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Dr. Vivekanand Rai - General Surgeon, Varanasi

Dr. Vivekanand Rai

MS - General Surgery, MBBS

General Surgeon, Varanasi

11 Years Experience  ·  200 at clinic  ·  ₹300 online
Consult Online
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Dr. Vivekanand Rai MS - General Surgery, MBBS General Surgeon, Varanasi
11 Years Experience  ·  200 at clinic  ·  ₹300 online
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Personal Statement

Hello and thank you for visiting my Lybrate profile! I want to let you know that here at my office my staff and I will do our best to make you comfortable. I strongly believe in ethics; a......more
Hello and thank you for visiting my Lybrate profile! I want to let you know that here at my office my staff and I will do our best to make you comfortable. I strongly believe in ethics; as a health provider being ethical is not just a remembered value, but a strongly observed one.
More about Dr. Vivekanand Rai
Dr. Vivekanand Rai is one of the best General Surgeons in Naria, Varanasi. He has helped numerous patients in his 11 years of experience as a General Surgeon. He has completed MS - General Surgery, MBBS . You can consult Dr. Vivekanand Rai at Sai Medicity Hospital in Naria, Varanasi. Book an appointment online with Dr. Vivekanand Rai on has a number of highly qualified General Surgeons in India. You will find General Surgeons with more than 30 years of experience on You can find General Surgeons online in Varanasi and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.


MS - General Surgery - Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi - 2007
MBBS - MGM Medical College Jamshedpur -
Languages spoken


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Sai Medicity Hospital

Dashmi - Shukulpura Road, NariaVaranasi Get Directions
200 at clinic
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Wound Healing Post A Surgical Procedure!

MS - General Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Varanasi
Wound Healing Post A Surgical Procedure!

What is wound healing?
Wound healing is a process in which the body repairs itself after an injury by the complex mechanism by replacing destroyed tissues. It includes three types of intentions, and they are as follows:

1. Healing by primary intention
It includes healing in which restoration of continuity occurs by fibrous adhesion. Formation of granulation tissue does not take place and results in a thin scar.

2. Healing by secondary intention
In this type, healing takes place by adhesion of granulating surfaces. It occurs when the edges of the wound are far apart, and cannot be brought together.

3. Healing by tertiary intention
It is a combination of primary and secondary intention healing. In this type, the gradual filling of a wound cavity occurs by granulations, and by cicatrix formation. In this process various growth factors are involved, such as epidermal growth factor, vasculo-endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor.

How wound healing occurs?
Wound healing is divided into following phases:

  1. Establishment of rapid homeostasis: In this phase, the actual bleeding stops. It is accomplished by vasoconstriction, in which blood vessels contract to stop bleeding.
  2. Stage of inflammation: During this phase neutrophils (white blood cells) proliferates at the site of a wound to destroy bacteria, and to remove debris. The neutrophils are at highest count between 24, and 48 hours after an injury, and get reduced after 3 days. After that specialized cells called macrophage arrives to continue the process. These cells secrete growth factors and proteins that facilitate tissue repair. This phase lasts for 4 to 6 days and shows symptoms of edema, redness, heat, and pain.
  3. Proliferation and migration of the cells: During the process of inflammation, the body releases cell which causes migration, and proliferation. In this phase, epithelial cells proliferate to overlap the wound, and this phase can last from 4 days to 24 days.
  4. Formation of blood vessel: It is also known as angiogenesis. In this process body’s cells begin to replace the veins, and arteries which are damaged. In this process, the body either creates new vessels or adds onto the existing vessels. Along with this collagen deposition, granulation formation also occurs.
  5. Stage of reepithelialization: Once the blood vessels are formed, the damage tissues also start regrowing.
  6. Stage of synthesis: It is the last step, or it can occur simultaneously with above stages. In this process, blood clots are formed, which helps in prevention of further bleeding.

What are the complications of wound healing?
Most common complications are as follows:

  1. Deficient scar formation
  2. Excessive scar formation, such as a hypertrophic scar, keloids, etc.
  3. Deficient contraction of wound or excessive contraction
  4. Infection

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3009 people found this helpful

What Is Fistula? What Causes It?

MS - General Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Varanasi
What Is Fistula? What Causes It?

fistula is an abnormal connection between two hollow spaces (epithelial surfaces), such as blood vessels, intestines, or other hollow organs. Fistulas are usually caused by injuries or surgeries resulting in infection or inflammation. Also sometimes fistulae are created for therapeutic purpose.

Types of fistulas include:

  1. Blind - with only one open end. Also known as sinus tracts
  2. Complete - with both external and internal openings
  3. Incomplete - a fistula with an external skin opening, which does not connect to any internal organ


  1. Eye, adnexa, ear, and mastoid process: Lacrimal fistula, carotid cavernous fistula, mastoid fistula, craniosinus fistula, labyrinthine fistula, perilymph fistula, and preauricular fistula
  2. Circulatory system: Coronary arteriovenous fistula, arteriovenous fistula of pulmonary vessels, pulmonary arteriovenous fistula, cerebral arteriovenous fistula, arteriovenous fistula, and fistula of artery
  3. Respiratory system: Pyothorax with fistula and tracheoesophageal fistula
  4. Digestive system: Duodeno biliary fistula, salivary gland fistula, fistula of stomach and duodenum,  gastrocolic fistula, gastrojejunocolic fistula, enterocutaneous fistula, gastric fistula, fistula of appendix, anal and rectal fissures and fistulas, anal fistula, anorectal fistula, fistula of intestine, enteroentral fistula, fistula of gallbladder, biliary fistula, and pancreatic fistula
  5. Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue: Fistula of joint
  6. Urogenital system: Vesicointestinal fistula, urethral fistula, vesicovaginal fistula, cervical fistula, enterovaginal fistula, and rectovaginal
  7. Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities: Congenital preauricular fistula, Portal vein-hepatic artery fistula, congenital fistula of lip, Congenital fistula of salivary gland, congenital absence, atresia and stenosis of the rectum with fistula, congenital fistula of rectum and anus, congenital fistulae between uterus and digestive tract, and congenital rectovaginal fistula


  1. Inflammatory bowel disease causes of anorectal, enteroenteral, and enterocutaneous fistulas.
  2. Complications from gallbladder surgery can lead to biliary fistula.
  3. Radiation therapy, obstructed labor can lead to vesicovaginal and rectovaginal fistulas. Also, vesicovaginal and rectovaginal fistulas may also be caused by rape with foreign objects.
  4. Obstetric fistula develops when the blood supply to the tissues of the vagina, bladder (and/or rectum) is cut off during prolonged obstructed labor.
  5. Head trauma can lead to perilymph fistulas.
  6. Trauma to other parts of the body can cause arteriovenous fistulas.
  7. External causes include traumatic arteriovenous fistula and persistent postoperative fistula.

Physical examination: to determine the extent and pathway of the fistula


  1. Treatment for fistula depends on the cause and extent of the fistula.
  2. Surgery is often required to assure adequate drainage of the fistula. Surgical intervention combined with antibiotic therapy is usually required
  3. In some cases, fistula is temporarily covered e.g. cleft palate fistula is treated with a palatal obturator to delay the need for surgery to a more appropriate age.
  4. Surgical procedures commonly used are fistulotomy, placement of a seton (a cord that is passed through the path of the fistula to keep it open for draining)
  5. Filling the fistula with fibrin glue

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3236 people found this helpful

Gastrointestinal Cancer - Signs & Symptoms You Must Know!

MS - General Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Varanasi
Gastrointestinal Cancer - Signs & Symptoms You Must Know!

Gastrointestinal cancer is the most common form of cancer. It is a term used for a group of cancers that affect the digestive system. This includes cancers of the esophagus, gallbladder, liver, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, bowel, and anus. The symptoms relate to the organ affected and can include obstruction, abnormal bleeding, or other associated problems.

Signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal cancer: Typically, there are no early signs or symptoms of gastrointestinal cancer. Unfortunately, this means that people often don’t know anything is wrong until cancer has reached an advanced stage. Some of the most common symptoms of advanced gastrointestinal cancer are nausea and vomiting, frequent heartburn, loss of appetite, constant bloating, bloody stools, excessive fatigue, and stomach pain which may be worse after meals.

Causes of gastrointestinal cancer: Scientists don’t know exactly what makes the cancer cells grow in the gastrointestinal tract. But they know a few things that can raise your risk for the disease. One of them is infection with common bacteria. Other things that seem to play a role in raising the risk include smoking, being overweight or obese, a diet high in smoked, pickled, or salty foods, stomach surgery for an ulcer, virus infection, certain genes, working in coal, metal, timber, or rubber industries.

Diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancer: Since people with gastrointestinal cancer rarely show symptoms in the early stages, the disease is often not diagnosed until it has advanced. To make a diagnosis, a physical exam is conducted by the healthcare provider to check for any abnormalities. More diagnostic tests are done if the healthcare provider believes that a person is showing signs of gastrointestinal cancer. These tests may include an endoscopy, a biopsy or imaging tests such as CT scans and X-rays.

Treating gastrointestinal cancer: Many treatments can fight gastrointestinal cancer. Traditionally, it is treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, or immunotherapy such as vaccines and medications. Treatment depends on several factors, including the severity of cancer and the individual’s overall health and preferences. Apart from treating cancer cells, the goal of treatment is to prevent the cells from spreading. Gastrointestinal cancer, when left untreated, may spread to the lungs, lymph nodes, bones, and liver.

Prevention of gastrointestinal cancer: Experts do not know exactly what causes gastrointestinal cancer, and there are no vaccines against it. Therefore, there is no way to prevent it. But one can take steps to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal cancer by making small changes to their everyday life. For instance, regular exercise is associated with a reduced risk of cancer. On the other hand, smoking not only increases the risk of gastrointestinal cancer but many other types of cancers. Reducing the amount of salty and smoked foods and including more fruits and vegetables in the everyday diet are small steps that one can take as preventive actions. In some cases, doctors may even prescribe medications that can help lower the risk of cancer. This is usually done for people who have other diseases that may contribute to cancer.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2744 people found this helpful

Abcess - How Can It Be Treated?

MS - General Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Varanasi
Abcess - How Can It Be Treated?

What is an abscess?

An abscess is a collection of pus which built ups within the tissue of the body. It is usually tender and warm to touch.

What are the statistics of it?

An abscess is the most common condition and the most common presenting symptom of various diseases. The rate is approximately 65% of the population who are using intravenous drugs.

What are the common causes of it?

It mostly occurs in the patients with weak immunity. Following are the most common conditions which can cause abscess:

  1. Chronic use of steroid - it suppresses natural immune mechanism along with the disease
  2. Chemotherapy
  3. In diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, AIDS, peripheral vascular disorders, crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis as they cause weak immunity
  4. In severe burns
  5. In severe trauma
  6. In alcoholics, and IV drug abusers
  7. Due to poor hygiene, and poor circulation
  8. Due to bacterial infections like Staphylococcus aureus infection
  9. Due to parasites, such as dracunculiasis and myiasis

What are the symptoms of it?

The most common symptoms and signs of the superficial abscesses are redness, heat, swelling, pain, loss of function, and fever with, or without chills. An internal abscess shows symptoms, such as pain in the affected area, fever, and malaise.

Where can it develop?

It can occur in any tissue, but most frequently it occurs on the skin surface (superficial abscess). It can also occur in the lungs, brain, teeth, kidneys, tonsils, liver, perineum, hair follicle, and bones.

Why does it develop?

It is a defensive mechanism of the tissue. The bacteria which enters the body destroys the body cells and results in the release of cytokines. This cytokine causes white blood cells to proliferate near that area by increasing regional blood flow. All these materials with killed bacteria and kill white blood cells collect in the cavity and localize the infection by forming a capsule around it.  This capsule prevents further spread of infection to the adjacent organs.

How to diagnose it?

A superficial abscess does not require any investigation as compared to deep abscess. Investigations, such as computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging can be used to diagnose the deep abscesses.  

What is the treatment available for it?

Following are the treatments which are given most commonly to treat the abscess:

  1. Incision and drainage include inspection of an abscess to identify the presence of foreign objects, and removal of it by cutting it. The pus which gets collected is also drained by this technique.
  2. Antibiotics are used where the abscess is small, and they are also administered after doing incision, and drainage.
  3. Dressing with antiseptics is also done after the incision and drainage.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2663 people found this helpful


MS - General Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Varanasi
Vesicovaginal fistula, an abnormal communication between urinary bladder n vagina,makes life uncomfortable bcos of persistent leaking of urine per vagina
May b traumatic, iatrogenic , malignancy n commonly obstructed labor
Repair can b done laparoscopically n open method,
Very much frustrating for surgeons if fails n feeling awarded wen succeeded

Abdominal Fullness, Vague And Common Problems

MS - General Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Varanasi
  • Abdominal fullness, very common complain of pts in opd, getting medication from phc to chc n even referral centers in the form of antacid, proton pump inhibitors, oxetacaine, itopride etc. 
  • One should go for endoscopy (ogd) if intractable. 
  • Rut (rapid urease test) should be done n if there is thickening of pylorus biopsy shld b done for exclusion of malignancy. 
  • 4 month back I got a patient of 29 yrs old having symptom of abd fullness. I did endoscopyandn apart from rut, I took biopsy from pylorus assumig dat pylorus is thickened, surprisingly it was malignant. After gastric resection specimen was sent for hpe, same pathologist asked me where is growth. I said that there was only thickening n nos, biopsy was positive n only up to submucosa, rest layers were free from it. 
  • Now patient is doing well. In nut shell ugi endoscopy should be done.

Hernia, A Common Problem, Approach With New Modalities Of Treatment

MS - General Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Varanasi
  • Hernia, a protrusion of viscus or part of viscus through an abnormal opening with in the wall of its containing cavity, is a common problem. 
  • Minimal invasive approach for its treatment though challenging for surgeon n little expensive for pt but rapid recovery n lesser morbidity make it an ideal operation. 
  • One should go for it.

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