautious management. Needless to say, this is trickier than the earlier one.
Mourn to your heart's content - When you have nursed a life within you and have lost it, it is very normal to cry for its loss. There would be a mix of emotions - shock, denial, confusion, anger, grief, depression, etc. Take some solace from that fact that this is nature's way of removing unhealthy fetuses.
Get someone to talk to - Need not be your husband, but anybody whom you can talk to without having to watch words. A sibling, a good friend, a close relative - your choice. Make sure you don't pick ones who will judge and sympathize with you. More than sympathy, you need someone understanding and knowledgeable.
Socialize more - As you would have kept to yourself post your positive test, use this time to socialize more and meet friends whom you have not regularly been in touch with. Close family members, your children (if you already have), society groups, movie groups, etc., help to a great extent.
Formal medical counseling - If you are not able to cope with your regular circle of family and friends, try seeking professional advice from counseling.
Spirituality - Whether you believe in temple or churches, spend some time there. Involve in some religious activity if you would like, this helps very often.
As much as it is painful and traumatic, it is not very uncommon or unnatural. Get back on your feet, the sooner you do, the better. If you think you need additional help and would like to consult with me privately, please click on 'Consult'.
It's said that blocked fallopian tubes is the most common cause of female infertility in about 40% women who are infertile. Fallopian tubes are channels through which the egg travels to reach the uterus and blockage of these tubes can put a stop to this from taking place.
Depending on the different parts of the tubes, this form of blockage is of several types.
What are the different types of fallopian tube blockages?
1. Proximal tubal occlusion
This form of fallopian tube blockage involves the isthmus (an area of about 2 cm long, this part of the fallopian tube connects the infundibulum and ampulla to the uterus). This problem occurs after an illness like complications associated with abortion, cesarean section, PID (pelvic inflammatory disease).
2. Mid-segment tubal obstruction
It occurs in the ampullary section of the fallopian tube and is most frequently a result of tubal ligation damage. The procedure of tubal ligation is performed to put a stop to pregnancy permanently.
3. Distal tubal occlusion
This is a kind of blockage wherein the section of the fallopian tube that is close to the ovary is affected and is commonly associated with a condition known as hydrosalpinx (a condition in which the fallopian tube is filled with fluid). The latter is often brought on by Chlamydia infection, leading to fallopian tube and pelvic adhesions.
The conditions that may give rise to this problem can include:
1. Genital tuberculosis (the TB infection that occurs in the genital tract)
2. Ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy in which the embryo places itself outside the uterus)
3. Tubal ligation removal
4. Complications related to surgery of the lower abdomen
5. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
6. Uterine fibroids (benign growths that occur in the uterus)
7. Endometriosis (development of uterine tissue outside of the organ)
These disorders can lead to the development of scar tissue, adhesions, polyps or tumors to form inside the pathway. Additionally, the tubes can also get stuck to other body parts such as the ovaries, bladder, uterus and bowels. Two things can happen to the fallopian tubes, either they can become twisted or the tubes walls may stick together, leading to a complete blockage. Moreover, even if the fallopian tubes are partially damaged, they can remain open so as to enable pregnancy to occur, while increasing your risk for ectopic pregnancy.