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Even something as small as an eyeball, has multiple parts within it. The retina at the back of the eyeball is responsible for the clarity of vision. The central area of the retina is known as the macula. Macular degeneration is the deterioration of this part of the retina. Macular degeneration is age related and is considered as an incurable condition. People suffering from macular degeneration experience blurred vision, black spots and may eventually lose central vision while retaining peripheral vision.
There are two types of macular degeneration; wet and dry. The dry form of this disease is more common than its wet form. Of these, the latter causes more serious vision loss. Dry macular degeneration leads to white or yellow deposits on the retina leading to further degeneration. In the wet form of this disease, blood vessels beneath the retina start growing towards the macula and may pull it away from the base when they break or leak fluid.
There are three stages of age related macular degeneration (AMD):
- Early AMD: This is diagnosed by the presence of deposits on the retina. In most cases, ether is no vision loss at this stage but regular check-ups are essential.
- Intermediate AMD: A comprehensive eye exam will show the presence of larger deposits or pigment changes in the retina. At this stage, slight vision loss may be experienced.
- Late AMD: People suffering from late AMD have noticeable vision loss. Though this disease is linked to aging, the exact triggers for macular degeneration are unknown. It is understood to be a combination of hereditary and environmental factors. The presence of certain genes and their variants has been associated with a number of cases of this disease. Studies also show that caucasians are at the highest risk of suffering from this disease. Depriving cells in the retina of oxygen can also increase a person's risk of contracting this disease. Other risk factors for this disease are obesity, smoking, high blood pressure and a light eye colour. The side effects of certain drugs can also induce this condition.
Macular degeneration is considered to be incurable, but certain forms of treatment can improve vision and slow down the rate of deterioration. Treatment prescribed by a doctor depends on stage of the disease and whether it is wet or dry. Studies suggest that a diet rich in Omega-3 fatty acids can prevent AMD and lower the risk of its progression.
What is amblyopia or lazy eye? Amblyopia is decreased vision in one or both eyes due to abnormal development of vision in infancy or childhood. In amblyopia, there may not be an obvious problem of the eye. Vision loss occurs because nerve pathways between the brain and the eye aren't properly stimulated. The brain, learns to see only blurry images with the amblyopic eye even when glasses are used. As a result, the brain favors one eye, usually due to poor vision in the other eye. Another word for amblyopia is 'lazy eye'. It is the leading cause of vision loss amongst children.
The major causes of Amblyopia are as follows:
- Eye Misalignment: The most basic reason for amblyopia is misalignment of the eyes. In case, both your eyes are not aimed in the same proportion or direction, the image from the affected eye is turned off by the brain. Only the better eye functions. Double vision is restricted. The persistence of this defect for a prolonged time, makes the eye lose connection with the brain's visual cortex. Amblyopia develops.
- Not Correcting Refractove Error: Not only imbalance in refraction, but not correcting refractove error i.e. not wearing specs in childhood. The later is more prevalent. If the refractive blunder of both the eyes is not the same, both eyes can't be in the center at the same time. Amblyopia happens when one eye stays out of the center since it is more myopic, farsighted, or astigmatic than the other. One eye becomes dominant. This results in the neglect of the unfocused eye, which neglects to associate with the mind. Treatment with glasses or contact lenses to adjust the refractive blunder of the eye is required.
- Cloudiness in the visual system: Any kind of obstruction or cloudiness in the normal functioning of the eye tissues can be another reason, which leads to amblyopia. Disorder of any kind which blocks a clear image from being focused is capable of blocking the formation of a clear image on your retina. This may lead to amblyopia. This is perhaps the most severe type of this disease.
How to cure amblyopia?
For treating amblyopia, a child must be compelled to utilize his affected, weaker eye. This can be done by correction of any disorder of the affected eye such as refractive error, problems in the retina, etc. The goal is to correct the amblyopic eye. The normal eye is usually covered up by a patch, so that only the affected eye can be used for vision. The patching up may continue for weeks, months or years until the best vision gets restored. The improving eye should be maintained well. Spectacles are also prescribed for correction of errors regarding refraction. Eye drops such as atropine are also used for blurring the vision of the good eye. Amblyopia makes you visually impaired. The earliest symptoms must be perceived and acted upon.
Eye twitching, tics in the eyelids and spasms in the eye are pretty common. In case of eye twitching, usually the lower eyelid becomes involved. The upper eyelid may also twitch in certain cases. Twitches are not permanent in nature, and they leave after some time. In some cases, eye twitching may last for long durations of time such as weeks or months.
Eye twitching is not a critical medical condition. It is a temporary prickling and irritation in the eyes, which ceases after some time. Common twitching of the eyes is not related to any neurological disorder.
Here are some reasons which cause eye twitches:
- Stress: Every individual goes through some amount of stress, and the body reacts differently in different people as a result of stress. An eye twitch may be caused due to stress, especially related to strain in the eyes. In order to reduce stress you should practice yoga, meditation, perform breathing exercises and take a break. Reducing the stress would also cease the twitching in the eyes.
- Tiredness: Eye twitching can appear when you are fatigued or very tired. Lack of proper sleep makes your body tired, and this might trigger eye twitching.
- You should improve upon your sleeping hours and sleep more.
- Eye strain: Vision problems and any issue related to the eyes can cause stress, which may result in constant twitching in your eyes. Whenever too much stress is imposed upon your eyes, they tend to react and twitching occurs. Any problem would make the eyes put in more effort, which results in strain. You should have an eye check up if you experience an eye strain accompanied by twitching sensation in your eyes. People who use computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones for a profuse period of time experience pain and twitching in the eyes. There is a 20-20-20 rule to be followed while using such devices, which reduces eye strain and reduces itching or twitching. You can also avail special eyeglasses for people who spend a lot of time on computers.
- Caffeine: Intake of an excess amount of caffeine leads to eye twitching. Cut down your doses of coffee, tea, dark chocolates and soft drinks in case of eye twitching and you may observe an easing in the twitching.
- Alcohol: Alcohol also leads to eye twitching so you must abstain from alcohol in case you are having twitching in the eyes.
- Dry eyes: This disorder develops in people who have crossed the age of 50. People who use computers a lot also develop dry eyes, which leads to eye twitching.
Our eyes twitch because of a lot of reasons. You should know the facts right and avoid situations that lead to eye twitching.
This method is implied for youngsters and people aged below 40 years, who have high power glasses, and are not suitable for lasik treatment. Here, an ultra slender lens of an uncommon configuration and the required force is situated in the eye over the normal lens inside the eye. This lens amends the spectacle force of the eye. ICL is made in Switzerland, and the request for the lens is set according to estimations of the eye.
Here are some facts you should know about ICL:
- Spherical ICL lens redresses only spherical powered glasses. Toric ICL lens rectifies chamber alongside the spherical force of glasses. The main technique for changeless vision rectification that didn't include glasses or contact lenses accessible to patients who are not reasonable contenders for LASIK is the ICL or the Implantable contact.
- It is embedded in the back chamber, behind the iris, over the normal lens of the eye so as to correct the refractive mistake of the eye.
- It offers vision adjustment that is more honed and has more prominent profundity and measurement than other refractive surgeries. Indeed, ICL may create unrivalled visual quality as confirmed by less higher request abnormalities than corneal refractive surgeries. Patients encounter an almost immediate vision recovery.
- The lens is invisible to the eyes of the patient and also other people. The whole surgery takes around 10 to 15 minutes. The lens is biocompatible and made of collamer, a material based on collagen. It contains a UV blocker that forestalls unsafe UVA and UVB rays from entering the eye.
- ICL surgeries are amazingly safe. A few patients may encounter some distress amid the mending procedure like dry eyes or light affectability. These impacts are brief. Your specialist will examine with you the dangers and advantages of the method amid your interview.
Advantages of ICL:
- The lens is foldable and infused through a small, torment free, self-recuperating entry point in your eye.
- The ICL gives very successful results, and fantastic nature of vision. After this treatment, you can leave the clinic following two or three hours, because of fast recuperation. You will have the capacity to make the most of your new sight very quickly and retreat to your dynamic way of life. Your specialist will give you a point by point exhort on this.
- ICL corrects a very large range of visual defects.ICL Is one of the most effective spectacle removal techniques. It corrects your vision instantly after a surgery and lasts quite long. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
While it's assumed that numerous eye injuries are inflicted at work, just about the same number of them may happen while at home. Luckily, most eye wounds are preventable. Find ways to prevent eye injuries, as the eyes are very sensitive and delicate.
Here is a list of some of the most common eye injuries and tips on how to prevent them:
- A lot of eye injuries happen from dust particles entering the eyes, causing itching and burning sensation. Protective glasses should be worn when doing any kind of activity in a dusty area with flying particles.
- Pencils, scissors, forks, knives and all similar sharp objects can cause a serious eye injury. Day to day household items like bungee cords, wire coat hangers, rubber bands and fishhooks are capable of causing eye injuries. You must always remain aware and super conscious while using such objects.
- While performing activities such as dusting, sweeping or lawn mowing, make sure to protect your eyes well as dust is involved.
- Children are very curious by nature. Thus, all hazardous stuff like fertilizers, acids should be kept away from their reach. These contain harmful chemicals, which may inflict fatal damage to the eyes.
- Cooking powder and spices like chili powder can cause injury to the eye. Always wash your hands after using these items, so that you don't harm the eyes if you by chance rub them with your hands.
- Precautions should be taken while dealing with heat or boiling water or oil. They may spill and cause damage to the eyes.
- Secure floor coverings and railings. On the off chance that a kid or elderly man lives in your home, use a safety gate at the top and base of stairs, and consider covering sharp furniture edges and corners with a padding material.
- While travelling in a car, abrupt jerking or breaks may cause the head to bump and cause injury to the eye. Always put on your seat belt and do not allow children to sit in the front of a car.
- Many modern toys, which are very attractive have got sharp edges because of their fancy design. Abstain children from playing with these kinds of toys.
- Laser pointers, a common fun gadget for children is very harmful and causes permanent damage to the retina. Stay away from laser pointers.
- Wear eye gear to protect your eyes during sports activities. Also wear goggles during swimming as chlorine in swimming pool water damages the eyes.
Eye injuries may happen out of nowhere. You must always remain alert to avoid eye injuries. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult an ophthalmologist.
Laser-Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) uses a computer controlled laser to reshape the eye's cornea ( the transparent part in the front region of the eye), so as to enable light passing through it to focus correctly onto the retina of the eye.
When do you need this surgery?
This surgical procedure is ideal for people having following conditions making spectacle use mandatory :
1. Myopia or nearsightedness - Far off objects appears blurry
2. Hypermetropia or farsightedness - Close objects appear indistinct
3. Astigmatism - Overall fuzzy vision
Facts about the surgery -
- Practically painless procedure done under numbing drops
- Short surgery time as well as recovery time
- No use of stitches
- Reduced dependency on glasses and contact lenses
- Better vision as compared to vision through high power glasses
- Minimum age to opt for the procedure is 20 years
LASIK in Presbyopia or Presbylasik:
The surgery can also be opted for individuals who suffer from presbyopia, which is long-sightedness brought on by the loss of flexibility of the eye lens, and usually occurs in individuals in their middle and old age. The condition renders individuals with the inability to focus on objects that are close by, leading to difficulty in reading smaller prints or doing chores close up.
In Presbylasik or Multifocal LASIK different power zones are created for seeing at varying distances - near, intermediate and distance vision. Consulting a doctor is best as he or she can help you to decide on the right course of action. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ophthalmologist.