Staphylococcus aureus is the commonest agent incriminated in the development of boils or furuncle. Some other bacteria may also be responsible for the development of such infections.
A poor immune system function is also responsible for the development of boils or furuncles.
People with recurrent boil are also more likely to have a family history of boils.
A boil generally starts as a hard, red painful lump. Over the next few days a pocket of pus forms over the lump. The skin around the boil becomes infected, red and swollen. Fever might be present in some cases. Swelling of lymph nodes may be seen in severe conditions.
Boils may appear anywhere on the body, however the buttocks, stomach, hands or legs are the common sites of involvement. Boils may also appear around the eyes, and this leads to the development of significant swelling or edema around the eyes.
Boils are generally easy to manage and heal without much complications. Antibiotics like amoxicillin clavulanic acid or cefixime are effective in treating this infection. Topical antibiotics like mupirocin or fusidic acid can also be used. In case of severe or large infections, draining of the pus might be required. Symptomatic treatment should be provided in case of fever or malaise.
With proper care, it can be easily treated without any significant complications.
UTI stands for urinary tract infections. In children a urinary tract infection (UTI) is a very common condition caused by bacteria. Bacteria that enter the urethra are flushed out through urination. But, when bacteria aren’t excluded out of the urethra, they may grow in the urinary tract and cause infections. The Survey state that up to 8% of girls and 2% of boys will get a UTI at an early age. Sometimes the symptoms of UTI are hard to detect in kids so it is better to get your child treated, as it turn into serious kidney diseases. With a right treatment your child will feel better within few days.
Symptoms of a UTI include:
The most common antibiotics used for treatment are:Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, Ofloxacin, Cefixime etc Sometimes hospitalization is necessary in younger than 6 months old, if:
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Typhoid is as an acute illness commonly characterized by high fever and an impaired digestive system. This illness is caused by the bacterium ‘Salmonella Typhi’ and generally spreads from one person to another by means of food or water.
Causes of typhoid
There are so many causes of typhoid. Some of major are listed below
The symptoms generally appear within 1-3 weeks, after coming in contact with the already infected individual. The ensuing fever and discomfort remains for about 3-4 weeks. The symptoms are:
However, in most of the cases, the symptoms tend to improve from the third week itself.
The following treatments can be implemented in order to cure typhoid fever:
Needs and Indications for Hospitalization-
Hospital admission is usually recommended if you have severe symptoms of typhoid fever, such as persistent vomiting, severe diarrhoea or a swollen stomach. As a precaution, young children who develop typhoid fever may be admitted to hospital. In hospital, you'll have antibiotic injections and you may also be given fluids and nutrients directly into a vein through an intravenous drip. Surgery may be needed if you develop life-threatening complications of typhoid fever, such as internal bleeding or a section of your digestive system splitting. However, this is very rare in people being treated with antibiotics. Most people respond well to hospital treatment and improve within three to five days. However, it may be several weeks until you're well enough to leave hospital.
Two types of vaccines are available
The injected vaccine is more commonly used and is also known as inactivated typhoid shot . It is injected in one single shot an it can easily provide protection against typhoid. This type is widely prevalent in cases where one has to travel to a typhoid infected place. However, one must be careful and should keep a tab as to what they eat or drink at the time of travelling. Also, this type of vaccine should not be administered on kids below 2 years old.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.
Acute pyelonephritis is a suppurative inflammation of the renal parenchyma and the renal pelvis. It is a potentially life threatening condition caused by bacterial infection. It can occur suddenly and causes the kidneys to swell, which may damage them permanently too. If the condition occurs repeatedly, it is termed as chronic pyelonephritis.
The most common bacteria involved in causing pyelonephritis is Escherichia coli. Other causative bacteria are Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. Infection starts in the lower urinary tract as a urinary tract infection. Urethra provides an entry for the bacteria, which enter the tract and begin to multiply and spread up to the bladder. They further travel through the ureters to the kidneys. Any septic infection in the bloodstream can also spread to the kidneys and cause acute pyelonephritis.
How it spreads - Pyelonephritis spreads through two routes, homogenous or from the lower ascending tract (ascending infection).
Risk factors - Urinary obstruction, vesicoureteral reflex, catheterization, pregnancy, Diabetes Mellitus, age over 65.
Symptoms - The symptoms are observed within two days of infection. Common symptoms include:
The symptoms observed can vary in children and older adults than they are in other people. Mental confusion is common in older adults and it often is their only symptom. In chronic pyelonephritis, people experience only mild symptoms or may even lack noticeable symptoms altogether, which is the major reason of negligence by the patient towards treatment. Flank pain in the abdomen and signs of infection can be observed.
Diagnosis - Uncentrifused urine is analyzed for the presence of pus cells. The leucocyte esterase dipstick method is used to check for Pyuria. However, it is less sensitive than microscopy. In the urine culture, significant bacteriuria is detected on presence of more than 105 colonies/ml of the sample. Imaging studies can be done to check for the presence of kidney stones. Amongst the inflammatory markers, the values of C-reactive protein (CRP), ESR, and plasma viscosity may be raised. An elevated white cell count with neutrophilia is seen on blood culture.
Complications - Abscess formation in either the kidney parenchyma or the surrounding retroperitoneal spaces is a common complication. Other complications include the development of a xantho-granulomatous or emphysematous pyelonephritis. In severe cases, there can be chronic renal failure too.
Treatment - The duration of treatment depends on spread of infection. Empirical antibiotic treatment can be started until the confirmatory tests reports of culture and sensitivity are observed. Antibiotics like Ciprofloxacin, Amoxicillin, Cefixime can be given. Medications for acute pyelonephritis are continued for up to 3 weeks, whereas for chronic conditions medicines should be given for 6 months.
Chronic pyelonephritis - It is a morphologic entity which is associated with a predominant interstitial inflammation and scarring of the renal parenchyma. There is a grossly visible scarring and deformation of the pelvic-calyceal system. Chronic pyelonephritis further leads to chronic renal failure.
The two forms of chronic pyelo-nephritis are
Management includes controlling blood pressure to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease, long term antibiotic coverage for urinary tract infection, removal of calculi and antibiotic prophylaxis for vesico-ureteral reflex.
Govt bans 344 drugs, including phensedyl, corex
Sr. No. Product name (irrational fdc)
1 aceclofenac + paracetamol + rabeprazole
2 nimesulide + diclofenac
3 nimesulide + cetirizine + caffeine
4 nimesulide + tizanidine
5 paracetamol + cetirizine + caffeine
6 diclofenac + tramadol + chlorzoxazone
7 dicyclomine + paracetamol + domperidone
8 nimesulide + paracetamol
9 paracetamol + phenylephrine + caffeine
10 diclofenac+ tramadol + paracetamol
11 diclofenac + paracetamol + chlorzoxazone + famotidine
12 naproxen + paracetamol
13 nimesulide + serratiopeptidase
14 paracetamol + diclofenac + famotidine
15 nimesulide + pifofenone + fenpiverinium + benzyl alcohol
16 omeprazole + paracetamol + diclofenac
17 nimesulide + paracetamol injection
18 tamsulosin + diclofenac
19 paracetamol + phenylephrine + chlorpheniramine + dextromethorphan + caffeine
20 diclofenac + zinc carnosine
21 diclofenac + paracetamol + chlorpheniramine maleate + magnesium trisillicate
22 paracetamol + pseudoephedrine + cetrizine
23 phenylbutazone + sodium salicylate
24 lornoxicam + paracetamol + trypsin
25 paracetamol + mefenamic acid + ranitidine + dicylomine
26 nimesulide + dicyclomine
27 heparin + diclofenac
28 glucosamine + methyl sulfonyl methane + vitamini d3 + maganese + boron + copper + zinc
29 paracetamol + tapentadol
30 tranexamic acid + proanthocyanidin
31 benzoxonium chloride + lidocaine
32 lornoxicam + paracetamol + tramadol
33 lornoxicam + paracetamol + serratiopeptidase
34 diclofenac + paracetamol + magnesium trisilicate
35 paracetamol + domperidone + caffeine
36 ammonium chloride + sodium citrate + chlorpheniramine maleate + menthol
37 paracetamol + prochlorperazine maleate
38 serratiopeptidase (enteric coated 20000 units) + diclofenac potassium & 2 tablets of doxycycline
39 nimesulide + paracetamol suspension
40 aceclofenac + paracetamol + famotidine
41 aceclofenac + zinc carnosine
42 paracetamol + disodium hydrogen citrate + caffeine
43 paracetamol + dl methionine
44 disodium hydrogen citrate + paracetamol
45 paracetamol + caffeine + codeine
46 aceclofenac (sr) + paracetamol
47 diclofenac + paracetamol injection
48 azithromycin + cefixime
49 amoxicillin + dicloxacillin
50 amoxicillin 250 mg + potassium clavulanate diluted 62.5 mg
51 azithromycin + levofloxacin
52 cefixime + linezolid
53 amoxicillin + cefixime + potassium clavulanic acid
54 ofloxacin + nitazoxanide
55 cefpodoxime proxetil + levofloxacin
56 azithromycin, secnidazole and fluconazole kit
57 levofloxacin + ornidazole + alpha tocopherol acetate
58 nimorazole + ofloxacin
59 azithromycin + ofloxacin
60 amoxycillin + tinidazole
61 doxycycline + serratiopeptidase
62 cefixime + levofloxacin
63 ofloxacin + metronidazole + zinc acetate
64 diphenoxylate + atropine + furazolidonee
65 fluconazole tablet, azithromycin tablet and ornidazole tablets
66 ciprofloxacin + phenazopyridine
67 amoxycillin + dicloxacillin + serratiopeptidase
68 azithromycin + cefpodoxime
69 lignocaine + clotrimazole + ofloxacin + beclomethasone
70 cefuroxime + linezolid
71 ofloxacin + ornidazole + zinc bisglycinate
72 metronidazole + norfloxacin
73 amoxicillin + bromhexine
74 ciprofloxacin + fluticasone + clotrimazole + neomycin is
75 metronidazole + tetracycline
76 cephalexin + neomycin + prednisolone
77 azithromycin + ambroxol
78 cilnidipine + metoprolol succinate + metoprolol tartrate
79 l-arginine + sildenafil
80 atorvastatin + vitamin d3 + folic acid + vitamin b12 + pyridoxine
81 metformin + atorvastatin
82 clindamycin + telmisartan
83 olmesartan + hydrochlorothiazide + chlorthalidone
84 l-5-methyltetrahydrofolate calcium + escitalopram
85 pholcodine + promethazine
86 paracetamol + promethazine
87 betahistine + ginkgo biloba extract + vinpocetine + piracetam
88 cetirizine + diethyl carbamazine
89 doxylamine + pyridoxine + mefenamic acid + paracetamol
90 drotaverine + clidinium + chlordiazepoxide
91 imipramine + diazepam
92 flupentixol + escitalopram
93 paracetamol + prochloperazine
94 gabapentin + mecobalamin + pyridoxine + thiamine
95 imipramine + chlordiazepoxide + trifluoperazine + trihexyphenidyl
96 chlorpromazine + trihexyphenidyl
97 ursodeoxycholic acid + silymarin
98 metformin 1000/1000/500/500mg + pioglitazone 7.5/7.5/7.5/7.5mg + glimepiride
99 gliclazide 80 mg + metformin 325 mg
100 voglibose+ metformin + chromium picolinate
101 pioglitazone 7.5/7.5mg + metformin 500/1000mg
102 glimepiride 1mg/2mg/3mg + pioglitazone 15mg/15mg/15mg + metformin 1000mg/1000mg/1000mg
103 glimepiride 1mg/2mg+ pioglitazone 15mg/15mg + metformin 850mg/850mg
104 metformin 850mg + pioglitazone 7.5 mg + glimepiride 2mg
105 metformin 850mg + pioglitazone 7.5 mg + glimepiride 1mg
106 metformin 500mg/500mg+gliclazide sr 30mg/60mg + pioglitazone 7.5mg/7.5mg
107 voglibose + pioglitazone + metformin
108 metformin + bromocriptine
109 metformin + glimepiride + methylcobalamin
110 pioglitazone 30 mg + metformin 500 mg
111 glimepiride + pioglitazone + metformin
112 glipizide 2.5mg + metformin 400 mg
113 pioglitazone 15mg + metformin 850 mg
114 metformin er + gliclazide Mr. + voglibose
115 chromium polynicotinate + metformin
116 metformin + gliclazide + piogllitazone + chromium polynicotinate
117 metformin + gliclazide + chromium polynicotinate
118 glibenclamide + metformin (sr)+ pioglitazone
119 metformin (sustainded release) 500mg + pioglitazone 15 mg + glimepiride 3mg
120 metformin (sr) 500mg + pioglitazone 5mg
121 chloramphenicol + beclomethasone + clomitrimazole + lignocaine
122 of clotrimazole + ofloxaxin + lignocaine + glycerine and propylene glycol
123 chloramphennicol + lignocaine + betamethasone + clotrimazole + ofloxacin + antipyrine
124 ofloxacin + clotrimazole + betamethasone + lignocaine
125 gentamicin sulphate + clotrimazole + betamethasone + lignocaine
126 clotrimazole + beclomethasone + ofloxacin + lignocaine
127 becloemthasone + clotrimazole + chloramphenicol + gentamycin + lignocaine ear
128 flunarizine + paracetamole + domperidone
129 rabeprazole + zinc carnosine
130 magaldrate + famotidine + simethicone
131 cyproheptadine + thiamine
132 magaldrate + ranitidine + pancreatin + domperidone
133 ranitidine + magaldrate + simethicone
134 magaldrate + papain + fungul diastase + simethicone
135 rabeprazole + zinc + domperidone
136 famotidine + oxytacaine + magaldrate
137 ranitidine + domperidone + simethicone
138 alginic acid + sodium bicarbonate + dried aluminium hydroxide + magnesium hydroxide
139 clidinium + paracetamol + dicyclomine + activated dimethicone
140 furazolidone + metronidazole + loperamide
141 rabeprazole + diclofenac + paracetamol
142 ranitidine + magaldrate
143 norfloxacin+ metronidazole + zinc acetate
144 zinc carnosine + oxetacaine
145 oxetacaine + magaldrate + famotidine
146 pantoprazole (as enteric coated tablet) + zinc carnosine (as film coated tablets)
147 zinc carnosine + magnesium hydroxide + dried aluminium hydroxide + simethicone
148 zinc carnosine + sucralfate
149 mebeverine & inner hpmc capsule (streptococcus faecalis + clostridium butyricum + bacillus
Mesentricus + lactic acid bacillus)
150 clindamycin + clotrimazole + lactic acid bacillus
151 sildenafil + estradiol valerate
Avoid this combinations and be safe.