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Gestational Trophoblastic - How This Problem Can Be Treated?

Dr. Ekta Singh 90% (42 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Noida
Gestational Trophoblastic - How This Problem Can Be Treated?

Gestational trophoblastic disease is when there are trophoblastic cells which are growing abnormally inside the uterus. It is a pretty rare disease. Gestational trophoblastic disease mostly occurs after conception. The trophoblastic cells are a sort of tumorous cells which surround the fertilized egg in the uterus. It is a very serious and painful condition which can even become cancerous.

Here are the treatments for gestational trophoblastic disease.

  1. HysterectomyA hysterectomy is when the entire uterus is removed from the body using surgery. Hysterectomy is one of the most common methods to cure gestational trophoblastic disease. However, after the hysterectomy, a lot of beta human chorionic gonadotropin blood tests are administered every week. Beta human chorionic gonadotropin blood tests are sometimes shortened to B-HCG blood tests. Patients will also have to visit the doctor for up to 6 months every month following the hysterectomy. However, since a hysterectomy completely removes the uterus, it is probably a last resort option as the baby is kept in the uterus. Chemotherapy and dilation and curettage are perhaps better options if you have gestational trophoblastic disease.
  2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is usually done with one or more anti-cancer drugs. Chemotherapy is continued until the B-HCG or beta human chorionic gonadotropin levels are back to normal. If the chemotherapy does not reduce beta human chorionic gonadotropin levels or the tumor spreads to other parts of the body, then different treatment is required. This includes using chemotherapy for what is known as high-risk metastatic GTN for the gestational trophoblastic disease.
  3. Dilation and curettage: This is a much less drastic procedure and is usually done when the tumor has not spread as much. A D&C which is the short form of dilation and curettage is performed so that the inner parts of the lining of the uterus as well as abnormal tissues are all removed. This is performed by dilating the cervix so that the inner parts of the lining of the uterus as well as the abnormal tissue is all removed. However, a dilation and curettage is safe only when you have a molar pregnancy.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3832 people found this helpful

Gestational Trophoblastic - How To Tackle It?

Dr. Chintan Gandhi 91% (60 ratings)
Diploma in Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Ahmedabad
Gestational Trophoblastic - How To Tackle It?

Gestational trophoblastic disease is when there are trophoblastic cells which are growing abnormally inside the uterus. It is a pretty rare disease. Gestational trophoblastic disease mostly occurs after conception. The trophoblastic cells are a sort of tumorous cells which surround the fertilized egg in the uterus. It is a very serious and painful condition which can even become cancerous.

Here are the treatments for gestational trophoblastic disease.

  1. HysterectomyA hysterectomy is when the entire uterus is removed from the body using surgery. Hysterectomy is one of the most common methods to cure gestational trophoblastic disease. However, after the hysterectomy, a lot of beta human chorionic gonadotropin blood tests are administered every week. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin blood tests are sometimes shortened to B-HCG blood tests. Patients will also have to visit the doctor for up to 6 months every month following the hysterectomy. However, since a hysterectomy completely removes the uterus, it is probably the last resort option as the baby is kept in the uterus. Chemotherapy and dilation and curettage are perhaps better options if you have gestational trophoblastic disease.
  2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is usually done with one or more anti-cancer drugs. Chemotherapy is continued until the B-HCG or beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels are back to normal. If the chemotherapy does not reduce beta human chorionic gonadotropin levels or the tumor spreads to other parts of the body, then a different treatment is required. This includes using chemotherapy for what is known as high-risk metastatic GTN for the gestational trophoblastic disease.
  3. Dilation and curettage: This is a much less drastic procedure and is usually done when the tumor has not spread as much. A D&C which is the short form of dilation and curettage is performed so that the inner parts of the lining of the uterus as well as abnormal tissues are all removed. This is performed by dilating the cervix so that the inner parts of the lining of the uterus as well as the abnormal tissue is all removed. However, a dilation and curettage is safe only when you have a molar pregnancy.
4310 people found this helpful

Chronic Nephritis - How To Cope With It?

Dr. Sanjiv Saxena 88% (46 ratings)
DNB (Nephrology), MD, MBBS
Nephrologist, Delhi
Chronic Nephritis - How To Cope With It?

Chronic nephritis is a type of Glomerulonephritis (GN). In this condition, irritation takes place in the Glomeruli, which are parts in your kidneys comprising tiny blood vessels. These knots of vessels filter your blood and remove excess fluids from the body. In case your glomeruli are harmed, your kidneys will quit working properly and you can suffer from kidney failure. It is a very serious illness that can be life threatening and requires immediate medical intervention.

The condition is also called nephritis. There can be both acute and chronic nephritis. The chronic type of GN can take several years to develop with almost no obvious symptoms. This can cause irreversible harm to your kidneys and also prompt complete kidney failure.

Causes and risks:
A hereditary condition can once in a while cause chronic nephritis. It happens in young men with poor vision and poor hearing. Persistent and untreated conditions may also bring about chronic nephritis. A history of cancer in the family may likewise put you at danger. Having acute nephritis may make you more prone to build up chronic nephritis later on. Being exposed to some hydrocarbon solvents may build the danger of chronic nephritis. Chronic nephritis does not generally have a clear-cut cause. About 25% of individuals with this condition have no history of kidney diseases.

Symptoms:
A few symptoms of chronic nephritis include:

  1. Blood or abundance protein in your urine
  2. Hypertension
  3. Swelling in lower legs
  4. Continuous urination during evenings
  5. Bubbly or frothy urine (from abundance protein)
  6. Stomach pain
  7. Continuous nosebleeds


Treatment:
Depending upon the symptoms of the problem, the treatment might be distinctive. Some of the ways it can be dealt with are:

  • Controlling hypertension, particularly if that is the hidden cause for the problem. Circulatory strain might be difficult to control when your kidneys are not working properly. If so, your specialist may prescribe pulse medicines, including angiotensin-changing over catalyst inhibitors. Some of these medicines include Captopril, Lisinopril and Perindopril.
  • Your specialist may likewise recommend angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Some of these may include Losartan, Irbesartan and Valsartan.
  • Another technique to reduce immune-triggered aggravation is plasmapheresis. This procedure expels the liquid part of the blood (plasma) and replaces it with intravenous (IV) liquids or donated plasma (without any antibodies).

For chronic GN, you will have to decrease the level of protein, salt and potassium in your diet. Also, you should observe the amount of fluid you drink. Calcium supplements might be suggested and you may need to take diuretics to lessen swelling. Not surprisingly, check with your general physician or kidney specialist for rules about dietary restrictions or food. In case your condition worsens and causes kidney failure, you may need dialysis. This is a technique where a machine filters your blood. In the end, you may require a kidney transplant. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Nephrologist.

2097 people found this helpful

Chronic Nephritis - How To Treat It?

Dr. Hasit Patel 93% (120 ratings)
MBBS,MD(medicine), MD- Medicine, DNB- Nephrology
Nephrologist, Ahmedabad
Chronic Nephritis - How To Treat It?

Chronic nephritis is a type of Glomerulonephritis (GN). In this condition, irritation takes place in the Glomeruli, which are parts in your kidneys comprising tiny blood vessels. These knots of vessels filter your blood and remove excess fluids from the body. In case your glomeruli are harmed, your kidneys will quit working properly and you can suffer from kidney failure. It is a very serious illness that can be life threatening and requires immediate medical intervention.

The condition is also called nephritis. There can be both acute and chronic nephritis. The chronic type of GN can take several years to develop with almost no obvious symptoms. This can cause irreversible harm to your kidneys and also prompt complete kidney failure.

Causes and risks:
A hereditary condition can once in a while cause chronic nephritis. It happens in young men with poor vision and poor hearing. Persistent and untreated conditions may also bring about chronic nephritis. A history of cancer in the family may likewise put you at danger. Having acute nephritis may make you more prone to build up chronic nephritis later on. Being exposed to some hydrocarbon solvents may build the danger of chronic nephritis. Chronic nephritis does not generally have a clear-cut cause. About 25% of individuals with this condition have no history of kidney diseases.

Symptoms:
A few symptoms of chronic nephritis include:

  1. Blood or abundance protein in your urine
  2. Hypertension
  3. Swelling in lower legs
  4. Continuous urination during evenings
  5. Bubbly or frothy urine (from abundance protein)
  6. Stomach pain
  7. Continuous nosebleeds


Treatment:
Depending upon the symptoms of the problem, the treatment might be distinctive. Some of the ways it can be dealt with are:

  • Controlling hypertension, particularly if that is the hidden cause for the problem. Circulatory strain might be difficult to control when your kidneys are not working properly. If so, your specialist may prescribe pulse medicines, including angiotensin-changing over catalyst inhibitors. Some of these medicines include Captopril, Lisinopril and Perindopril.
  • Your specialist may likewise recommend angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Some of these may include Losartan, Irbesartan and Valsartan.
  • Another technique to reduce immune-triggered aggravation is plasmapheresis. This procedure expels the liquid part of the blood (plasma) and replaces it with intravenous (IV) liquids or donated plasma (without any antibodies).

For chronic GN, you will have to decrease the level of protein, salt and potassium in your diet. Also, you should observe the amount of fluid you drink. Calcium supplements might be suggested and you may need to take diuretics to lessen swelling. Not surprisingly, check with your general physician or kidney specialist for rules about dietary restrictions or food. In case your condition worsens and causes kidney failure, you may need dialysis. This is a technique where a machine filters your blood. In the end, you may require a kidney transplant.

3517 people found this helpful

Antiperspirant Vs Deodorant - Which Is Better?

Dr. Shankar Sawant 88% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Dermatology , Venereology & Leprosy
Dermatologist, Mumbai
Antiperspirant Vs Deodorant - Which Is Better?

Deodorants and antiperspirants are items of regular use all over the world. You would never want to smell bad or have sweat stains under your armpits. Hence, after using a deodorant or an antiperspirant, you usually stick to it and keep on using it continuously.

There is a major confusion regarding deodorants and antiperspirants, and it is important to know the major difference between these two similar items of everyday use.

Deodorant -

Deodorant serves the function of preventing unwanted and unpleasant odour from our body. Deodorants do not prevent sweating. Body odour is caused due to the bacterial breakdown of sweat. The ingredients of deodorant are designed especially for the elimination of the smell caused by bacteria.

The common ingredients of deodorant are :

  • Water

  • Sodium stearate

  • Organic aloe vera juice

  • Witch hazel water

  • Glyceryl laurate

  • Fir needle oil

  • Chamomile flower aqueous extract

  • Hops [CO2] extract – helps eliminate the odour

  • Caprylic/capric triglyceride

  • Ascorbic acid

  • Silica shell

  • Organic Lemongrass Oil

Antiperspirants -

Antiperspirants are different from deodorants, and they are designed in such a way that the body produces lesser sweat. This is done by blocking sweat from reaching the skin. The ingredients present in antiperspirants, especially aluminium, block the pores on the skin and do not allow sweat to pass through them. When an antiperspirant is applied to the skin, the aluminium salts get dissolved in the sweat under the armpit. The dissolved aluminium forms a gel, which acts like a plug on the sweat glands or pores on the skin. This stops sweat secretion. Aluminium is, however, a cancer-causing factor and may also lead to Alzheimer’s disease. Several forms of aluminium present in some antiperspirants leave yellow stains on clothes as a result of mixing with sweat.

The primary ingredients of antiperspirants are:

  1. Aluminum Zirconium Trichlorohydrex

  2. Dimethicone

  3. Tribehenin

  4. Artificial fragrance

  5. C18 36 Acid Triglyceride

People are often confused as to what to use among deodorants and antiperspirants. This depends totally on your personal choice, but it is recommended to use a product which incorporates natural ingredients instead of using chemicals such as aluminium. Hence, deodorants are considered to be safer for everyday use. However, several artificial dyes and fragrances are used as ingredients in both deodorants and antiperspirants, which cause reactions on the skin. Allergies and skin irritation also occur sometimes as a result.

5797 people found this helpful

What is the Difference Between an Antiperspirant and a Deodorant?

Dr. Suruchi Puri 89% (1159 ratings)
MBBS, MD (Skin & V.D. MAMC) - Dermatology
Dermatologist, Delhi
What is the Difference Between an Antiperspirant and a Deodorant?

Deodorants and antiperspirants are items of regular use all over the world. You would never want to smell bad or have sweat stains under your armpits. Hence, after using a deodorant or an antiperspirant you usually stick to it and keep on using it continuously. There is a major confusion regarding deodorants and antiperspirants, and it is important to know the major difference between these two similar items of everyday use.

Deodorant-

Deodorant serves the function of preventing unwanted and unpleasant odour from our body. Deodorants do not prevent sweating. Body odour is caused due to the bacterial breakdown of sweat. The ingredients of a deodorant are designed especially for the elimination of the smell caused by bacteria.

The common ingredients of a deodorant are :

  • Water

  • Sodium stearate

  • Organic aloe vera juice

  • Witch hazel water

  • Glyceryl laurate

  • Fir needle oil

  • Chamomile flower aqueous extract

  • Hops [CO2] extract – helps eliminate the odour

  • Caprylic/capric triglyceride

  • Ascorbic acid

  • Silica shell

  • Organic Lemongrass Oil

Antiperspirants-

Antiperspirants are different from deodorants, and they are designed in such a way that the body produces lesser sweat. This is done by blocking sweat from reaching the skin. The ingredients present in antiperspirants, especially aluminum, block the pores on the skin and do not allow sweat to pass through them. When an antiperspirant is applied to the skin, the aluminum salts get dissolved in the sweat under the armpit. The dissolved aluminum forms a gel, which acts like a plug on the sweat glands or pores on the skin. This stops sweat secretion. Aluminum is, however, a cancer-causing factor and may also lead to Alzheimer’s disease. Several forms of aluminum present in some antiperspirants leave yellow stains on clothes as a result of mixing with sweat.

The primary ingredients of antiperspirants are:

  1. Aluminum Zirconium Trichlorohydrex.

  2. Dimethicone.

  3. Tribehenin.

  4. Artificial fragrance.

  5. C18 36 Acid Triglyceride.

People are often confused as to what to use among deodorants and antiperspirants. This depends totally on your personal choice, but it is recommended to use a product which incorporates natural ingredients instead of using chemicals such as aluminum. Hence, deodorants are considered to be safer for everyday use. However, several artificial dyes and fragrances are used as ingredients in both deodorants and antiperspirants, which cause reactions on the skin. Allergies and skin irritation also occur sometimes as a result.

6294 people found this helpful

Uterine Fibroids - How To Administer Them?

Dr. Surekha P. Mathkar 85% (31 ratings)
MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Uterine Fibroids - How To Administer Them?

The uterine fibroids are one of the most common gynecologic problems, with over 40-50% of women having them at some point in their life. The number and size of the fibroids, the age of onset, associated symptoms like dysfunctional bleeding and pelvic pain will determine the management of fibroid. The following is a series of management measures, starting from the most conservative to the most invasive. 

1. Wait and watch: In women who are asymptomatic, it is best to watch them for the development of symptoms without any intervention. Also, in women nearing menopause, it is best to just watch the fibroids as they just shrink once menstruation ceases. 

2. Medical therapy: In some women, menstrual cycles could be heavy or irregular and require hormonal replacement. They could also have occasional pain, and so may require painkillers. 

  1. Tranexamic acid is a non-hormonal medication that can be used on heavy bleeding days only to ease the heavy menstrual flow. 
  2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are useful in pain control. Iron and vitamin supplements are also useful in managing anemia and weakness associated with heavy bleeding. 
  3. Oral contraceptives and/or progestins are also used to control abnormal menstrual bleeding. They do not have any effect on fibroid size though. 
  4. Progestin could also be delivered through an intrauterine device (Mirena) to relieve heavy bleeding and prevent pregnancy
  5. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) agonists: They block the production of oestrogen and progesterone, and so induce a temporary postmenopausal state. This can also be used to shrink the fibroid so it is easier to remove it surgically. This is not used for more than 3 to 6 months as they can cause hot flashes and bone loss. 
  6. Newer drugs like Mifepristone and Ulipristal acetate are being used to shrink the size of fibroids. 

3. Noninvasive procedure: MRI-guided focused ultrasound surgery is when the women are inside the MRI scanner and an ultrasonic transducer is used for treatment. The exact location of the fibroids are identified and sound waves are used to destroy the fibroid. Done on an outpatient basis, it is safe and effective. 

4. Minimally invasive procedures: Uterine artery embolization is where the arterial supply is cut off to reduce fibroid growth. Myolysis is where laparoscopically heat or cold waves are used to lyse off the fibroids. Endometrial ablation is where the uterine lining is destroyed through high-intensity heat or cold waves. 

5. Invasive procedures: Abdominal or Laparoscopic myomectomy is where the fibroids are removed through an abdominal incision or keyhole surgery. If fibroids are extensive and completed family, hysterectomy is the choice of treatment. Given their high incidence, fibroids require management based on symptoms, age, and other considerations as discussed and decided between the patient and the doctor.

3962 people found this helpful

Endometriosis - The Right Way Of Treating It!

Dr. Sunita Singh 89% (26 ratings)
Associate Professor (PMCH), MS Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MBBS, Consultant Gynaecologist & Obstretician, Consultant Gynecologist & obstetrician, Consultant Gynaecologist
Gynaecologist, Patna
Endometriosis - The Right Way Of Treating It!

The abnormal growth of the endometrium tissue outside the uterus is known as endometriosis. Ideally, the abnormal tissue is supposed to break down and exit the body. However, in this condition, the tissue is unable to pass out of the body. As a result, the surrounding tissue tends to get irritated and leads to the formation of scar tissues.

The various causes of endometriosis include:

  1. Immune system disorder: Complications in the immune system might render it incapable of destroying the endometrial tissue that grows outside the uterus.
  2. Surgical scar implantation: Certain surgeries such as a C-section may result in the attachment of endometrial cells to the incision area.
  3. Embryonic cell transport: These cells may be transported to other parts of the body by the blood vessels which may lead to endometriosis.
  4. Retrograde menstruation: Instead of passing out of the body, under this condition, the blood flows back into the pelvic region via the fallopian tubes. When these cells attach themselves to the pelvic cavity, it causes endometriosis.

Symptoms

  1. Pain during sexual intercourse
  2. Pain during periods including pelvic pain, especially during periods, lower back pain and abdominal pain.
  3. Excessive bleeding during periods
  4. Fatigue
  5. Constipation
  6. Bloating

The major complication that results is fertility problems. Endometriosis may prevent the combination of the egg and the sperm and thus, impairs your ability to conceive. It is recommended not to delay pregnancy if you have endometriosis. This disorder also tends to increase the risk of ovarian cancer in some women.


How can it be treated?

Endometriosis is usually done using surgery or medications. 

  1. Medication: It usually involves painkillers.
  2. Hormone therapy: Some of the hormonal therapies include:
    1. Hormonal contraceptives
    2. Progestin therapy
    3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) agonists and antagonists
  3. Conservative surgery: If a patient wants to become pregnant, surgery is done as much as possible without harming the uterus and ovaries. Suggested procedures include laparoscopy and traditional abdominal surgery.
  4. Assisted reproductive technologies: An example of this form of treatment is In Vitro Fertilization.
  5. Hysterectomy: Under severe circumstances, total hysterectomy is conducted in order to facilitate the removal of cervix and uterus.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2353 people found this helpful

4 Causes Of Endometriosis And Its Treatment!

Dr. Chitra Reddy 90% (44 ratings)
Karnatak University, India, J J M M C, DAVANAGERE, JJM Medical College, Davangre(Mysore University)
Gynaecologist, Bangalore
4 Causes Of Endometriosis And Its Treatment!

The abnormal growth of the endometrium tissue outside the uterus is known as endometriosis. However, in this condition, the tissue is unable to pass out of the body. As a result, the surrounding tissue tends to get irritated and leads to the formation of scar tissues.

The various causes of endometriosis include:

  1. Immune system disorder: Complications in the immune system might render it incapable of destroying the endometrial tissue that grows outside the uterus.
  2. Surgical scar implantation: Certain surgeries such as a C-section may result in the attachment of endometrial cells to the incision area.
  3. Embryonic cell transport: These cells may be transported to other parts of the body by the blood vessels which may lead to endometriosis.
  4. Retrograde menstruation: Instead of passing out of the body, under this condition, the blood flows back into the pelvic region via the fallopian tubes. When these cells attach themselves to the pelvic cavity, it causes endometriosis.

Symptoms
1. Pain during sexual intercourse
2. Pain during periods including pelvic pain, especially during periods, lower back pain and abdominal pain.
3. Excessive bleeding during periods
4. Fatigue
5. Constipation
6. Bloating

The major complication that results is fertility problems. Endometriosis may prevent the combination of the egg and the sperm and thus, impairs your ability to conceive. It is recommended not to delay pregnancy if you have endometriosis. This disorder also tends to increase the risk of ovarian cancer in some women.

How can it be treated?

Endometriosis is usually done using surgery or medications. 

  1. Medication: It usually involves painkillers.
  2. Hormone therapy: Some of the hormonal therapies include:
    1. Hormonal contraceptives
    2. Progestin therapy
    3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) agonists and antagonists
  3. Conservative surgery: If a patient wants to become pregnant, surgery is done as much as possible without harming the uterus and ovaries. Suggested procedures include laparoscopy and traditional abdominal surgery.
  4. Assisted reproductive technologies: An example of this form of treatment is In Vitro Fertilization.
  5. Hysterectomy: Under severe circumstances, total hysterectomy is conducted in order to facilitate the removal of cervix and uterus.
2834 people found this helpful

4 Ways To Manage Endometriosis!

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Fellowship In Minimal Access Surgery
Gynaecologist, Gurgaon
4 Ways To Manage Endometriosis!

When tissues that usually grow inside the uterus, start growing outside the organ, it is called endometriosis. Painful periods, pain during sex, pain while urinating or bowel movements, extreme bleeding, fatigue, infertility, diarrhea, bloating and nausea are some of the symptoms of endometriosis.

Treating endometriosis usually depends on the following factors

  1. Age
  2. Severity of symptoms
  3. Severity of the disease 
  4. Future plans for children

Depending on these the doctor might opt for any of the following treatments

  1. Medication for Pain: If the symptoms are mild, then the doctor will prescribe some pain killers like Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. 
  2. Hormone Therapy: Hormone therapy is effective, but once you stop them, your symptoms may come back. Some of the hormone therapies include: 
    • Hormonal Contraceptives: Birth control pills, vaginal rings and patches are useful in controlling the hormones that are responsible for tissue build-up outside the uterine cavity. 
    • Medroxyprogesterone: This drug stops menstruation, which in turn stops the tissue build-up and put an end to all the symptoms. But on the other hand, gaining weight, low bone production and depression are some of the common effects of this drug. 
    • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) antagonists and agonists: Hormones that stimulate ovaries are blocked by these. They bring down oestrogen levels and hence prevent menstruation. 
    • Danazol: This drug prevents menstruation and symptoms of endometriosis by blocking the hormones that stimulate the ovaries. However, Danazol may not be a favourable option because of its side effects. The drug should be avoided during pregnancy.
  3. Conservative Surgery: If you are trying to get pregnant, but you already suffer from endometriosis, then removing endometriosis surgically is a viable solution. Your uterus and ovaries will be preserved, which might increase your chances of becoming pregnant. Even suffering from severe pain might find relief from conservative surgery. 
  4. Hysterectomy: In extreme cases, the only way to deal with the symptoms is to completely remove the uterus, ovaries and cervix. Since a hysterectomy means you cannot have children, it is kept as the last option for women in their reproductive age.
2300 people found this helpful