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Treatment of Knee replacement
Acl Reconstruction Procedure
Hip Replacement Surgery
Treatment of Shoulder Injuries
Meniscus Injury Treatment
Sports Injury Treatment/Management
Rotator Cuff Injury Treatment
Shoulder Replacement Surgery
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Your bone is a living tissue that constantly undergoes the cycle of breakage and replacement. Osteoporosis is a condition wherein the rate at which new bones form cannot match up to the worn out bones, thus making the bones fragile and brittle. Osteoporosis mainly affects the wrist, hip or spine and can result in a stooped posture accompanied by height shrinkage and back pain caused due to a collapsed vertebra.
Reasons Behind Osteoporosis
Hormones: Lowered estrogen count in women and testosterone in men as a result of ageing or other treatments can result in this condition. Excess thyroid secretion in the body, an overactive adrenalin gland or parathyroid gland can also accelerate bone loss. Women are more vulnerable to osteoporosis during menopause.
Prolonged use of injected: Prolonged use of injected or oral corticosteroid medications such as cortisone or prednisone messes with the bone-building process. Medicines used to combat cancer, gastric reflux and seizures can be responsible as well.
Sedentary Lifestyle: A sedentary lifestyle with not much physical activity along with an excessive consumption of alcohol and tobacco makes you susceptible to osteoporosis.
Treatments for Osteoporosis:
- Medication: Commonly prescribed medicines for remedying fractures include bisphosphonates such as Zoledronic acid, Ibandronate, Risedronate and Alendronate.However these medicines are not free of side-effects such as abdominal pain, nausea or heart burn. In case, your regular medicine doesn’t work, you can use Denosumab and Teriparatide as alternatives but only after consulting your physician.
- Hormone Therapy: Estrogen therapy for women after menopause helps sustain bone density. However such procedures can escalate the dangers of getting afflicted with cancer, heart diseases or conditions such as blood clotting.
- Alternative Medicine: Ipriflavone, a laboratory manufactured product, when combined with calcium can curb chances of bone loss and alleviate pain.
Knee replacement is a surgery wherein an artificial joint is used to replace a diseased, damaged or worn out knee. This surgery is common among people who fall in the age group of 60-80, but recent trends seem to suggest that younger people are opting for this surgery as well. The lifetime of the artificial knee joint is around 20 years, provided the knee is well cared for.
Why do you need knee replacement?
Most common reason is “high grade osteoarthritis” due to wear and tear of the knee joint. The pre-hospital study of the Knee joint is mandatory and would decide what kind of Replacement is suitable to the patient. If there is diabetes or hypertension associated with this, then it should be controlled well before undergoing surgery. Hemoglobin of at least 10 gm% is required.
If the mobility in your knee joint is reduced leading to impaired functioning of the knee joint, then you might need a knee replacement surgery. You may experience pain while walking, sitting and, in some cases, resting as well.
Some of the common reasons why you may opt for this particular surgery are:
- Gout, where, small crystals are formed inside the joint.
- Rheumatoid Arthritis, an autoimmune disorder, wherein the immune system of the body attacks the body’s healthy tissues.
- Hemophilia, wherein, the blood ceases to clot normally.
- Injuries to the knee.
- Disorders that cause unusual bone growth (bone dysplasias).
- Death of bone in the knee joint following blood supply problems (avascular necrosis).
- Knee deformity with pain and loss of cartilage.
- Unusual growth of bones in the knee joint.
Knee replacement surgery is classified into:
- Partial Knee Replacement: In this surgery, only one part of the joint is replaced.
- Total Knee Replacement: Total knee replacement surgery involves replacement of both sides of the knee joint.
The usual hospital stay period is around 2-3 days after the surgery is completed. Initially, you will require the help of crutches to walk for at least 2 months. You may also be asked to do gentle knee strengthening exercises. It may take up to It takes 3 weeks to start performing activities of home. It may take three months to recover completely from a knee replacement surgery.
In today’s world, which is technologically advanced, we don’t even realize that the whole day has passed by looking at or using our electronic devices. Our life sways between checking the social media on smartphones to using the computer in office, just making it easy for us to spend the whole day locked with some sort of screen. Though this could be fun, it has some definitive effects on our body.
Link between posture and technology -
When looking at people at office gives you a good idea of how they sit while they use their devices. Average person waiting in a doctor’s office usually sits with a hunched back, shoulders slumped and a bent down neck. In office, these people might lean on their desks, push their neck forward in order to see what is on their screen and their hand is constantly scrunched over the mouse. The human body is not really designed to sit in this way and can have serious life impending issues.
The biggest problem with technology posture is position of the head. When the head is evenly balanced between the shoulders it weighs between 10 and 12 lbs. But with a slight tilt even 15 degrees, the weight on the spine spikes to 27 lbs. Another 15 degrees and it weighs 40 pounds. At 60 degrees, the position where the chin touches the chest weighs 60 pounds on the spine. The extended weight on the spine causes the lower spine to collapse along with a low back pain. Low back pain can further cause knee pain and a referred ankle pain and further leading to much more damage.
How to prevent technology posture?
There are many ways in which the damaging effects of the technology posture can be reduced. At office you can elevate the monitor so that top of the screen is at the eye level. The height of the chair should be such that the feet are firmly placed on the ground. The desk should be in such a manner that the forearms are parallel to the floor when the shoulders are relaxed.
While using the smartphone, avoid bending and slouching and use arms to place the phone in front of the face. The phone should be at eye level when browsing and should not be balanced by the neck when talking on the phone. The head should be kept straight and these easily avoid the damages of technology posture.
Hip replacement surgery is a method wherein a defective hip joint is removed and replaced with an artificial hip joint. This procedure is only opted for after all the other treatments have failed to yield the desired effects. Hip replacement surgery removes damaged or diseased parts of a hip joint and replaces them with new, man-made parts. The goals of this surgery are to:
Help the hip joint work better
Improve walking and other movements.
Who Should Have Hip Replacement Surgery?
The most common reason for hip replacement is osteoarthritis in the hip joint. Your doctor might also suggest this surgery if you have:
Osteonecrosis (a disease that causes the bone in joints to die)
Injury of the hip joint
Bone tumors that break down the hip joint.
Your doctor will likely suggest other treatments first, including:
Walking aids, such as a cane
An exercise program
These treatments may decrease hip pain and improve function. Sometimes the pain remains and makes daily activities hard to do. In this case, your doctor may order an x ray to look at the damage to the joint. If the x ray shows damage and your hip joint hurts, you may need a hip replacement.
Hip replacement surgery is a procedure that can either be performed by traditional means or a minimally invasive procedure. The primary difference between the two procedures is the size of the incision. The procedure begins with the doctor administering local anesthesia, though in certain cases, general anesthesia is also administered.
An incision is then made along the hip and the muscles that are connected to the thigh bone are shifted, so that the hip joint is exposed.
An equipment is then used to remove the ball socket of the joint by cutting the thighbone.
The artificial joint is then fixed to the thighbone and it is allowed to adhere properly.
Once the joint is fixed, the ball of the thighbone is then put in the hip socket.
The fluids from the incision area are then allowed to drain.
The hip muscles are then put in place and the incision is closed.
After the surgery, the recovery stage begins. The period of hospital stay post-surgery usually lasts for 4-6 days. A drainage tube is attached to the bladder to get rid of waste products from the body. Physical therapy begins immediately after the surgery and you will be able to walk after a few days with walking aids. The physical therapy continues for a few months after the surgery.
It is advised to avoid activities that involve twisting your leg for at least half a year. You should also avoid crossing the leg along the mid portion of your body. Your physiotherapist will provide you with exercises that aid to help you recover. Avoid climbing stairs and sit on chairs that have strong back support.
Lower back pain is a very common discomfort causing condition that occurs anywhere on the back below the ribs and above the legs. The pain is very common and it is faced by most individuals at least once during their lifetime.
The most basic measures to cure your lower back pain are exercising well, eating healthy and maintaining a good body posture at all times. Here are some of the common treatment options for reducing back pain.
Spinal Manipulation: It refers to an ancient form of therapy in which your back pain is treated externally. This form of treatment is quite similar to a massage treatment and helps to relax the muscles in the lower back area, thereby reducing the pain. It is usually done by osteopathic physicians, chiropractors, occupational therapists and physical therapists.
Neurostructural integration technique (NST): The main role of this type of treatment is to naturally reset the affected area of the body in order to allow it to regain its normal form. The results usually begin to appear after at least 2 sessions of the therapy and the effects are long lasting in nature.
Acupuncture: This is an old technique which uses small needles at strategic locations on your skin. The main aim of the acupuncturists is to re-balance the flow of energy in your body and to ensure that you have an optimal level of energy in all parts of your body. This in turn helps to regain the normal state of your lower back if the right points on the body are targeted.
Other measures: Some preventive measures which ensure that the lower back pain does not recur are as follows:
- Keep your spine straight and posture correct
- Avoid excessive bending, stretching or weight lifting
- Avoid heavy physical activities like sprinting
- Regular and light exercising
Plantar fasciitis is an orthopedic problem that gives rise to pain in the foot and heel due to strain or pressure on the plantar fascia. This is a ligament or connective tissue which lies in a flat band, connecting your heel with the toes and effectively, providing a basis for the motion of the feet in general. Inflammation, swelling and bruising of this tissue or ligament can lead to excessive pain in the heel.
Let us look at ways that can help you deal with this pain:
- Rest: Taking rest and giving your feet a break from all kinds of strain inducing activities can help in relieving the pain. Also, you can keep your feet elevated to help in reducing the pain in the area.
- Supportive footwear: Using pads within your shoes with gel built into them, or using specific footwear that help in walking without feeling too much of pain is a good way of dealing with Plantar fasciitis. The shoe inserts must be rubber, felt or plastic so that they are soft for your feet. They also give your heel and its arch good support, while Orthotics pulls the ligament so that there is less stress on the same. You can also pull on a pair of night flints which will keep the foot and the ligament stretched while you enjoy a good night of sleep.
- Exercise: Indulging in mild muscle strengthening exercise that also involves stretching and heel hooks can help in alleviating chronic pain that you may be suffering from. Lie flat on your back and take a towel. Lift your leg and hook your foot into it. Now press against the towel and pull down the towel simultaneously. Repeat at least ten times per foot. This will give you flexibility and strength in the area.
- Painkillers: Use pain killers only when absolutely necessary and with due advice from the doctor or Orthopaedic specialist. The use of Ibuprofen and other pain relievers can help in numbing the pain inducing nerves in the brain and give you instant relief.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs: Your doctor may prescribe anti-inflammatory medication that can bring down the swelling for more comfortable functioning when you are on your feet. Naproxen is one such drug that helps in bringing down the inflammation. Also, corticosteroid injections can relieve severe pain.
- Surgery: Heel spur removal or Plantar fascia release are some of the surgical options for chronic and severe cases.
Taking care of your feet is a matter of ensuring that you look into the slightest discomfort and report the same to a doctor.
Rotator cuff is the name given to four muscles and their tendons, which keep your arms in your shoulder sockets, allowing you to lift your arms and do day-to-day stuff like combing your hair, cutting vegetables etc.
The shoulder joint is a very important joint of the body and this is why any tear that happens in the rotator cuff can be devastating.
Tears can happen in rotator cuff due to a number of factors like injury and degeneration due to age. Tears that happen due to an injury to the shoulder are called acute. Degenerative tears are tears that happen due to degeneration of the tendon over time.
Common causes of degeneration are lack of proper blood circulation, which impedes the rotator cuff’s ability to repair itself. Repetitive stress is another cause where we stress the tendon by repeating the same shoulder motions again and again while playing games like tennis, cricket etc. and doing jobs that require us to extend our arms upwards a lot. Lifting heavy objects can also lead to tears.
Chronic shoulder and arm pain are good reasons for you to see your doctor. If you suffer from pain in your shoulder at rest, while sleeping on the affected shoulder or pain while lifting and lowering your arm, then there is no time to wait.
The doctor will do a physical examination by moving your arm in different directions. He may follow it up with X-rays and MRI to check how big the tear is in your rotator cuff.
Once confirmed that you indeed have a rotator cuff tear, your doctor will start the treatment. The goal of any treatment is to reduce pain and make your shoulder joint work properly again.
Nonsurgical treatments include rest, using of a sling to protect the shoulder and modifying your daily activities. This means you may not be able to do activities that cause shoulder pain. Your doctor can also prescribe pain and anti-inflammatory medicines. Strengthening and physical therapy bring up the rear of this type of treatment.
What you must remember is that nonsurgical treatment relieves pain and improves function in the shoulder, but does not improve shoulder strength. The size of your tear may also increase over time.
Surgery, which attaches the rotator cuff to your bone, is done if you suffer from continuous pain and symptoms over a year or so. If you have a large tear, conservative treatments will not work and surgery will have to be resorted to.
If you have been suffering from chronic shoulder or arm pain, waiting and watching is definitely not an option. You must visit an orthopedic surgeon at the earliest. Remember, if treatment is not started soon enough, your rotator cuff tear will get larger and will require only surgery.
Sometimes children suffer from conditions where their feet may not be in proper shape or size, something that can affect their posture. Most of the times the disorders get corrected themselves as children grow up, but there can be situations where medical attention is required. These conditions can be normal variations in the anatomy as well which don't essentially require treatment. Some of the common orthopedic disorders found in children include:
- Flatfeet: While most babies are born with flat feet which develop arches as they grow, in some case the arches remain underdeveloped even after they grow older. Their feet may turn inwards while they walk due to their flat nature. There is no inherent problem in this condition unless it becomes painful. Doctors may recommend special footwear with arches inserted for support to reduce the pain.
- Toe Walking: Toe walking is not a disorder while your child is just learning to walk. Toddlers who continue to walk on their toes after the age of 3 may require medical attention. Toe walking on one leg or persistent toe walking can be due to other medical conditions like muscle weakness, cerebral palsy or autism. It is advisable to take your child to a therapist for casting the foot and ankle which can help stretch the muscles.
- Pigeon Toes: In toeing or pigeon toeing is common among babies when they are first learning to walk. Sometimes children above 3 years walk with their toes inwards which can be due to femoral anteversion. This happens when upper part of the leg bends more than it naturally should, causing inward rotation of the feet. Specially designed shoes and braces can help to correct this condition. Usually, the condition corrects on its own with age and does not interfere with sport activities which involve running.
- Knock-Knees: It is a common tendency among children aged between 3 and 6 to develop knock-knees (genu valgum), since their bodies go through natural shift in alignment. Usually, treatment is not required as the legs straighten out eventually. Knock knees on one side or persistent knock knees may require medical attention. Children with this disorder may suffer from pain hence in some cases surgery is recommended after the age of 10.
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Arthritis is a very painful disease. It restricts you from doing a lot of the activities you would love to engage in. However, there are steps you could take to reduce the chances of it happening to you.
Here are some of them:
1. Take Omega-3 fatty acids
Research proves that the regular consumption of Omega-3 fatty acids, present in fish, result in decreased risks of rheumatoid arthritis. Omega-3 fatty acids are also found in foods such as olive oil and walnuts.
2. Take Vitamins and olive oil
Vitamins are crucial, especially A, C and D. Vitamin A can be found in carrots. Vitamin D can yet again be found in fish while Vitamin C can be found in strawberries, mangoes, pineapples and oranges. Olive oil is also useful because it contains polyphenols which reduce the chances of developing arthritis.
4. Avoid injury
Although this is very hard to do sometimes, avoiding injuries do reduce your chances of getting arthritis.
5. Control your weight
This is very important, especially for your knees. It has been proven by researchers at Johns Hopkins University that if you are 10 kg overweight, then 30 to 60 extra kilograms of weight fall on your knees.
Strengthening your muscles around your joint decrease the pressure on the joint. If there is less pressure on the joint, then the chances of arthritis are reduced. The best way to decrease pressure on the joint and strengthen your muscles is to exercise.