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Virolans 100 Mg/30 Mg/200 Mg Tablet Dt Tips

How is Hiv Treatment ?

Dr. Vinod Raina 89% (6441 ratings)
MD - General Medicine
Sexologist, Delhi
How is Hiv  Treatment ?

Hiv treatment is done by antiviral drugs, there are a number of antiviral drugs available in the market, usually HIV is treated with a combination of drugs, usually two to three drugs are used in treating HIV in the initial stage, we can change the combination of drugs according to the requirement of the patient. Drugs can be adjusted or increased if there is the resistance of HIV in the patient.

There are a number of compounds (about 22 in number) which have been formally approved (by us food and drug administration) for the treatment of HIV infections (aids). According to their point of intervention with the HIV replicative cycle, these compounds can be classified into 5 categories: (1) nrtis (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors): azidothymidine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir and emtricitabine; (2) ntrtis (nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors): tenofovir, administered as its oral prodrug form tdf (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate); (3) nnrtis (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors): nevirapine, delavirdine and efavirenz; (4) pis (hiv protease inhibitors): saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, tipranavir and darunavir; and (5) fis (fusion inhibitors): enfuvirtide. Starting from the drugs which are currently available for the treatment of aids, numerous combinations could be envisaged. Drug combinations are, in principle, aimed at obtaining synergism between the compounds (reasonably expected if they act by different mechanisms), while reducing the likelihood of drug resistance development. Such anti-hiv drug combination regimes were initiated about 10 years ago and have been generally referred to as haart (for highly active antiretroviral therapy). While haart originally consisted of a pill burden of twenty (or more) pills per day, this has been gradually diminished over the past few years, and, since July 2006, an all-in-one pill (teevir from myelin and virotrenz from ranbaxy sun pharma) has become available, which contains three anti-hiv drugs (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg, emtricitabine200mg and efavirenz 600 mg) to be taken as a single pill only once daily. Given the information that has been acquired for the therapeutic use (efficacy, safety) of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate over the past five years, it would now seem mandatory to further consider the prophylactic use of tdf [and its combination with emtricitabine (truvada) and/or atripla], as a single daily pill to prevent HIV infection. New combinations of drugs are also available which include tenofovir 300 mg lamivudine 150 mg which is very new drugs.


Now a days we can treat patients who had sex with some sex worker or any male transgender or some unknown person and during sexual intercourse condom gets bursted, we can treat them if they come to us within 72 hours of direct contact, these medicines are called post-exposure prophylaxis (pep) drugs for hiv or prophylactic treatment for hiv, by using these drugs we can treat a patient and we can stop transfusion of hiv virus to the person.

Pep involves taking anti hiv drugs as soon as possible after having been exposed to unprotected sex with some sex worker or transgender of with homosexual prep is a new hiv prevention method in which people who do not have hiv infection take pills of medicine daily to reduce the risk of becoming infected with hiv virus, pep should be taken within 72 hours of exposure to unprotected sex before the virus has time to rapidly duplicate in your body, pep consists of 2-3 antiretroviral drugs taken for 28 days.

6 people found this helpful

HIV Infection and AIDS Treatment

Dr. Vinod Raina 89% (6441 ratings)
MD - General Medicine
Sexologist, Delhi
HIV Infection and AIDS Treatment

If an HIV infection, treatment is primarily aimed at preventing evolve as long as possible and do not give way to the disease AIDS . In this case, the treatment is against HIV itself. If the emergence of AIDS and its accompanying diseases occur as a lung inflammation or bowel, treatment should include them. It is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle so that the immune system does not see further harmed. Many infected with HIV also have counseling and self-help centers with other affected. Drug Treatments Currently it has good information about certain steps in the single expansion of HIV infection. Thus, it has been possible to develop drugs that inhibit certain evolutions of cell infestation. HIV treatment is also called highly active antiretroviral therapy and its abbreviation is HAART. Specifically, this treatment includes the following medications: The entry inhibitors , which inhibit the entry of 'HIV virus' in human cells. VHI prevent adhesion of immune cells and / or dissolution of the viral envelope with the cell membrane (fusion). The excipient enfuvirtide eg prevents fusion. The reverse transcriptase inhibitor blocks a special top virus that can translate the genetic information of the virus (DNA) reverse transcriptase. This group of drugs includes, for example, substances such as lamivudine , the tenofovir or nevirapine . Another top virus, integrase, incorporating HIV DNA genetic information translated into immune cells. In this case, inhibitors of this enzyme, apply called integrase inhibitors . The drug raltegravir contains these integrase inhibitors. The protease inhibitors destroy other HIV enzyme, the HIV protease. If a cell is infected with HIV, forms a component of protein which could be born new HIV viruses. Protease HIV plays an important role in the composition of this protein. Inhibitors of this enzyme are involved in virus appear less capable of action in affected cells. Examples of protease inhibitors are drugs fosamprenavir , indinavir , nelfinavir, and ritonavir . Although 'AIDS' remains an incurable disease, it may be well with a combination therapy . This combination consists of at least three different drugs; usually several inhibitors of reverse transcriptase which are combined with a protease inhibitor.

 

1 person found this helpful

How Can Hepatitis B and C Be Treated Through Internal Medicine?

Dr. Hardik Thakker 89% (459 ratings)
MD - Internal Medicine, MBBS
Internal Medicine Specialist, Mumbai
How Can Hepatitis B and C Be Treated Through Internal Medicine?

Hepatitis B and C are considered the world’s chronic viral hepatitis which kills a huge number of people every year. Even though it accounts for massive suffering as well as early death, it could only attract relatively less national and international attention. While the deaths caused by tuberculosis, malaria and HIV/AIDS have reduced to a great extent since the early 2000s, deaths stemming from hepatitis B and C are rising at a fast pace. It kills around 1 million people across the world.

Can medicine help in the treatment of hepatitis B and C?
There are numerous FDA approved medications available for the treatment of Hepatitis B and C. Here are some of the best medicines for this, but before you take them, you must consult an expert who can evaluate your symptoms and recommend the right drugs for you.

Medicines for Hepatitis B:

  1. Entecavir: It is used in chronic hepatitis B virus infection and can treat active viral replication.
  2. Lamivudine: It is used for treating chronic hepatitis B which is associated with Hepatitis B viral replication along with active liver inflammation.
  3. Adefovir dipivoxil: This is used for the treatment of the disease in children below the age 12 years.
  4. Interferon alpha 2B: It can be used for young children aged 1 year who are affected by the disease along with compensated liver disease.
  5. Pegylated interferon: It is used for the treatment of adult patients with HBeAg positive and negative chronic hepatitis. If the patient has compensated liver disease along with liver inflammation and evidence of viral replication, then this medicine is usually given.
  6. Telbivudine: When there is chronic hepatitis with adult patients along with persistent elevations in ALT and AST or previously active disease, this medicine may have to be administered.
  7. Tenofovir alafenamide: It is indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in adults with compensated liver disease.

Medicines for Hepatitis C:

  1. Ribavirin: This medicine can be used in combination with other medicines for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Ribavirin can be utilized for compensated liver disease in patients who have not been treated with interferon alpha.
  2. Daclatasvir: This is an NS5A replication complex inhibitor which is often given with sofosbuvir for the treatment of patients with chronic HCV genotype 3 infection.
  3. Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir: The combination of these two medicines is used for the treatment of adult patients with chronic genotype 1 to 6 without any infection. It may be used in combination with ribavirin in patients with compensated or decompensated cirrhosis.
  4. Ledipasvir: A fixed-dose of a combination of hepatitis C virus inhibitor and Ledipasvir can be employed in the treatment of hepatitis genotype 1 infection in adults.

Both in the cases of Hepatitis B and C, it is important to diagnose the infection early. Prevention and cure are possible with precautionary measures and prescribed medications.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

5887 people found this helpful

Tuberculosis In Relation To HIV - An Overview!

Dr. Veena Mattu 87% (136 ratings)
MBBS, F.E.M-RCGP(UK)
General Physician, Gurgaon
Tuberculosis In Relation To HIV - An Overview!

HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are two life-threatening and common diseases in the world. The two diseases are very closely connected so much so that their occurrence is normally labeled as a co-epidemic. In most cases tuberculosis is found to be the most transmissible contagion in HIV-Immunocompromised victims, proving to be the cause of their death.

What is HIV?
Human Immunodeficiency Virus, more commonly known by its abbreviation HIV, is a virus that attacks the immune system, which is the body's natural defense against illnesses. The virus terminates a kind of white blood cells (WBCs) in the immune system known as the T-helper cell also known as CD4 cells. This virus then proceeds to duplicate itself within these cells.

As HIV reduces the T-helper cells, by duplicating at an increasing rate, it slowly breaks down the patient’s immune system. This leaves the individual susceptible to other deadly diseases such as tuberculosis. HIV infection is a permanent disease with three phases of progression. HIV medications can reduce or stop the evolution of the disease from one phase to another. The treatment can also decrease the chances of spreading HIV to other people.

What is tuberculosis (TB)
Tuberculosis is a transmittable disease triggered by the presence of bacterium known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is still considered a deadly disease in most developing countries where treatment is scarce. Generally, TB affects the lungs but it can also affect other parts of the body. Symptoms include – coughing with blood, fever, night sweats and loss of weight.

The relation between TB and HIV
In second world countries, most patients infected with HIV suffer from TB as the initial indicator of AIDS. Tuberculosis can occur at any phase of the HIV infection. The danger and severity of tuberculosis rises rapidly after infection with HIV. Even though tuberculosis can be a fairly primary indicator of HIV infection, it is imperative to observe that the risk of tuberculosis increases as the CD4 cell count reduces along with the progression of the HIV infection.

Treatment
Positive treatment for TB usually entails 6 months of rigorous therapy. HIV patients with TB usually respond well to this therapy, if the regimen comprises INH and a rifamycin for the period of TB therapy and cure. TB generally reappears when the immune system is unable to respond to stop the development of mycobacteria. The cytokine IFN-γ plays a key role in the response of the immune system all through the contagion.
HIV and TB infections area two-directional communication of the two pathogens. TB is one of the main causes of disease and fatality among patients with HIV in Africa and other severely affected regions. With almost a 50% kill rate around the world, raising awareness about this disease and consulting doctors when signs or symptoms appear is vital in reducing the extent of this epidemic.

Rifampicin- HIV treatment are complicated by the fact that one of the key drugs used in TB treatment, rifampicin, reduces blood levels of nevirapine (Viramune) by 30 to 55% and also reduces levels of most protease inhibitors.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3026 people found this helpful

HIV - Understanding Its Relation With Tuberculosis!

Dr. R.Pavan Kumar 89% (39 ratings)
MBBS, PGDHS,PGDHIVM
General Physician, Nalgonda
HIV - Understanding Its Relation With Tuberculosis!

HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are two life-threatening and common diseases in the world. The two diseases are very closely connected so much so that their occurrence is normally labeled as a co-epidemic. In most cases tuberculosis is found to be the most transmissible contagion in HIV-Immunocompromised victims, proving to be the cause of their death.

What is HIV?
Human Immunodeficiency Virus, more commonly known by its abbreviation HIV, is a virus that attacks the immune system, which is the body's natural defense against illnesses. The virus terminates a kind of white blood cells (WBCs) in the immune system known as the T-helper cell also known as CD4 cells. This virus then proceeds to duplicate itself within these cells.

As HIV reduces the T-helper cells, by duplicating at an increasing rate, it slowly breaks down the patient’s immune system. This leaves the individual susceptible to other deadly diseases such as tuberculosis. HIV infection is a permanent disease with three phases of progression. HIV medications can reduce or stop the evolution of the disease from one phase to another. The treatment can also decrease the chances of spreading HIV to other people.

What is tuberculosis (TB)
Tuberculosis is a transmittable disease triggered by the presence of bacterium known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is still considered a deadly disease in most developing countries where treatment is scarce. Generally, TB affects the lungs but it can also affect other parts of the body. Symptoms include – coughing with blood, fever, night sweats and loss of weight.

The relation between TB and HIV
In second world countries, most patients infected with HIV suffer from TB as the initial indicator of AIDS. Tuberculosis can occur at any phase of the HIV infection. The danger and severity of tuberculosis rises rapidly after infection with HIV. Even though tuberculosis can be a fairly primary indicator of HIV infection, it is imperative to observe that the risk of tuberculosis increases as the CD4 cell count reduces along with the progression of the HIV infection.

Treatment
Positive treatment for TB usually entails 6 months of rigorous therapy. HIV patients with TB usually respond well to this therapy, if the regimen comprises INH and a rifamycin for the period of TB therapy and cure. TB generally reappears when the immune system is unable to respond to stop the development of mycobacteria. The cytokine IFN-γ plays a key role in the response of the immune system all through the contagion.
HIV and TB infections area two-directional communication of the two pathogens. TB is one of the main causes of disease and fatality among patients with HIV in Africa and other severely affected regions. With almost a 50% kill rate around the world, raising awareness about this disease and consulting doctors when signs or symptoms appear is vital in reducing the extent of this epidemic.

Rifampicin- HIV treatment are complicated by the fact that one of the key drugs used in TB treatment, rifampicin, reduces blood levels of nevirapine (Viramune) by 30 to 55% and also reduces levels of most protease inhibitors.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3087 people found this helpful

HIV - How Does It Affect Patient's Drug Resistance?

Dr. Hemant Kumar 96% (153 ratings)
MD, Diploma in Family Medicine, MBBS
HIV Specialist, Ghaziabad
HIV - How Does It Affect Patient's Drug Resistance?

HIV infection is the causative factor of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Worldwide research is being conducted and treatment strategies are being formulated to combat this fatal disease. Fighting HIV is not an easy task since the disease cannot be completely reversed.

However, worldwide use of anti-retroviral therapy has helped in controlling the spread and transmission of disease. Use of medications, regular screening and close contact with caregivers and physicians is necessary for proper management of the disease. Despite, available treatment options, a difficult obstacle that arises before or during the treatment is drug resistance.

Drugs are aimed at targeting the disease-causing pathogens like bacteria and viruses. These pathogens, over a period of time, develop the ability to acquire resistance against the targeted drugs. The pathogens continue multiplying despite the presence of the drug in the system. In today’s scenario, the potent drug combination of anti-retroviral therapy (ARV) has been successful in remarkably reducing HIV-related mortality. However, an increased emergence of resistance to drug therapy is concerning.

Amongst the various drug classes available in the ARV, no drug is resistance-proof. The drugs belonging to the same class have a similar mechanism of action against the virus. So resistance developed against a particular class of drug inevitably leads to resistance against all the other drugs belonging to that class. An individual with HIV infection may have one or more drug-resistant mutations, which makes the person less sensitive to one or more anti-retroviral drugs. When the replication of virus in the system is not suppressed fully, a resistance towards it develops.

Non-compliance of the ARV results in resistance. Resistant viruses can spread the infection and affect ARV therapy. Drug resistance is usually attributed to inadequate adherence to the regimen. But in some cases, strict adherence to the drug is seen, yet there is a presence of resistance due to poor absorption. This implies that since the drug is not getting adequately absorbed in the body, it is unable to prevent the replication thus leading to drug resistance.

Anti-retroviral treatment is aimed at limiting the replication of HIV in the body. Various drug classes target different steps of replication, which stops further replicating and infecting of the cells. The nucleo-capsid contains viral genome and three enzymes vital to HIV life cycle:

  • Reverse transcriptase - Transcribes viral RNA genome into complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
  • Integrase - Facilitates incorporation of pro-viral DNA into host cell genome
  • Protease - Cleaves viral polypeptide into individual functional enzymes

Drugs targeted on these steps are as follows

  • Nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors like Nevirapine and Efavirenz act on the reverse transcriptase enzyme.
  • Integrase inhibitor Raltegravir acts on the Integrase enzyme.
  • Protease inhibitors like Ritonavir, Indinavir, Saquinavir act on the Protease enzyme.
  • Fusion inhibitor Enfuvirtide acts to prevent fusion of HIV with cell membranes.
  • CCR5 inhibitor Maraviroc block the CCR5 co-receptor.
  • A viral mutation occurring at any stage of this process can affect the efficacy of the drug therapy.

The emergence of drug resistance can be managed by evaluation of drug absorption and ensure strict adherence to the drug schedule. Genotype tests can be done to look for drug-resistant mutations in genes. Phenotype tests are done for measuring the ability of a virus in an individual to undergo replication in different drug concentrations. A successfully administered and effectively acted first-line drug treatment, preferably a 3-drug combination, reduces the chances of drug resistance in future.

2061 people found this helpful

HIV - How It Affects Drug Resistance?

MBBS, MD - Dermatology
HIV Specialist, Mumbai
HIV - How It Affects Drug Resistance?

HIV infection is the causative factor of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Worldwide research is being conducted and treatment strategies are being formulated to combat this fatal disease. Fighting HIV is not an easy task, since the disease cannot be completely reversed. However, worldwide use of anti-retroviral therapy has helped in controlling the spread and transmission of disease. Use of medications, regular screening and close contact with caregivers and physicians is necessary for proper management of the disease. Despite, available treatment options, a difficult obstacle that arises before or during the treatment is drug resistance.

Drugs are aimed at targeting the disease-causing pathogens like bacteria and viruses. These pathogens, over a period of time, develop the ability to acquire resistance against the targeted drugs. The pathogens continue multiplying despite the presence of the drug in the system. In today’s scenario, the potent drug combination of anti-retroviral therapy (ARV) has been successful in remarkably reducing HIV-related mortality. However, an increased emergence of resistance to the drug therapy is concerning.

Amongst the various drug classes available in the ARV, no drug is resistance-proof. The drugs belonging to the same class have a similar mechanism of action against the virus. So resistance developed against a particular class of drug inevitably leads to resistance against all the other drugs belonging to that class. An individual with HIV infection may have one or more drug-resistant mutations, which makes the person less sensitive to one or more anti-retroviral drugs. When the replication of virus in the system is not suppressed fully, a resistance towards it develops.

Non-compliance of the ARV results in resistance. Resistant viruses can spread the infection and affect ARV therapy. Drug resistance is usually attributed to inadequate adherence to the regimen. But in some cases, strict adherence to the drug is seen, yet there is a presence of resistance due to poor absorption. This implies that since the drug is not getting adequately absorbed in the body, it is unable to prevent the replication thus leading to drug resistance.

Anti-retroviral treatment is aimed at limiting the replication of HIV in the body. Various drug classes target different steps of replication, which stops further replicating and infecting of the cells. The nucleo-capsid contains viral genome and three enzymes vital to HIV life cycle:

  • Reverse transcriptase - Transcribes viral RNA genome into complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
  • Integrase - Facilitates incorporation of pro-viral DNA into host cell genome
  • Protease - Cleaves viral polypeptide into individual functional enzymes

Drugs targeted on these steps are as follows

  • Nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors like Nevirapine and Efavirenz act on the reverse transcriptase enzyme.
  • Integrase inhibitor Raltegravir acts on the Integrase enzyme.
  • Protease inhibitors like Ritonavir, Indinavir, Saquinavir act on the Protease enzyme.
  • Fusion inhibitor Enfuvirtide acts to prevent fusion of HIV with cell membranes.
  • CCR5 inhibitor Maraviroc block the CCR5 co-receptor.
  • A viral mutation occurring at any stage of this process can affect the efficacy of the drug therapy.

The emergence of drug resistance can be managed by evaluation of drug absorption and ensure strict adherence to the drug schedule. Genotype tests can be done to look for drug-resistant mutations in genes. Phenotype tests are done for measuring the ability of a virus in an individual to undergo replication in different drug concentrations. A successfully administered and effectively acted first-line drug treatment, preferably a 3-drug combination, reduces the chances of drug resistance in future.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2473 people found this helpful

What Is Hepatitis B?

Dr. Radhika A (Md) 89% (13 ratings)
MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
What Is Hepatitis B?

What is Hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus.

Symptoms of Hepatitis B-

Causes of Hepatitis B-

  • Sexual contact with an infected person
  • Sharing of needles
  • Sharing toothbrushes, razors with an infected person
  • Accidental needle sticks
  • Mother to child

Risk factors of Hepatitis B-

Complications of Hepatitis B-

Diagnosis of Hepatitis B-

There are a number of tests that can be used to diagnose hepatitis B infection:

  • Hepatitis B surface antigen
  • Hepatitis B surface antibody
  • Hepatitis B core antibody
  • Hepatitis B e antigen
  • Liver enzyme tests (ALT and AST)
  • A liver biopsy is also used to monitor liver damage in people with chronic hepatitis.

Precautions & Prevention of Hepatitis B-

  • Use a new latex or polyurethane condom every time you have sex
  • Stop using illicit drugs
  • Ask about the hepatitis B vaccine before you travel
  • Be cautious about body piercing and tattooing
  • Avoid alcohol as it is harmful to liver

Treatment of Hepatitis B

  • Homeopathic Treatment of Hepatitis B
  • Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Hepatitis B
  • Psychotherapy Treatment of Hepatitis B
  • Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Hepatitis B
  • Surgical Treatment of Hepatitis B
  • Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Hepatitis B
  • Other Treatment of Hepatitis B

Homeopathic Treatment of Hepatitis B-

Homeopathy is strongly recommended in cases of hepatitis. Homeopathy is known to work to the immunological level, and has proven its efficacy in the treatment of a wide range of viral infections. Homeopathic treatment can also help in preventing and curing the complications of Hepatitis B. Some of the homeopathic medicines for treatment of Hepatitis B are:

  • Lyco
  • Nat s
  • Card m
  • Lach
  • Phos

Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Hepatitis B-

Treating chronic or acute hepatitis with acupuncture is a long term process, especially if the condition has been present for many years. Acupuncture and herbs may be especially useful if Western drugs have not been able to reduce the viral load effectively. Acupuncturists usually diagnose hepatitis as Damp Heat in the Liver or Spleen.

Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Hepatitis B-

There are two categories of drugs used to treat chronic hepatitis B: nucleoside analogues and immunomodulators. The immunomodulators include interferon alfa and pegylated interferon. Interferon alfa was one of the first drugs approved to treat hepatitis B. It induces seroconversion from highly infective HBeAg to less infective anti-HBe status in 30 to 40 percent of patients. Lamivudine is the other mainstay of hepatitis B treatment. It helps suppress the replication of the virus and delay the progression of the disease.

Surgical Treatment of Hepatitis B-

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that affects the liver. There is no surgical treatment for hepatitis B. If your liver has been severely damaged, a liver transplant may be an option. During a liver transplant, the surgeon removes your damaged liver and replaces it with a healthy liver.

Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Hepatitis B-Eat a normal healthy and balanced diet

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