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An injury to an artery or to a vein is defined as a Vascular Injury. A Vascular Injury of any kind poses a great challenge in daily lifestyle. These injuries require urgent medical attention and intervention if preserving a limb is desirable. Sometimes, serious Vascular Injuries do not show significant symptoms leading to a delayed diagnosis. Such injuries are mostly seen in the youth, especially the male population. However, Peripheral Vascular Injuries might also be caused by firearms, road accidents, diagnostic procedures, and bomb blasts, or due to other certain sudden and unfortunate incidents.
Types of Vascular Injuries-
Vascular Injuries can be divided into the following six major groups primarily:
● Spasm: A spasm is caused due to reduced blood flow in the vessels caused by localized trauma.
● Thrombosis: It refers to a blood clot which partially or completely blocks the blood vessel and might be caused due to an injury to the vascular tissues.
● Arterial Emboli: Arterial Emboli refers to a sudden interruption of blood flow to a body part or an organ resulting from blockage due to a blood clot that acts as an embolus (an unattached mass traveling through the bloodstream and capable of clogging arteries, veins, and capillaries).
● Laceration: Also known as Transection, it causes irregular vascular tears and segmental loss due to blunt trauma or high-velocity missiles. A longitudinal and badly lacerated vessel might lead to a greater blood loss than a neatly transected vessel.
● Contusion: Also referred to as Intimal Flap, it is the tearing of the inner coat (intima) of the blood vessel caused due to extra stretch or a damaging and concussive force. A small flap measuring less than five millimeters may not necessarily block blood flow but can aggravate thrombosis. However, a larger flap might protrude into the inner wall of the blood vessel causing restricted blood supply.
● Arterio-Venous Fistula: When an artery and its adjacent vein are simultaneously injured, it leads to their connection causing the blood to flow from artery to the vein (high pressure to low pressure). It leads to inadequate blood supply in the desired direction. Arterio-Venous Fistula can possibly cause congestive cardiac failure.
● Aneurysm and Pseudoaneurysm: Aneurysm refers to the bulging of the blood vessel, and is rarely produced. It is generally seen that Pseudoaneurysm follows trauma instead of Aneurysm. Pseudoaneurysm refers to collective thrombosis.
There are several non-invasive and invasive methods for the treatment of Peripheral Vascular Injuries. The non-invasive tests include Ankle-brachial Index, Hand Held Doppler, Duplex Ultrasound, B-mode Ultrasound, and Color Flow Doppler Ultrasound.
The invasive tests include Angiography, Magnetic Resonance Angiography, and Digital Subtraction Angiography.
There are several treatment options that are available for correcting Peripheral Vascular Injuries.
● Primary Anastomosis: Referring to a surgical connection between adjacent blood vessels, it is performed when there is minimal or no segmental loss. Primary Anastomosis in Segmental loss has a high risk of thrombosis.
● Reverse Saphenous Vein Graft: When the segmental loss is greater than two centimeters, Saphenous vein (the largest vein in the body running along the length of the lower limb) is harvested. The vein is used upside down in the repair of the artery. It is ensured that there is no tension on the suture line or any kink in
● Lateral Repair: When there is a lateral tear, it is primarily sutured at the tear site.
There are several treatment options available for peripheral vascular injuries. However, it is always advisable to consult a doctor before opting for any treatment as the condition of a patient varies from patient to patient.
Menopause can be a turnaround for many women with respect to their health and body functioning. It can be disturbing and disruptive. When menstruation ends in women, various changes ranging from physical to emotional occurs which are discussed below.
- Perimenopause: The age of 40-45 years in women is the time when their hormones, progesterone, and estrogen start falling, as the production of these hormones from the ovaries decreases. The onset of menopause, however, begins from mid thirty’s. You can experience significant cramps while having your periods as well as heavy and irregular periods.
- Anxiety and Mood Swings: Mood swings are common during the days of your menstruation, but it becomes severe when you are going through the pre-menopausal and post-menopausal phase. This is a time when most of the women become more teary and emotional without much reason. They become irritated easily as well, and the best way to tackle them is to care and be kind and not flattery or insensible. The woman must understand the phase she is going through and must try to find ways to control her temper and mood swings.
- Night Sweats and Hot Flashes: Hot flashes and night sweats are common symptoms that you experience during menopause. Due to the fall in the levels of estrogen, the body gets heated up, and thus hot flashes are common during these days. The brain needs time to adjust to the changes in the estrogen level, and then this problem gets solved.
- Reduced Sex Drive: Due to the fall in the hormones, the sex drive or the libido in a woman falls right after having menopause.
- Aging: Menopause acts like the red mark on the age calendar of yours which pinpoint that now you are becoming old. This increases the agitation and the irritation of getting old. But talking about it in the open and being calm can reduce the irritation and also keeps you youthful all day.
- Affecting Your Thoughts: Perimenopause can also be symbolized by a reduction in the thought process and the memory of the women. Most of the women complain of having less energy at work and forgetting basic things. This is because of the drop in the estrogen as it helps in keeping you active as well as alert.
- Calcium Deficiency or Bone Loss: With the falling estrogen level, the loss of calcium from the body and thus affecting the mass of the bones is inevitable, and this thing can get serious that it can turn into osteoporosis. You need to have calcium along with Vitamin D from the natural food as much as possible so that the bone mass doesn’t get affected.
Dealing with menopause is more a challenge to a woman. However, being aware of the changes happening in her body and accepting them is aging gracefully, indeed.
There is a general misconception about impotence and erectile dysfunction being two separate conditions. In fact, impotence is just another term for erectile dysfunction. If you have a problem in achieving an erection more than 70% of the times when you want to have sex, you are suffering from erectile dysfunction.
Impotence is the same thing, but it also encompasses other concerns related to sexual health such as low libido and issues with ejaculation.
Causes of erectile dysfunction:
Disruption of blood flow in the body or disruption in hormonal secretion and nerve supply to the body
Vascular and neurological causes
Occurrence of a disease known as atherosclerosis, which is caused due to smoking and diabetes. In this case, the arteries in the penis get narrowed and clogged.
Nerve damage because of a previous surgery around the pelvis area
Smoking, excessive drinking and substance abuse
The reactions and side effects of certain medicines
Poor communication with the sexual partner
Intake of several medicines such as alpha adrenergic blockers, beta blockers, chemotherapy medications and central nervous system depressants
Treatment for erectile dysfunction:
Different treatments may be used to treat erectile dysfunction. These include the following:
Medication: A group of drugs known as PDE-5 or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
Vacuum devices: Vacuum erection devices help in providing an erection in men. A mechanical procedure is involved where the penis is made rigid using a vacuum pump sealed around it. This device draws blood and an erection becomes possible.
Surgical treatment: Penile implants can be used to treat erectile dysfunction. Mechanical implants are used, which help to keep the penis hard. A vascular surgery is another option, which incorporates the correction of blood vessels responsible for erectile dysfunction.
Natural treatment: There are a number of lifestyle changes that help a man naturally treat erectile dysfunction. Regular exercising, especially weight-bearing ones, not only aids in increasing blood flow, but also improves production of testosterone. Following a balanced diet with more intake of fruits and vegetables, limiting alcohol and avoiding smoking also generate positive results.
The term impotence and erectile dysfunction are quite related as they indicate the same conditions. However, today the term erectile dysfunction is more popular over the term impotence.