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Human Papillomavirus - Causes And Symptoms Of It!

Dr. Nutan Hegde 90% (155 ratings)
MBBS, DGO, MRCOG
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Human Papillomavirus - Causes And Symptoms Of It!

HPV or human papillomavirus is a strain of viral infection that is usually passed through skin to skin contact. There are many varieties of HPV although the main focus is one the ones which are usually transmitted through sexual contact. Most sexually active people are infected by this disease although very few develop the full fledged symptoms. 

Symptoms of HPV--
Primary symptoms of HPV are the growth of warts on your body in various stages or in various areas. Some of them are:

  1. Typical common warts - The easiest way to spot an HPV infection is the development of common warts on any parts of the body. They could appear on elbows, hands, feet and fingers. These look like bumps on the skin ad although they aren't usually are painful, itchy but unsightly.
  2. Flat warts - Flat warts tend to be small smooth bumps which are slightly raised skin lesions on the body which can be a little darker in colour. Men usually get this in the beard and face area while women tend to get this on their legs.
  3. Plantar warts - These warts usually grow on the heels or the balls of the feet and are hard grainy growths. These can be painful and even cause discomfort while walking.
  4. Genital warts - This is one of the most obvious and most common symptoms of HPV, especially in the variety which is transmitted through sexual contact. These usually look like small bumps or protrusions on the skin and can be of different shapes. Women can have this on the vulva, vagina or even cervix and men can have this on the penis, scrotum, and adjacent areas. Both men and women can have this on their anus as well.

Causes of HPV--
The primary cause of HPV infections is the intrusion of the virus in your skin through small cuts or abrasions on your skin. Skin to skin contact with an infected person will transfer this to you. However, genital warts are usually transferred from skin to during sexual contact. Even oral sex can transmit HPV and cause lesions in the upper respiratory tract and cause breathing problems as well. Most warts can also be transferred with the contact or touching the wart directly and thus should be avoided.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3929 people found this helpful

Causes and Symptoms of Human Papillomavirus

Dr. Amrapali Dixit 91% (40 ratings)
MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Gurgaon
Causes and Symptoms of Human Papillomavirus

HPV or human papillomavirus is a strain of viral infection that is usually passed through skin to skin contact. There are many varieties of HPV although the main focus is one the ones, which are usually transmitted through sexual contact. Most sexually active people are infected by this disease although very few develop the full fledged symptoms. 

Symptoms of HPV: Primary symptoms of HPV are the growth of warts on your body in various stages or in various areas. Some of them are:

  1. Typical common warts: The easiest way to spot an HPV infection is the development of common warts on any parts of the body. They could appear on elbows, hands, feet and fingers. These look like bumps on the skin and although they aren't usually are painful and itchy, but are unsightly.
  2. Flat warts: Flat warts tend to be small smooth bumps, which are slightly raised skin lesions on the body which can be a little darker in colour. Men usually get this in the beard and face area while women tend to get this on their legs.
  3. Plantar warts: These warts usually grow on the heels or the balls of the feet and are hard grainy growths. These can be painful and even cause discomfort while walking.
  4. Genital warts: This is one of the most obvious and most common symptoms of HPV, especially in the variety, which is transmitted through sexual contact. These usually look like small bumps or protrusions on the skin and can be of different shapes. Women can have this on the vulva, vagina or even cervix and men can have this on the penis, scrotum, and adjacent areas. Both men and women can have this on their anus as well.

Causes of HPV: The primary cause of HPV infection is the intrusion of the virus in your skin through small cuts or abrasions on your skin. Skin to skin contact with an infected person will transfer this. However, genital warts are usually transferred from skin to during sexual contact. Even oral sex can transmit HPV and cause lesions in the upper respiratory tract and cause breathing problems as well. Most warts can also be transferred with the contact or touching the wart directly and thus should be avoided.

4766 people found this helpful

Human Papillomavirus - Know More About It!

Rubi Kumari 92% (470 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma in Gynecology and Obstetrics
Gynaecologist, Motihari
Human Papillomavirus - Know More About It!

HPV or human papillomavirus is a strain of viral infection that is usually passed through the skin to skin contact. There are many varieties of HPV although the main focus is one of the ones which are usually transmitted through sexual contact. Most sexually active people are infected by this disease although very few develop the full-fledged symptoms. 

Symptoms of HPV

Primary symptoms of HPV are the growth of warts on your body in various stages or in various areas. Some of them are:

1. Typical common warts - The easiest way to spot an HPV infection is the development of common warts on any parts of the body. They could appear on elbows, hands, feet and fingers. These look like bumps on the skin and although they aren't usually are painful, itchy but unsightly.

2. Flat warts - Flat warts tend to be small smooth bumps which are slightly raised skin lesions on the body which can be a little darker in colour. Men usually get this in the beard and face area while women tend to get this on their legs.

3. Plantar warts - These warts usually grow on the heels or the balls of the feet and are hard grainy growths. These can be painful and even cause discomfort while walking.

4. Genital warts - This is one of the most obvious and most common symptoms of HPV, especially in the variety which is transmitted through sexual contact. These usually look like small bumps or protrusions on the skin and can be of different shapes. Women can have this on the vulva, vagina or even cervix and men can have this on the penis, scrotum, and adjacent areas. Both men and women can have this on their anus as well.

Causes of HPV

The primary cause of HPV infections is the intrusion of the virus in your skin through small cuts or abrasions on your skin. Skin to skin contact with an infected person will transfer this to you. However, genital warts are usually transferred from skin to during sexual contact. Even oral sex can transmit HPV and cause lesions in the upper respiratory tract and cause breathing problems as well. Most warts can also be transferred with the contact or touching the wart directly and thus should be avoided.

3014 people found this helpful

Which Human Food Items Are Safe For Dogs?

Dr. Rajesh Kumar Sharma 86% (32 ratings)
MD - General Medicine
General Physician, Chandigarh
Which Human Food Items Are Safe For Dogs?

The digestive system of dogs and humans are very different. The food items which are perfect for the development of the human body are not necessarily healthy for dogs. The diet of dogs needs regulation and watchful to understand which food is essential for their development. Although, there are certain food items which are healthy for dogs and human alike.

Can I Feed My Dog Human Food Instead of Dog Food?

The human food contains specific nutrients and sugars which cannot be metabolized by the dogs. Still, there are some human foods which can be given to dogs. The people food items that can be offered to dogs are:

Carrot: Dogs can eat cooked or raw carrots, which are a good source of vitamins and fiber. The veggie is very good for the health of the dog and can be added to their regular meals.

● Eggs: Cooked eggs with regular diet can give your dog’s good shape and strong body. The proteins in the eggs are very healthy for your growing dog.

Pineapple: Although pineapple is not liked by many dogs, you can offer your dog pineapple pieces. When you first give them pineapple, keep a watch and if he shows a sign of diarrhea, avoid feeding them. However, if he digests and likes it, you can feed it to him.

What is the Healthiest Diet for Dogs?

The type of diet depends largely on the type of dog you have. The dogs have individual diet requirements. Some dogs are more of a meat-eater, whereas some dogs live mostly on vegetables and milk. You should use high-quality meat to feed your dogs. You can also use packaged foods made for dogs for nutrition and power. Also, maintain the eating hygiene to make your pet healthy and infection-free. Eating raw meat from uncleaned bowls may make your dog sick.

How Do You Get a Picky Dog to Eat?

Most of the dogs are not picky eaters; in fact, some of the dogs may surprise you by eating from your trash box. However, if you face difficulty in making them eat new things, here are handy tips that will save the day:

● Try to mix old food with a small quantity of new foods. You can do this for some time until your dog is accustomed to the new food.

● Use chicken broth to mix the new food items. Dogs like chicken broth, which makes everything tasty for them.

● Serve only when they are hungry. This method works with picky dogs the best. They will eat fast when they are hungry.

What Human Food Can Schnauzers Eat?

Schnauzers can eat mild dry foods from the leftover vegetables and scraps of meat twice a day. However, it is essential that you do not feed them with salt or seasoned food, which is regularly cooked in the house. Grapes, raisins, and chocolate should also be avoided.

Take away

These are some of the feeding tips for dog lovers to keep their dog happy and healthy. In case your dog needs special attention, it is recommended to consult a Specialist.

3774 people found this helpful

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) Infection

Dr. Vinod Raina 89% (6441 ratings)
MD - General Medicine
Sexologist, Delhi
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) Infection

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks the immune system, the body's natural defense system. Without a strong immune system, the body has trouble fighting off disease. Both the virus and the infection it causes are called HIV. White blood cells are an important part of the immune system. HIV infects and destroys certain white blood cells called CD4+ cells. If too many CD4+ cells are destroyed, the body can no longer defend itself against infection. The last stage of HIV infection is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). People with AIDS have a low number of CD4+ cells and get infections or cancers that rarely occur in healthy people. These can be deadly. But having HIV doesn't mean you have AIDS. Even without treatment, it takes a long time for HIV to progress to AIDS-usually 10 to 12 years. When HIV is diagnosed before it becomes AIDS, medicines can slow or stop the damage to the immune system. If AIDS does develop, medicines can often help the immune system return to a healthier state. With treatment, many people with HIV are able to live long and active lives. There are two types of HIV:

- HIV-1, which causes almost all the cases of AIDS worldwide
- HIV-2, which causes an AIDS-like illness. HIV-2 infection is uncommon in North America. HIV infection is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. You can get HIV from contact with infected blood, semen, or vaginal fluids.
- Most people get the virus by having unprotected sex with someone who has HIV.
- Another common way of getting it is by sharing drug needles with someone who is infected with HIV.
- The virus can also be passed from a mother to her baby during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. HIV doesn't survive well outside the body. So it can't be spread by casual contact like kissing or sharing drinking glasses with an infected person.

Stages Of HIV Infection In Human Body!

Dr. Ketan Ranpariya 97% (5427 ratings)
MBBS, PG Diploma (HIV Medicines)
HIV Specialist, Surat
Stages Of HIV Infection In Human Body!

(1) The life cycle of the HIV virus.
What changes are made by the HIV virus in the human body? The immune system is affected when the HIV virus enters the human body. HIV virus attacks the various cells of the human body but mainly it attacks C.D.-4 cells of a body which are highly important for the immune system.

(2) The immune system of the human body.
The human body has a strong immune system & when any germs, bacteria or virus attacks the body, the body resists to destroy it in a proper way thereby protecting the body against the diseases. This is the main function of the immune system. C.D.-4 cells are useful for protection against many diseases. The HIV virus attacks the C.D.-4 cells & reduces its strength in a body. HIV virus is stronger than C.D.-4 cells. Normally the strength of C.D.-4 cells is 400-1500. It goes on reducing after the attack of the HIV virus. C.D.-4 cells are reduced to less than 200 within 8-10 years & this increases the chances of diseases like cancer & T.B. This situation is termed as AIDS.

(3) Stages of HIV infection.
If one is HIV infected & does not accept any treatment, he is vulnerable to AIDS. If the treatment is not made even after AIDS, death is sure within two years. AIDS can be cured with proper medicines but HIV can never be cured.
The good news is that presently available Retroviral Therapy is very effective. It can reduce the virus of HIV up to more than 99% which results in sustaining the immunity & thereby preventing the other diseases & protecting against AIDS.
The stages of HIV are as under. The occurrence of a stage depends on various factors. The occurrence of a stage varies from patient to patient.

STAGE ZERO
Symptoms of viral fever are observed within 2 to 4 weeks of HIV infection. It includes fever, swelling on the lymph gland, throat swelling, skin infection, muscular & joint pain, excessive fatigue, headache, etc. This stage is known as Acute Retroviral syndrome or primary HIV infection.
In this stage, the chances of infection through the sexual relations & needles are very high as the number of virus in the blood is as high as millions in 1 ml of blood.

STAGE ONE
This stage is known by various names like, Clinical Latency or Asymptomatic HIV infection or Chronic HIV infection in
which no symptoms or troubles of HIV are seen. This stage can continue for 8 to 10 years. In this stage the number of virus is less than that in the zero stage & growth of virus is also very slow. Generally, the number of C.D.-4 cells of a body reduces by 35-50 every year.
In this stage also HIV infection can be transferred from HIV positive to HIV negative. The infection can occur even if the treatment is on but the chances are very less.
If treatment is not started in this stage, the virus shall go on growing & C.D.-4 cells shall go on reducing. After that the symptoms of HIV shall be seen.

STAGE TWO
In this stage, various symptoms of HIV shall be seen but the number of C.D.-4 cells is more than 200. In this, the patient suffers the same disease frequently or no treatment cures the disease. In this patient suffers fever, loss of appetite, loss of weight, skin infection, frequent cold & cough, urine infection, venereal diseases.

STAGE THREE aids
When the number of C.D.-4 cells is reduced to less than 200, the chances of infection of serious diseases are high which is known as an opportunistic infection. Thus, the combination of reduced C.D.-4 cells, presence of HIV virus & the presence of opportunistic infection is known as AIDS. If the patient is not given any treatment even in this stage, the death is believed to be sure within 2 years. If the treatment is started after AIDS, there exists a chance of cure & healthy life but if the treatment starts at the early stage of HIV, the AIDS can be prevented & one can live a healthy & long life.

(4) Factors for prevention or growth of the disease.
The time for the change in the stage of the disease differs from person to person. It depends on various factors like heredity, the health of a person before HIV infection, the detection period after the infection, the time for starting the treatment after detection, the regularity of the medicines & consultation the routine & habits of a patient, etc.
Factors reducing the period between HIV infection & AIDS.
 Old age
 Type of HIV
 Other infection
Malnutrition
 Worries
 Heredity
 Timely medications
 Irregular medicinal intake
Factors increasing the period between HIV infection & AIDS.
 Regular & punctual medications.
 Regular consultation
 Follow the guidelines of a doctor
 Healthy diet
 To take care of own self
 Keep away from addiction
 Regular blood tests.
By suitable decisions & obeying the rules, one can prevent AIDS in spite of HIV infection.
As mentioned earlier, by regular Retroviral Therapy, the number of HIV virus can be reduced to less than 99% & damage to the cells C.D.-4 related to immunity of a body can be minimized. By proper treatment, diseases combined with AIDS can be abolished but one cannot be free of HIV. Important thing is that by timely detection & early treatment one can have a healthy & long life. The slogan “Early detection, healthy & full life” is worth remembrance.
But every person may not be lucky to have early detection of HIV. Some are detected to have HIV in its last stage i.e. in the stage of AIDS. This means that he had HIV infection till now & the detection is delayed. At this stage, the damage caused by the HIV virus has reached its maximum. Such people need to have immediate treatment.


(5) Treatment of HIV
HIV treatment cannot be availed with any general doctors. HIV treatment can be obtained from HIV experts, some M.D. doctors or some skin specialists. If your Family doctor does not provide HIV treatment, you should consult specialists.
Every person suffering from HIV has the right to have a healthy & full life with proper treatment. All hospitals, doctors provide proper treatment to HIV patients without any differentiation. If such patients need to go to other doctors for some other treatment, they must inform the doctor regarding the on-going treatment of HIV to facilitate the proper decision of treatment & medications. This will not affect the on-going treatment of HIV.

1 person found this helpful

Obesity - How It Affects The Human Brain?

M.Phil in Clinical Psychology, Ph.D. Psychology
Psychologist, Hubli-Dharwad
Obesity - How It Affects The Human Brain?

Obesity is the new-age lifestyle disease with multiple ramifications. While its effects on the physical aspects are very evident, the damage it does to the brain are more severe, though not obvious. Read on to know some harmful effects of obesity on the emotional well-being.

  1. Leads to binge eating: There is a certain pleasure in eating sugary and fatty food, and this is lost with depression. Therefore, to get that emotional satisfaction, people tend to eat more chocolates, cookies, milkshakes, and other weight-accumulating food items, which further add to obesity. Greater the weight gained by a person, lesser the response or happiness from such food products.
  2. Increases impulsivity: The area of the brain known as orbitofrontal cortex, which is in charge of controlling impulsivity, shrinks in obese people. This results in people eating more impulsively.
  3. Affects immunity: Obesity is a major cause of inflammation, leading to damage in certain parts of the brain. This impairs the immune system, making the affected person more prone to infections and tissue damage. This leads to increased chances of diabetes, heart disease, stroke, sleeping disorders, eating disorders, etc. The chemical known as C-reactive protein increases as seen on MRIs in obese people, and which is usually seen in patients with chronically increased inflammation.
  4. Effects on memory: As the BMI increases, there is a decrease in scores of memory tests. This effect is more obvious in women after menopause. With increased fat accumulation, more hormones are released, which affects the memory. Increased inflammation also affects cognition and memory.
  5. Increased risk of dementia: With more belly fat accumulating, there is extra stress on the body to burn the visceral fat. This reduces brain size and causes certain hormones to release, which further affects the body’s ability to remember things. It has been proven that people with smaller brain size are at greater risk for developing dementia.
  6. Weight loss stress adding to more stress: When obesity sets in and the BMI goes up, there is an added pressure to lose weight, which further ups the stress levels. During these dieting days, the brain is constantly alert and finds ways to eat more. This also leads to excess eating. Moreover, there are indications that there could be genetic changes during this phase, which may leave a permanent mark in the person’s composition.
  7. Depression: When a person is not happy with their reflection in the mirror, the chances of feeling good and happy are very less. In this age, where aesthetics plays a major morale booster, an obese image staring back does not help at all.

So, if you have a risk of obesity, watch out. It is not just how you look, but how you feel is also altered. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Psychologist.

2753 people found this helpful

4 Effects Dehydration Has On Human Body

Dt. Neha Suryawanshi 93% (20375 ratings)
M.Sc. in Dietetics and Food Service Management , Post Graduate Diploma In Computer Application, P.G.Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics , B.Sc.Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Mumbai
4 Effects Dehydration Has On Human Body

4 Effects Dehydration Has On Human Body

Super Fact of the Day: Humans are the only animals who produce emotional tears

Dr. S K Mittal 88% (3875 ratings)
MBBS
General Physician, Bangalore
Super Fact of the Day: Humans are the only animals who produce emotional tears
In the world, humans are the biggest cry-babies, being the only animals who cry because they feel sadness or extreme joy, have had a bad day, lost a loved one or due to other overwhelming emotions.

Would you like to share this interesting fact with family or friends? Go ahead and share!
510 people found this helpful

Super Fact of the Day: Human hair is practically never destroyed

MBBS
General Physician, Mumbai
Super Fact of the Day: Human hair is practically never destroyed
Apart from it being non-flammable, human hair is to an extent non-disintegrative as it decays at a very slow rate. Ever wondered why hair clogs up pipes? it is because hair cannot be destroyed by cold, climate change, water, or any other natural force and it is even resistant to most acids and corrosive chemicals.

Would you like to share this interesting fact with family or friends? go ahead and share!
616 people found this helpful