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Infantile Spasms - How To Resolve Them?

Dr.Arsha Kalra 93% (158ratings)
MBBS, MD - Paediatrics, Fellowship in Neonatology
Pediatrician, Zirakpur
Infantile Spasms - How To Resolve Them?

Infantile spasm is a seizure-related disorder that is witnessed among infants and young children. The average age for getting affected with infantile spasm is four months, but some kids might experience this disorder within a month of the birth. This disease can have a subtle appearance, and as such, it is difficult to recognize as a serious condition. While a full seizure in an adult is scary, the one observed among infants can be as little as a minor head drop, along with minor body shakes. This might appear to be that serious, but infantile spasm is more serious as compared to a full body convulsion in adults. Unfortunately, an infant suffering from infantile spasm is at great risk of developmental disability, if the condition is not detected and treated early.

Anticonvulsant Medication:
There are very few medicines that are approved by the FDA for treating infantile spasms. The two medicines that are widely used by doctors include Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and Vigabatrin.

  • ACTH: This is the oldest approved medicine by the FDA that was first discovered in the year 1958. This injection needs to be pushed twice in a day. Children tend to gain weight and feel hungry when this injection is injected.
  • Vigabatrin: Vigabatrin is very well tolerated by young kids and has a successful track record of treating infantile spasms. Studies have proven that Vigabatrin can tackle tuberous sclerosis and plays an important role in improving developmental outcome.

Second line therapies:

  • Pyridoxine: Dependency on Pyridoxine as a cause of infantile spasm is very rare. High dosage of oral administration of pyridoxine has fetched good results for patients, who do not suffer from pyridoxine related seizures.
  • Valproic acid: Valproic acid has the best anecdotal rate of success. However, doctors do not recommend this medicine for kids less than 2 years of age because of possible complications.
  • Clonazepam: This is one of the earliest non-steroid medicine for the treatment of infantile spasm. Some of the popular medicines used are nitrazepam, benzodiazepines, and clonazepam.
  • Ketogenic Diet: This is a decade old practice that has come back to popularity again. Studies have shown that ketogenic diet can help 20-35 % patients of infantile spasm to keep the condition under control.
  • IVIG: High dosage of IVIG has been reported to be very helpful in tackling infantile spasms. The dosage ranges from 100-200 mg/kg/dose ranging for about 2-3 weeks at stretch.
  • Surgery: The final part of the therapy includes a surgery that removes the abnormal part of the brain. It should only be considered for patients who have not responded to therapies including Vigabatrin and ACTH. It should also be investigated whether the patient has any structural abnormalities of the brain.
     
1997 people found this helpful

Infantile Spasms - How They Can Be Treated?

Dr.Vineet Bhushan Gupta 88% (99ratings)
Diploma in Child Health (DCH), MRCPCH, MRCP (UK), MD - Paediatrics, MBBS
Pediatrician, Delhi
Infantile Spasms - How They Can Be Treated?

Infantile spasm is a seizure-related disorder that is witnessed among infants and young children. The average age for getting affected with infantile spasm is four months, but some kids might experience this disorder within a month of the birth. This disease can have a subtle appearance, and as such it is difficult to recognize as a serious condition. While a full seizure in an adult is scary, the one observed among infants can be as little as a minor head drop, along with minor body shakes. This might appear to be that serious, but infantile spasm is more serious as compared to a full body convulsion in adults. Unfortunately, an infant suffering from infantile spasm is at great risk of developmental disability, if the condition is not detected and treated early.

Anticonvulsant Medication:
There are very few medicines that are approved by the FDA for treating infantile spasms. The two medicines that are widely used by doctors include Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and Vigabatrin.

  • ACTH: This is the oldest approved medicine by the FDA that was first discovered in the year 1958. This injection needs to be pushed twice in a day. Children tend to gain weight and feel hungry when this injection is injected.
  • Vigabatrin: Vigabatrin is very well tolerated by young kids and has a successful track record of treating infantile spasms. Studies have proven that Vigabatrin can tackle tuberous sclerosis and plays an important role in improving developmental outcome.

Second line therapies:

 

  • Pyridoxine: Dependency on Pyridoxine as a cause of infantile spasm is very rare. High dosage of oral administration of pyridoxine has fetched good results for patients, who do not suffer from pyridoxine related seizures.
  • Valproic acid: Valproic acid has the best anecdotal rate of success. However, doctors do not recommend this medicine for kids less than 2 years of age because of possible complications.
  • Clonazepam: This is one of the earliest non-steroid medicine for the treatment of infantile spasm. Some of the popular medicines used are nitrazepam, benzodiazepines, and clonazepam.
  • Ketogenic Diet: This is a decade old practice that has come back to popularity again. Studies have shown that ketogenic diet can help 20-35 % patients of infantile spasm to keep the condition under control.
  • IVIG: High dosage of IVIG has been reported to be very helpful in tackling infantile spasms. The dosage ranges from 100-200 mg/kg/dose ranging for about 2-3 weeks at stretch.
  • Surgery: The final part of the therapy includes a surgery that removes the abnormal part of the brain. It should only be considered for patients who have not responded to therapies including Vigabatrin and ACTH. It should also be investigated whether the patient has any structural abnormalities of the brain.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2850 people found this helpful

A Complete Guide To Childhood Epilepsy!

Dr.Vineet Bhushan Gupta 88% (99ratings)
Diploma in Child Health (DCH), MRCPCH, MRCP (UK), MD - Paediatrics, MBBS
Pediatrician, Delhi
A Complete Guide To Childhood Epilepsy!

Epilepsy is a neurological condition that leads to recurrent seizures. Seizures arise when electrical activity in the brain suddenly surges causing a temporary disturbance within the messaging systems located between the brain cells.

Epilepsy is more common in children below the age of two years and adults above the age of 65 years.

Seizure Types

Seizures are classified into two main categories depending on their area of impact. 

A focal seizure is one that affects only one part or area of the brain whereas a generalised seizure affects the whole brain. Further, both focal and generalised seizures have various sub-categories which are as follows-

Previous nomenclature-

Partial Seizure

• Simple Partial Seizure
• Complex Partial Seizure
• Partial Seizure with Secondary Generalization

Generalized Seizure

• Absence Seizures
• Myoclonic Seizure
• Atonic Seizure
• Tonic Seizure
• Tonic-clonic Seizure
• Mixed Seizure
Status Epilepticus

Latest nomenclature of seizure types:

Focal seizures-

• Focal aware seizures
• Focal impaired awareness seizures (previously called complex partial seizures)
. Bilateral tonic clonic seizures

Generalised onset seizures-

• Tonic clonic seizures.
• Atonic seizures (sometimes called drop attacks) and tonic seizure.
• Myoclonic seizures.
• Absence seizures.

Symptoms

The well know symptom of epilepsy is a convulsion/ fit, a few other symptoms include-

• Intermittent spells of fainting. When this happens the patient is likely to lose control of his/her bladder or bowel movements. Following this, the person is likely to suffer from extreme tiredness.
• Spells of a blackout with difficulty in remembering
• Becoming unresponsive to any instructions or questions asked during brief periods of time
• Bouts of continuous blinking without any known reason
• Inappropriate movements that keep on occurring
• Changes in sensory perceptions
• Sudden stiffness in the body

Reasons for Epilepsy

Messaging systems within the brain are responsible for every function that goes about in your body. A disruption to this system caused by defective electrical activity leads to epilepsy in a person. Many people inherit epilepsy while others may develop this condition as a result of-

• Head trauma sustained during an accident
• A stroke or a tumour that has affected the brain impairing its normal capabilities
• An injury to the brain before or during birth
• Associated with developmental issues
• Infections of the brain

Treatment for Epilepsy

Epilepsy in childhood can be treated by using medications and by adopting dietary changes in some cases. Medications for epilepsy mainly include-

• Anticonvulsants - Helps control seizures and manages the symptoms of epilepsy
• Medications for nerve pain - Reduce pain that is caused by the damaged nerves

These medications should be consumed as and when prescribed by the doctor. You must consult a paediatrician for this, as he/she will take your child’s physical and mental in consideration before starting the treatment.

Seizures that occur in childhood may be benign. This means that it will not continue into one’s adult life. Further, those children who have suffered from epilepsy in their childhood have been seen to have normal mental and intellectual development in their adulthood. However, some epilepsy syndromes in children can have a devastating effect on the child.

Seizure threshold is a term that is used to refer to the conditions that are important for the production of seizures. The threshold is lower for people who are more prone to having seizures whereas the threshold is higher for those who do not have a tendency to suffer from seizures.

2382 people found this helpful

Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease!

Dr.Radhika A (Md) 89% (13ratings)
MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease!

Treatment of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Homeopathic Treatment of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Psychotherapy Treatment of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Surgical Treatment of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Other Treatment of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
What is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Symptoms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Causes of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Risk factors of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Complications of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Lab Investigations and Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Precautions & Prevention of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Treatment of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 

Homeopathic Treatment of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease

Homeopathy balances mood and relieves complaints like anxiety, depression, insomnia etc. It treats the person as a whole. Treatment is constitutional. It means that homeopathic treatment focuses on the patient as a person, as well as his pathological condition. It balances the energy system, improves immunity and body functions. It naturally cures the root cause of disorder. Some of the homeopathic medicines for treatment of Creutzfeldt Jakob disease are:

Platina
Kali br
Aurum
Ars alb
Kali ars 

Acupuncture and Acupressure Treatment of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease

Acupuncture has worldwide reputation in treatment of degerative neurological conditions. Therapist will first make acudiagnosis to detect blockage of energy system and will then treat accordingly.

Psychotherapy and Hypnotherapy Treatment of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease

Psychotherapy and hypnotherapy can play a good supportive role in reducing anxiety, depression, improving sleep and overall emotional state.

Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

In the allopathic treatment of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Opiate drugs can help relieve pain if it occurs, and the drugs clonazepam and sodium valproate may help relieve symptoms. A catheter can be used to drain urine if the patient cannot control bladder function, and intravenous fluids and artificial feeding also may be used.

What is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease?

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a degenerative brain disorder. It leads to dementia and, ultimately, death. This disease is rapidly progressive and always fatal. Most patients die within a year.

Symptoms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Personality changes
Anxiety and Depression
Mood swings
Memory loss
Impaired thinking
Blurred vision
Insomnia
Difficulty speaking
Difficulty swallowing
lack of coordination
Sudden jerky movements

Causes of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

The cause of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is abnormal versions of a kind of protein called a prion. These proteins are harmless, but when they’re misshapen they become infectious and can wreak havoc on normal biological processes.

Risk factors of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Around the age of 60
Genetics
Exposure to contaminated tissue

Complications of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Infection
Heart failure
Respiratory failure 

Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease involves the following tests:

Medical and personal history
Neurological exam
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Spinal fluid tests
Tonsil biopsy

Myofacial Pain - How To Diagnose It?

Clinical Fellowship In Pain Management, MD - Internal Medicine, Master Of Public Health (MPH), MBBS
Pain Management Specialist, Hyderabad
Myofacial Pain - How To Diagnose It?

Myofascial pain syndrome or MPS refers to the soft tissue and muscle pain that is often accompanied by inflammation. This chronic condition affects the fascia, which is the connective tissue covering the muscles. MPS is also called referred pain.

Symptoms of Myofascial Pain Syndrome

The symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome are all related to pain:

  • Excruciating pain in the muscles

  • Persistent pain that worsens occasionally

  • Knotty muscles

  • Sleep disturbances due to the pain

  • Difficulty at work or any performance due to the pain

The pain usually originates at a point and spreads to the entire muscle group and surrounding muscle groups, depending on the intensity of the pain. Allowing the pain to stay without treatment might worsen symptoms.

The symptoms give way to sleep disorders and sometimes, Fibromyalgia, that will worsen the symptoms.

Causes of Myofascial Pain Syndrome

Myofascial pain usually occurs due to some kind of injury. It can be strenuous exercise or sports routine, or an injury from an accident. A tendon, ligament, or muscle group injured earlier can develop symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome. Other specific causes include:

  • General fatigue

  • Stomach irritation

  • Heart attack is a risk factor

  • Repetitive Motions

  • Lack of movement of a certain body part

  • Intervertebral disk injury

  • Stress and anxiety are the causes that don’t even need a preexisting physical injury to cause referred pain. But if MPS already exists, stress, anxiety, depression, and other mental health issues can worsen the symptoms.

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask questions about the injury (if any), the mental health condition, the lifestyle or work routine, and about the symptoms and triggers. The doctor will apply pressure on the pain regions to determine the type of pain. It can be any of the following:

  • Active trigger point

  • Dormant trigger point

  • Secondary trigger point

  • Satellite myofascial point

Treatment of Myofascial Pain Syndrome

Treatment of MPS involves a combination of medication, injections at the trigger points, and physical therapy. The doctor will decide which of the three treatment pathways, or which combination is best fitted for the case.

  • Medication: Usually there are three types of medication for referred pain. One is pain relievers containing Ibuprofen or Naproxen Sodium. Some need to be orally consumed and some need to be applied on the skin at the trigger point. The second option for medication includes antidepressants which might be helpful if the pain is chronic and worsens with depression. The third option is sedatives like Clonazepam that helps with stress and insomnia to alleviate the pain symptoms.

  • Therapy: A certified physical therapist will know suitable stretching/massage/posture training exercises to alleviate the symptoms over time. Heat and ultrasound can also be used in therapy to increase blood circulation and promote muscle healing.

  • Needle procedures: Trigger point steroid injection and acupuncture can help alleviate symptoms of MPS.

The symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome take time to reduce. With continued treatment, moderate exercise, some caution to avoid further injuries, and maintenance of healthy posture at all times, even chronic pain can be cured.

It is always advisable to consult a doctor as soon as a person notices any symptoms.



 

4298 people found this helpful

Epilepsy - How Seizures Affect It?

Dr.Shuchit Pandey 86% (14ratings)
MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Neurology
Neurologist, Ahmedabad
Epilepsy - How Seizures Affect It?

Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system, thus it is basically a neurological disorder. In this the nerve cell activity of the brain is disrupted and causes seizures along with episodes of unusual behavior along with the loss of consciousness. The symptoms of the seizure can vary and some people with epilepsy just stare blankly for few seconds when a seizure takes place, while some twitch their arms and legs repeatedly.

Symptoms of Epilepsy:

As epilepsy is caused by the abnormal activities in the brain cells, seizures affect the processes with which the brain coordinates. Some signs and symptoms are:

  1. Staring blankly
  2. Confusion which is temporary
  3. Uncontrolled jerking movements of the legs and arms
  4. Loss of awareness and consciousness
  5. Psychic symptoms

Mostly the symptoms vary depending on the type of the seizure. The seizures are further classified into focal and generalized depending on which part of the brain shows abnormal activity.

Focal seizures

When seizures are due to the abnormal activity of the cells in just one area then it is known as focal seizures. These seizures are of two types:

  1. Simple partial seizures or the focal seizures without loss of consciousness. These seizures basically alter the emotions and the things like change in smell, look, sound and taste. These also result in the involuntary jerking of the body like the legs and arms, with spontaneous sensory symptoms like the tingling and flashing of the lights.
  2. Complex partial seizures or the focal dyscognitive seizures. These seizures have a loss of awareness and consciousness. One might just stare blankly into space in this seizure and performs repetitive activities like swallowing, chewing, walking in circles and chewing.

Generalized seizures

There are six types of generalized seizures. These are:

  1. Absence seizures, also known as petit mal seizures, are commonly seen in children and are characterized by subtle body movements like lip smacking and eye blinking and staring blankly into space. These also cause loss of consciousness.
  2. Tonic seizures lead to stiffening of the muscles. These affect the muscles of the legs and arms and also cause to fall to the ground.
  3. Atonic seizures are also called as drop seizures. These cause loss of control in the muscles, thereby leading to collapse or fall.
  4. Clonic seizures are the rhythmic and jerking muscle movements. These affect the arms, face and neck.
  5. Myoclonic seizures appear as twitches in the arms and legs.
  6. Tonic-clonic seizures also known as grand mal seizures are very dramatic and lead to body stiffening, abrupt loss of consciousness, shaking and loss of bladder control and tongue biting.
3027 people found this helpful

Epilepsy - Impact Of Seizures On It!

MBBS, MD-General Medicine, DNB-Neurology
Neurologist, Ghaziabad
Epilepsy - Impact Of Seizures On It!

Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system, thus it is basically a neurological disorder. In this the nerve cell activity of the brain is disrupted and causes seizures along with episodes of unusual behavior along with the loss of consciousness. The symptoms of the seizure can vary and some people with epilepsy just stare blankly for few seconds when a seizure takes place, while some twitch their arms and legs repeatedly.

Symptoms of Epilepsy:

As epilepsy is caused by the abnormal activities in the brain cells, seizures affect the processes with which the brain coordinates. Some signs and symptoms are:

  1. Staring blankly
  2. Confusion which is temporary
  3. Uncontrolled jerking movements of the legs and arms
  4. Loss of awareness and consciousness
  5. Psychic symptoms

Mostly the symptoms vary depending on the type of the seizure. The seizures are further classified into focal and generalized depending on which part of the brain shows abnormal activity.

Focal seizures

When seizures are due to the abnormal activity of the cells in just one area then it is known as focal seizures. These seizures are of two types:

  1. Simple partial seizures or the focal seizures without loss of consciousness. These seizures basically alter the emotions and the things like change in smell, look, sound and taste. These also result in the involuntary jerking of the body like the legs and arms, with spontaneous sensory symptoms like the tingling and flashing of the lights.
  2. Complex partial seizures or the focal dyscognitive seizures. These seizures have a loss of awareness and consciousness. One might just stare blankly into space in this seizure and performs repetitive activities like swallowing, chewing, walking in circles and chewing.

Generalized seizures

There are six types of generalized seizures. These are:

  1. Absence seizures, also known as petit mal seizures, are commonly seen in children and are characterized by subtle body movements like lip smacking and eye blinking and staring blankly into space. These also cause loss of consciousness.
  2. Tonic seizures lead to stiffening of the muscles. These affect the muscles of the legs and arms and also cause to fall to the ground.
  3. Atonic seizures are also called as drop seizures. These cause loss of control in the muscles, thereby leading to collapse or fall.
  4. Clonic seizures are the rhythmic and jerking muscle movements. These affect the arms, face and neck.
  5. Myoclonic seizures appear as twitches in the arms and legs.
  6. Tonic-clonic seizures also known as grand mal seizures are very dramatic and lead to body stiffening, abrupt loss of consciousness, shaking and loss of bladder control and tongue biting.
2054 people found this helpful

Epilepsy - How Seizures Affect It?

Dr.Vivek Kumar 90% (59ratings)
DM - Neurology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Medicine
Neurologist, Ghaziabad
Epilepsy - How Seizures Affect It?

Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system, thus it is basically a neurological disorder. In this the nerve cell activity of the brain is disrupted and causes seizures along with episodes of unusual behavior along with the loss of consciousness. The symptoms of the seizure can vary and some people with epilepsy just stare blankly for few seconds when a seizure takes place, while some twitch their arms and legs repeatedly.

Symptoms of Epilepsy

As epilepsy is caused by the abnormal activities in the brain cells, seizures affect the processes with which the brain coordinates. Some signs and symptoms are:

  1. Staring blankly
  2. Confusion which is temporary
  3. Uncontrolled jerking movements of the legs and arms
  4. Loss of awareness and consciousness
  5. Psychic symptoms

Mostly the symptoms vary depending on the type of the seizure. The seizures are further classified into focal and generalized depending on which part of the brain shows abnormal activity.

Focal seizures

When seizures are due to the abnormal activity of the cells in just one area then it is known as focal seizures. These seizures are of two types:

  1. Simple partial seizures or the focal seizures without loss of consciousness. These seizures basically alter the emotions and the things like change in smell, look, sound and taste. These also result in the involuntary jerking of the body like the legs and arms, with spontaneous sensory symptoms like the tingling and flashing of the lights.
  2. Complex partial seizures or the focal dyscognitive seizures. These seizures have a loss of awareness and consciousness. One might just stare blankly into space in this seizure and performs repetitive activities like swallowing, chewing, walking in circles and chewing.

Generalized seizures

There are six types of generalized seizures. These are:

  1. Absence seizures, also known as petit mal seizures, are commonly seen in children and are characterized by subtle body movements like lip smacking and eye blinking and staring blankly into space. These also cause loss of consciousness.
  2. Tonic seizures lead to stiffening of the muscles. These affect the muscles of the legs and arms and also cause to fall to the ground.
  3. Atonic seizures are also called as drop seizures. These cause loss of control in the muscles, thereby leading to collapse or fall.
  4. Clonic seizures are the rhythmic and jerking muscle movements. These affect the arms, face and neck.
  5. Myoclonic jerks consist of sudden jerky movements affecting a part or whole of the body
  6. Tonic-clonic seizures also known as grand mal seizures are very dramatic and lead to body stiffening, abrupt loss of consciousness, shaking and loss of bladder control and tongue biting.
3110 people found this helpful

Epilepsy & Seizures - Know About Them!

Dr.Debabrata Chakraborty 91% (174ratings)
DM - Neurology, Fellowship in Stroke Neurology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Neurologist, Kolkata
Epilepsy & Seizures - Know About Them!

Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system, thus it is basically a neurological disorder. In this the nerve cell activity of the brain is disrupted and causes seizures along with episodes of unusual behaviour along with the loss of consciousness. The symptoms of the seizure can vary and some people with epilepsy just stare blankly for few seconds when a seizure takes place, while some twitch their arms and legs repeatedly.

Symptoms of Epilepsy:
As epilepsy is caused by the abnormal activities in the brain cells, seizures affect the processes with which the brain coordinates. Some signs and symptoms are:

  1. Staring blankly
  2. Confusion which is temporary
  3. Uncontrolled jerking movements of the legs and arms
  4. Loss of awareness and consciousness
  5. Psychic symptoms

Mostly the symptoms vary depending on the type of the seizure. The seizures are further classified into focal and generalized depending on which part of the brain shows abnormal activity.

Focal seizures
When seizures are due to the abnormal activity of the cells in just one area then it is known as focal seizures. These seizures are of two types:

  1. Simple partial seizures or the focal seizures without loss of consciousness. These seizures basically alter the emotions and things like change in smell, look, sound and taste. These also result in the involuntary jerking of the body like the legs and arms, with spontaneous sensory symptoms like the tingling and flashing of the lights.
  2. Complex partial seizures or the focal dyscognitive seizures. These seizures have a loss of awareness and consciousness. One might just stare blankly into space in this seizure and performs repetitive activities like swallowing, chewing, walking in circles and chewing.

Generalized seizures
There are six types of generalized seizures. These are:

  1. Absence seizures, also known as petit mal seizures, are commonly seen in children and are characterized by subtle body movements like lip-smacking and eye blinking and staring blankly into space. These also cause loss of consciousness.
  2. Tonic seizures lead to stiffening of the muscles. These affect the muscles of the legs and arms and also cause to fall to the ground.
  3. Atonic seizures are also called as drop seizures. These cause loss of control in the muscles, thereby leading to collapse or fall.
  4. Clonic seizures are the rhythmic and jerking muscle movements. These affect the arms, face and neck.
  5. Myoclonic seizures appear as twitches in the arms and legs.
  6. Tonic-clonic seizures also known as grand mal seizures are very dramatic and lead to body stiffening, abrupt loss of consciousness, shaking and loss of bladder control and tongue biting.
3179 people found this helpful

Types and Symptoms of Seizures Disorder

MD, MBBS
Neurologist, Gurgaon
Types and Symptoms of Seizures Disorder

Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system, thus it is basically a neurological disorder. In this the nerve cell activity of the brain is disrupted and causes seizures along with episodes of unusual behavior along with the loss of consciousness. The symptoms of the seizure can vary and some people with epilepsy just stare blankly for few seconds when a seizure takes place, while some twitch their arms and legs repeatedly.

Symptoms of Epilepsy:
As epilepsy is caused by the abnormal activities in the brain cells, seizures affect the processes with which the brain coordinates. Some signs and symptoms are:

  1. Staring blankly
  2. Confusion which is temporary
  3. Uncontrolled jerking movements of the legs and arms
  4. Loss of awareness and consciousness
  5. Psychic symptoms

Mostly the symptoms vary depending on the type of the seizure. The seizures are further classified into focal and generalized depending on which part of the brain shows abnormal activity.

Focal seizures
When seizures are due to the abnormal activity of the cells in just one area then it is known as focal seizures. These seizures are of two types:

  1. Focal seizures with intact awareness -These seizures basically alter the emotions and the things like change in smell, look, sound and taste. These also result in the involuntary jerking of the body like the legs and arms, with spontaneous sensory symptoms like the tingling and flashing of the lights.
  2. Focal seizure with impaired awareness -  These seizures have a loss of awareness and consciousness. One might just stare blankly into space in this seizure and performs repetitive activities like swallowing, chewing, walking in circles and chewing.

Generalized seizures
There are six types of generalized seizures. These are:

  1. Absence seizures, also known as petit mal seizures, are commonly seen in children and are characterized by subtle body movements like lip smacking and eye blinking and staring blankly into space. These also cause loss of consciousness.
  2. Tonic seizures lead to stiffening of the muscles. These affect the muscles of the legs and arms and also cause to fall to the ground.
  3. Atonic seizures are also called as drop seizures. These cause loss of control in the muscles, thereby leading to collapse or fall.
  4. Clonic seizures are the rhythmic and jerking muscle movements. These affect the arms, face and neck.
  5. Myoclonic seizures appear as twitches in the arms and legs.
  6. Tonic-clonic seizures also known as grand mal seizures are very dramatic and lead to body stiffening, abrupt loss of consciousness, shaking and loss of bladder control and tongue biting. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurologist.
2958 people found this helpful