Common Specialities
{{speciality.keyWord}}
Common Issues
{{issue.keyWord}}
Common Treatments
{{treatment.keyWord}}

Macpred 8 MG Tablet Tips

Adrenal Insufficiency - What Causes It?

Dr. Ravindra Chhajed 89% (338 ratings)
MBBS, FCPS - Medicine, DNB - General Medicine (I)
Diabetologist, Pune
Adrenal Insufficiency - What Causes It?

Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands of the patient do not produce sufficient amount of steroid hormones. It mostly affects the production of cortisol but in some cases, the production of aldosterone may also be reduced. At times, dysfunction of the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland can also cause adrenal insufficiency because the hormones produced by these two glands help in regulating the functions performed by hormones secreted by the adrenal gland. These steroid hormones play an important role in bodily functions such as metabolism, immunity development, salt/water balance, sexual development and others. So, when these hormones are not produced in adequate amount, the individual experiences specific problems and thus, treatment for adrenal insufficiency becomes necessary.

Causes: Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by many reasons. Sudden withdrawal of long-term corticosteroid therapy, adrenoleukodystrophy, stress in people who already suffer from chronic adrenal insufficiency, craniopharyngioma, and Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome are responsible for adrenal insufficiency. In some cases, Addison's disease and congenital adrenal hyperplasia also surface in the form of adrenal insufficiency.

Adrenal insufficiency can be categorized into three sections based on the ways through which they affect the adrenal gland and cause the low production of cortisol and other steroid hormones.

  1. The first is adrenal dysgenesis in which the gland has not formed properly in the patient.
  2. The second is impaired steroidogenesis in which the gland is not able to produce cortisol due to biochemical inefficiency
  3. The third is adrenal destruction in which the gland gets damaged because of some disease.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of adrenal insufficiency manifest in the form of dehydration, weight loss, weakness, low blood pressure, muscle pain, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) vomiting, diarrhea, craving for salt or salty food, change in mood, kidney failure, and shock. These symptoms are a result of hormonal deficiency caused by adrenal insufficiency and if not taken seriously, they can affect the patient seriously.

Diagnosis and Treatment: Adrenal insufficiency can be diagnosed with the help of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test, which examines the functioning of the adrenal gland. A CT scan of the adrenal gland can also detect structural abnormalities in it. An MRI scan of the pituitary gland is also recommended in some cases as this gland also plays a secondary role in adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency can be treated by giving the patient hormonal therapy. The hormones are given in the form of medications. Since cortisol inadequacy is the primary effect of adrenal insufficiency, it is supplemented with the help of medicines such as hydrocortisone (Cortef), prednisone (Deltasone), prednisolone (Delta-Cortef), methylprednisolone (Medrol) and dexamethasone (Decadron).

In cases of severe adrenal insufficiency, the patient is given intravenous fluids and intravenous steroids, which can give relief from the discomforting symptoms. Where the patient is found to be suffering from mineralocorticoid deficiency (low aldosterone), fludrocortisone acetate is given to balance the sodium and potassium imbalance. It should be remembered that the adrenal gland performs vital functions in the body and if it is deficient, then the body is bound to suffer. So, the patient should go for immediate diagnosis and follow the treatment therapy prescribed by the doctor. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4704 people found this helpful

Avoid The Ban Medicines To Be Safe

Dr. Sumit Gupta 87% (17 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopathy Doctor, Singrauli
Avoid The Ban Medicines To Be Safe

Govt bans 344 drugs, including phensedyl, corex
Sr. No. Product name (irrational fdc) 
1 aceclofenac + paracetamol + rabeprazole
2 nimesulide + diclofenac
3 nimesulide + cetirizine + caffeine
4 nimesulide + tizanidine
5 paracetamol + cetirizine + caffeine
6 diclofenac + tramadol + chlorzoxazone
7 dicyclomine + paracetamol + domperidone
8 nimesulide + paracetamol
9 paracetamol + phenylephrine + caffeine
10 diclofenac+ tramadol + paracetamol
11 diclofenac + paracetamol + chlorzoxazone + famotidine
12 naproxen + paracetamol
13 nimesulide + serratiopeptidase
14 paracetamol + diclofenac + famotidine
15 nimesulide + pifofenone + fenpiverinium + benzyl alcohol
16 omeprazole + paracetamol + diclofenac
17 nimesulide + paracetamol injection
18 tamsulosin + diclofenac
19 paracetamol + phenylephrine + chlorpheniramine + dextromethorphan + caffeine
20 diclofenac + zinc carnosine
21 diclofenac + paracetamol + chlorpheniramine maleate + magnesium trisillicate
22 paracetamol + pseudoephedrine + cetrizine
23 phenylbutazone + sodium salicylate
24 lornoxicam + paracetamol + trypsin
25 paracetamol + mefenamic acid + ranitidine + dicylomine
26 nimesulide + dicyclomine
27 heparin + diclofenac
28 glucosamine + methyl sulfonyl methane + vitamini d3 + maganese + boron + copper + zinc
29 paracetamol + tapentadol
30 tranexamic acid + proanthocyanidin
31 benzoxonium chloride + lidocaine
32 lornoxicam + paracetamol + tramadol
33 lornoxicam + paracetamol + serratiopeptidase
34 diclofenac + paracetamol + magnesium trisilicate
35 paracetamol + domperidone + caffeine
36 ammonium chloride + sodium citrate + chlorpheniramine maleate + menthol
37 paracetamol + prochlorperazine maleate
38 serratiopeptidase (enteric coated 20000 units) + diclofenac potassium & 2 tablets of doxycycline
39 nimesulide + paracetamol suspension
40 aceclofenac + paracetamol + famotidine
41 aceclofenac + zinc carnosine
42 paracetamol + disodium hydrogen citrate + caffeine
43 paracetamol + dl methionine
44 disodium hydrogen citrate + paracetamol
45 paracetamol + caffeine + codeine
46 aceclofenac (sr) + paracetamol
47 diclofenac + paracetamol injection
48 azithromycin + cefixime
49 amoxicillin + dicloxacillin
50 amoxicillin 250 mg + potassium clavulanate diluted 62.5 mg
51 azithromycin + levofloxacin
52 cefixime + linezolid
53 amoxicillin + cefixime + potassium clavulanic acid
54 ofloxacin + nitazoxanide
55 cefpodoxime proxetil + levofloxacin
56 azithromycin, secnidazole and fluconazole kit
57 levofloxacin + ornidazole + alpha tocopherol acetate
58 nimorazole + ofloxacin
59 azithromycin + ofloxacin
60 amoxycillin + tinidazole
61 doxycycline + serratiopeptidase
62 cefixime + levofloxacin
63 ofloxacin + metronidazole + zinc acetate
64 diphenoxylate + atropine + furazolidonee
65 fluconazole tablet, azithromycin tablet and ornidazole tablets
66 ciprofloxacin + phenazopyridine
67 amoxycillin + dicloxacillin + serratiopeptidase
68 azithromycin + cefpodoxime
69 lignocaine + clotrimazole + ofloxacin + beclomethasone
70 cefuroxime + linezolid
71 ofloxacin + ornidazole + zinc bisglycinate
72 metronidazole + norfloxacin
73 amoxicillin + bromhexine
74 ciprofloxacin + fluticasone + clotrimazole + neomycin is
75 metronidazole + tetracycline
76 cephalexin + neomycin + prednisolone
77 azithromycin + ambroxol
78 cilnidipine + metoprolol succinate + metoprolol tartrate
79 l-arginine + sildenafil
80 atorvastatin + vitamin d3 + folic acid + vitamin b12 + pyridoxine
81 metformin + atorvastatin
82 clindamycin + telmisartan
83 olmesartan + hydrochlorothiazide + chlorthalidone
84 l-5-methyltetrahydrofolate calcium + escitalopram
85 pholcodine + promethazine
86 paracetamol + promethazine
87 betahistine + ginkgo biloba extract + vinpocetine + piracetam
88 cetirizine + diethyl carbamazine
89 doxylamine + pyridoxine + mefenamic acid + paracetamol
90 drotaverine + clidinium + chlordiazepoxide
91 imipramine + diazepam
92 flupentixol + escitalopram
93 paracetamol + prochloperazine
94 gabapentin + mecobalamin + pyridoxine + thiamine
95 imipramine + chlordiazepoxide + trifluoperazine + trihexyphenidyl
96 chlorpromazine + trihexyphenidyl
97 ursodeoxycholic acid + silymarin
98 metformin 1000/1000/500/500mg + pioglitazone 7.5/7.5/7.5/7.5mg + glimepiride
99 gliclazide 80 mg + metformin 325 mg
100 voglibose+ metformin + chromium picolinate
101 pioglitazone 7.5/7.5mg + metformin 500/1000mg
102 glimepiride 1mg/2mg/3mg + pioglitazone 15mg/15mg/15mg + metformin 1000mg/1000mg/1000mg
103 glimepiride 1mg/2mg+ pioglitazone 15mg/15mg + metformin 850mg/850mg
104 metformin 850mg + pioglitazone 7.5 mg + glimepiride 2mg
105 metformin 850mg + pioglitazone 7.5 mg + glimepiride 1mg
106 metformin 500mg/500mg+gliclazide sr 30mg/60mg + pioglitazone 7.5mg/7.5mg
107 voglibose + pioglitazone + metformin
108 metformin + bromocriptine
109 metformin + glimepiride + methylcobalamin
110 pioglitazone 30 mg + metformin 500 mg
111 glimepiride + pioglitazone + metformin
112 glipizide 2.5mg + metformin 400 mg
113 pioglitazone 15mg + metformin 850 mg
114 metformin er + gliclazide Mr. + voglibose
115 chromium polynicotinate + metformin
116 metformin + gliclazide + piogllitazone + chromium polynicotinate
117 metformin + gliclazide + chromium polynicotinate
118 glibenclamide + metformin (sr)+ pioglitazone
119 metformin (sustainded release) 500mg + pioglitazone 15 mg + glimepiride 3mg
120 metformin (sr) 500mg + pioglitazone 5mg
121 chloramphenicol + beclomethasone + clomitrimazole + lignocaine
122 of clotrimazole + ofloxaxin + lignocaine + glycerine and propylene glycol
123 chloramphennicol + lignocaine + betamethasone + clotrimazole + ofloxacin + antipyrine
124 ofloxacin + clotrimazole + betamethasone + lignocaine
125 gentamicin sulphate + clotrimazole + betamethasone + lignocaine
126 clotrimazole + beclomethasone + ofloxacin + lignocaine
127 becloemthasone + clotrimazole + chloramphenicol + gentamycin + lignocaine ear
128 flunarizine + paracetamole + domperidone
129 rabeprazole + zinc carnosine
130 magaldrate + famotidine + simethicone
131 cyproheptadine + thiamine
132 magaldrate + ranitidine + pancreatin + domperidone
133 ranitidine + magaldrate + simethicone
134 magaldrate + papain + fungul diastase + simethicone
135 rabeprazole + zinc + domperidone
136 famotidine + oxytacaine + magaldrate
137 ranitidine + domperidone + simethicone
138 alginic acid + sodium bicarbonate + dried aluminium hydroxide + magnesium hydroxide
139 clidinium + paracetamol + dicyclomine + activated dimethicone
140 furazolidone + metronidazole + loperamide
141 rabeprazole + diclofenac + paracetamol
142 ranitidine + magaldrate
143 norfloxacin+ metronidazole + zinc acetate
144 zinc carnosine + oxetacaine
145 oxetacaine + magaldrate + famotidine
146 pantoprazole (as enteric coated tablet) + zinc carnosine (as film coated tablets)
147 zinc carnosine + magnesium hydroxide + dried aluminium hydroxide + simethicone
148 zinc carnosine + sucralfate
149 mebeverine & inner hpmc capsule (streptococcus faecalis + clostridium butyricum + bacillus
Mesentricus + lactic acid bacillus)
150 clindamycin + clotrimazole + lactic acid bacillus

151 sildenafil + estradiol valerate
152 clomifene citrate + ubidecarenone + zinc + folic acid + methylcobalamin + pyridoxine + lycopene
+ selenium + levocarnitine tartrate + l-arginine
153 thyroxine + pyridoxine + folic acid
154 gentamycin + dexamethasone + chloramphenicol + tobramycin + ofloxacin
155 dextromethorphan + levocetirizine + phenylephrine + zinc
156 nimesulide + loratadine + phenylephrine + ambroxol
157 bromhexine + phenylephrine + chlorepheniramine maleate
158 dextromethorphan + bromhexine + guaiphenesin
159 paracetamol + loratadine + phenylephrine + dextromethorphan + caffeine
160 nimesulide + phenylephrine + caffeine + levocetirizine
161 azithromycin + acebrophylline
162 diphenhydramine + terpine + ammonium chloride + sodium chloride + menthol
163 nimesulide + paracetamol + cetirizine + phenylephrine
164 paracetamol + loratadine + dextromethophan + pseudoepheridine + caffeine
165 chlorpheniramine maleate + dextromethorphan + dextromethophan + guaiphenesin + ammonium
Chloride + menthol
166 chlorpheniramine maleate + ammonium chloride + sodium citrate
167 cetirizine + phenylephrine + paracetamol + zinc gluconate
168 ambroxol
+ guaiphenesin + ammonium chloride + phenylephrine + chlorpheniramine maleate + menthol
169 dextromethorphen + bromhexine + chlorpheniramine maleate + guaiphenesin
170 levocetirizine + ambroxol + phenylephrine + guaiphenesin
171 dextromethorphan + chlorpheniramine + chlorpheniramine maleate 
172 cetirizine + ambroxol + guaiphenesin + ammonium chloride + phenylephrine +
Menthol
173 hlorpheniramine + phenylephrine + caffeine
174 dextromethorphan + triprolidine + phenylephrine
175 dextromethorphan + phenylephrine + zinc gluconate + menthol
176 chlorpheniramine + codeine + sodium citrate + menthol syrup
177 enrofloxacin + bromhexin
178 bromhexine + dextromethorphan + phenylephrine + menthol
179 levofloxacin + bromhexine
180 levocetirizine + phenylephrine + ambroxol + guaiphenesin + paracetamol
181 cetirizine + dextromethorphan + phenylephrine + zinc gluconate + paracetamol + menthol
182 paracetamol + pseudoephedrine + dextromethorphan+cetirizine
183 diphenhydramine + guaiphenesin + ammonium chloride + bromhexine
184 chlorpheniramine + dextromethorphan + phenylephrine + paracetamol
185 dextromethorphen + promethazine
186 diethylcabamazine citrate + cetirizine + guaiphenesin
187 chlorpheniramine + phenylephrine + dextromethophan + menthol
188 ambroxol + terbutaline + dextromethorphan
189 dextromethorphan + chlorpheniramine + guaiphenesin
190 terbutaline + bromhexine + guaiphenesin + dextromethorphan
191 dextromethorphan + tripolidine + phenylephirine
192 paracetamol + dextromethorphan + chlorpheniramine
193 codeine + levocetirizine + menthol
194 dextromethorphan + ambroxol + guaifenesin + phenylephrine + chlorpheniramine
195 cetirizine + phenylephrine + dextromethorphan + menthol
196 roxithromycin + serratiopeptidase
197 paracetamol + phenylephrine + triprolidine
198 cetirizine + acetaminophen + dextromethorphan + phenyephrine + zinc gluconate 
199 diphenhydramine + guaifenesin + bromhexine + ammonium chloride + menthol
200 chlopheniramine maleate + codeine syrup
201 cetirizine + dextromethorphan + zinc gluconate + menthol
202 paracetamol + phenylephrine + desloratadine + zinc gluconate + ambroxol
203 levocetirizine + montelukast + acebrophylline
204 dextromethorphan + phenylephrine + ammonium chloride + menthol
205 acrivastine + paracetamol + caffeine + phenylephrine
206 naphazoline + carboxy methyl cellulose + menthol + camphor + phenylephrine
207 dextromethorphan + cetirizine
208 nimesulide + paracetamol + levocetirizine + phenylephrine + caffeine
209 terbutaline + ambroxol + guaiphenesin + zinc + menthol
210 dextromethorphan + phenylephrine + guaifenesin + triprolidine
211 ammomium chloride + bromhexine + dextromethorphan 
212 diethylcarbamazine + cetirizine + ambroxol
213 ethylmorphine + noscapine + chlorpheniramine
214 cetirizine + dextromethorphan + ambroxol
215 ambroxol + guaifenesin + phenylephrine + chlorpheniramine
216 paracetamol + phenylephrine + chlorpheniramine + zinc gluconate
217 dextromethorphan + phenylephrine + cetirizine + paracetamol + caffeine
218 dextromethophan + chlorpheniramine + guaifenesin + ammonium chloride
219 levocetirizine + dextromethorphan + zinc
220 paracetamol + phenylephrine + levocetirizine + caffeine
221 chlorphaniramine + ammonium chloride + sodium chloride
222 paracetamol + dextromethorphan + bromhexine + phenylephrine + diphenhydramine
223 salbutamol + bromhexine + guaiphenesin + menthol
224 cetirizine + dextromethorphan + bromhexine + guaifenesin
225 diethyl carbamazine + chlorpheniramine + guaifenesin
226 ketotifen + cetirizine
227 terbutaline + bromhexine + etofylline
228 ketotifen + theophylline
229 ambroxol + salbutamol + theophylline
230 cetririzine + nimesulide + phenylephrine
231 chlorpheniramine + phenylephrine + paracetamol + zink gluconate
232 acetaminophen + guaifenesin + dextromethorphan + chlorpheniramine
233 cetirizine + dextromethorphan + phenylephrine + tulsi
234 cetirizine + phenylephrine + paracetamol + ambroxol + caffeine
235 guaifenesin + dextromethorphan
236 levocetirizine + paracetamol + phenylephirine + caffeine
237 caffeine + paracetamol + phenylephrine + chlorpheniramine
238 levocetirizine + paracetamol + phenylephirine + caffeine
239 caffeine + paracetamol + phenylephrine + chlorpheniramine
240 ketotifen + levocetrizine
241 paracetamol + levocetirizine + phenylephirine + zink gluconate
242 paracetamol + phenylephrine + triprolidine + caffeine
243 caffeine + paracetamol + phenylephrine + cetirizine
244 caffeine + paracetamol + chlorpheniramine
245 ammonium chloride + dextromethorphan + cetirizine + menthol
246 dextromethorphan + paracetamol + cetirizine + phenylephrine
247 chlorpheniramine + terpin + antimony potassium tartrate + ammonium chloride + sodium
Citrate + menthol
248 terbutaline + etofylline + ambroxol
249 paracetamol + codeine + chlorpheniramine
250 paracetamol+pseudoephedrine+certirizine+caffeine
251 chlorpheniramine+ammonium chloride + menthol
252 n-acetyl cysteine + ambroxol + phenylephrine + levocertirizine
253 dextromethorphan + phenylephrine + tripolidine + menthol
254 salbutamol + certirizine + ambroxol
255 dextromethorphan + phenylephrine + bromhexine + guaifenesin + chlorpheniramine
256 nimesulide + certirizine + phenylephrine
257 naphazoline + chlorpheniramine + zinc sulphate + boric acid + sodium chloride + chlorobutol
258 paracetamol + bromhexine + phenylephrine + chlorpheniramine + guaifenesin
259 salbutamol + bromhexine
260 dextromethorphan + phenylephrine + guaifenesin + certirizine + acetaminophen
261 guaifenesin + bromhexine + chlorpheniramine + paracetamo
262 chlorpheniramine + ammonium chloride + chloroform + menthol
263 salbutamol + choline theophylinate + ambroxol
264 chlorpheniramine + codeine phosphate + menthol syrup
265 pseudoephedrine + bromhexine
266 certirizine + phenylephrine + paracetamol + caffeine + nimesulide
267 dextromethorphan + cetirizine + guaifenesin + ammonium chloride
268 dextromethorphan + cetirizine + guaifenesin + ammonium chloride
269 ambroxol + salbutamol + choline theophyllinate + menthol
270 paracetamol + chlorpheniramine + ambroxol + guaifenesin + phenylephrine
271 chlorpheniramine + vasaka + tolubalsm + ammonium chloride + sodium citrate + menthol
272 bromhexine + cetrizine + phenylephrine ip+guaifenesin + menthol
273 dextromethorphan + ambroxol + ammonium chloride + chlorpheniramine + menthol
274 dextromethorphan + phenylephrine + cetirizine + zinc + menthol
275 terbutaline + n-acetyl l-cysteine + guaifenesin
276 calcium gluconate + levocetirizine
277 paracetamol + levocetirizine + pseudoephedrine
278 salbutamol + choline theophylinate + carbocisteine
279 chlorpheniramine + vitamin c
280 calcium gluconate + chlorpheniramine + vitamin c
281 chlorpheniramine + paracetamol + pseudoephedrine + caffeine
282 guaifenesin + bromhexine + chlorpheniramine + phenylephrine + paracetamol + serratiopeptidase
(as enteric coated granules) 10000 sp units
283 paracetamol + pheniramine
284 betamethasone + fusidic acid + gentamycin + tolnaftate + lodochlorhydroxyquinoline (ichq
285 clobetasol + ofloxacin + miconazole + zinc sulphate
286 clobetasole + gentamicin + miconazole + zinc sulphate
287 levocetirizine + ambroxol + phenylephrine + paracetamol
288 permethrin + cetrimide + menthol
289 beclomethasone + clotimazole + neomycin + lodochlorohydroxyquinone
290 neomycin + doxycycline
291 ciprofloxacin + fluocinolone + clotrimazole + neomycin + chlorocresol
292 clobetasol + ofloxacin + ketoconazol + zinc sulphate
293 betamethasone + gentamicin + tolnaftate + lodochlorhydroxyquinoline
294 clobetasol + gentamicin + tolnaftate + lodochlorhydroxyquinone + ketoconazole
295 allantoin + dimethieone + urea + propylene + glycerin + liquid paraffin
296 acriflavine + thymol + cetrimide
297 betamethasone + neomycin + tolnaftate + lodochlorohydroxyquinoline + cholorocresol
298 clobetasol + neomycin + miconazole + clotrimazole
299 ketoconazole + tea tree oil + allantion + zinc oxide + aloe vera + jojoba oil +
Lavander oil + soa noodels
300 clobetasol propionate + ofloxacin + ornidazole + terbinafine
301 clobetasol + neomycin + miconazole + zinc sulphate
302 beclomethasone diproprionate + neomycin + tolnaftate + lodochlorhydroxyquinoline +
Chlorocresol
303 betamethasone + gentamycin + zinc sulphate + clotrimoazole + chlorocresol
304 borax + boric acid + naphazoline + menthol + camphor + methyl hydroxy benzoate
305 bromhexine + dextromethorphan
306 dextromethophan + chlopheniramine + bromhexine
307 menthol + anesthetic ether
308 dextrometharphan + chlopheniramine + ammonium + sodium citrate + menthol
309 ergotamine tartrate + belladona dry extarct+caffeine + paracetamol
310 phenytoin + phenobarbitone
311 gliclazide 40mg + metformin 400mg
312 paracetamol + ambroxol + phenylephrine + chlorpheniramine
313 oflaxacin + ornidazole suspension
314 albuterol + etofylline + bromhexine + menthol
315 albuterol + bromhexine + theophylline
316 salbutamol+hydroxyethyltheophylline (etofylline) + bromhexine
317 paracetamol+phenylephrine+levocetirizine+sodium citrate
318 paracetamol + propyphenazone + caffeine
319 guaifenesin + diphenhydramine + bromhexine + phenylephrine
320 dried alumnium hydroxie gel + prophantheline + diazepam
321 bromhenxine + phenylephrine + chlorpheniramine + paracetamol
322 beclomethasone + clotrimazole + gentamicin + lodochlorhydroxyquinoline
323 telmisartan + metformin
324 ammonium citrate + vitamin b 12 + folic acid + zinc sulphate
325 levothyroxine + phyridoxine + nicotinamide
326 benfotiamine + metformin
327 thyroid + thiamine + riboflavin + phyridoxine + calcium pantothenate + tocopheryl acetate +
Nicotinamide
328 ascorbic acid + manadione sodium bisulphate + rutin + dibasic calcium phosphate +
Adrenochrome mono semicarbazone
329 phenylephrine + chlorpheniramine + paracetamol + bromhexine + caffeine
330 clotrimazole + beclomethasone + lignocaine + ofloxacin + acetic aicd + sodium methyl paraben +
Propyl paraben

Avoid this combinations and be safe.

316 people found this helpful

TENNIS ELBOW

Dr. N C Gupta 90% (17186 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
TENNIS ELBOW
(Syn. Lateral, Epicondylitis)
Technically Tennis Elbow is a misnomer, since most often it occurs in non tennis players. Less than 5% of patients of tennis elbow play tennis (Ludwig Ombregt et al)
Tennis elbow is a clinical condition where patient feels pain on the outer side of elbow while attempting to lift any object with palm facing downwards but the same act can be done with the palm facing upwards. Pain is also produced in any rotatory movement at the wrist e.g. opening a tap or wringing the clothes.
This is due to the internal swelling (inflammation) on the outside (Lateral Side) of the lower end of arm bone (Humerus, Lateral Epicondyle). It is at this place that all the muscles of the fore arm that lift the wrist upwards (Common Extensors) are attached. Any attempt to move these muscles cause pain.
Tennis Elbow is usually caused by a direct hit on the lateral epicondyle. Other diseases like Koch’s or metastatic deposits should be ruled out. Sometimes Cervical Spondylosis may present as tennis elbow. It is more common in diabetic and obese people.
Treatment is simple.
Diabetes must be ruled out and controlled.
Avoid painful acts and activities.
Fomentation with warm water or paraffin wax bath helps.
Pressure bandage during the day gives relief; it should be avoided at night as it can cause swelling of the fore arm.
Non steroid, anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) have a definite role to play in the management of tennis elbow they take away pain and swelling at the common extensor origin. There is effect is potentiated by anti oxidants like omega three fatty acids, methyl, cobalamine and other vitamin supplements.
2 people found this helpful

Parkinson's Disease - What Causes It?

Dr. Sambhaji S Garje 92% (10 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), Fellowship In Ano-Rectal-Surgery
Ayurvedic Doctor, Thane
Parkinson's Disease - What Causes It?

Parkinsonism is often mistaken for Parkinson's Disease. Though similar in quite a few aspects, yet Parkinsonism is not the same as Parkinson's Disease. Parkinsonism is a medical condition whereby the affected individual exhibits some symptoms identical to those observed in the case of a Parkinson's disease.

Factors that lead to Parkinsonism
Parkinsonism can result from a host of factors and health condition such as

  1. Increased and repeated exposure to toxic gases and substances, namely organic solvents, cyanide, manganese, or carbon monoxide.
  2. People suffering from the repeated head injury (as in the case of boxing or wrestling).
  3. The medications used in the treatment of psychiatric problems (antipsychotic medicines) or those used in treating nausea (Prochlorperazine or even Metoclopramide). Some of the antipsychotic drugs have the potential to interfere (block) with the activity of the neurotransmitter Dopamine resulting in parkinsonism.
  4. The use of MPTP (1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine), especially the oxidized product MPP+ (1-methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium) can wreck havoc resulting in parkinsonism and the associated symptoms.

Some of the medical conditions that can contribute towards Parkinsonism include

  1. Viral Encephalitis (resulting in acute brain inflammation).
  2. Alzheimer's Disease (a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that triggers cognitive and behavioral problems often accompanied with dementia).
  3. Multiple system atrophy (a progressive neurodegenerative disorder resulting in dysfunctioning of the autonomic nervous system and the voluntary movements).
  4. Progressive supranuclear palsy or Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome (a rare disorder of the brain that interferes with the balancing, walking, and the eye movements of the affected person.
  5. Stroke or a brain tumor.
  6. Lewy body dementia (a condition triggered by the unusual accumulation of alpha-synuclein protein in the brain with the person exhibiting symptoms associated with both Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease).
  7. Wilson Disease (an autosomal recessive condition whereby copper starts accumulating in the vital organs including the liver and the brain).

Symptoms
In patients with parkinsonism,

  1. The muscles appear stiff. A person experiences a resting tremor (tremor that mainly affects one hand even when the muscles are relaxed), along with difficulty while walking or balancing their body. (These symptoms are also characteristic of a Parkinson's disease).
  2. Further, there may be early signs of dementia (loss of memory or forgetfulness). There may be Agnosia, Aphasia, or Apraxia
  3. Constipation, a dip in the blood pressure, difficulties in eating or swallowing of food.
  4. Hallucinations and loss of judgment (such as failing to locate the kitchen or bathroom at home).
  5. Unusual eye movements.

Ayurvedic Treatment
According to Ayurveda, Parkinsonism is a manifestation of the vitiation of the Vata Dosha (Wind energy) that takes place in the cranial nerves. Thus, corrective measures are followed to restore the balance between the Vata, Kapha, and Pitta Dosha.

  1. Panchakarma can bring about a visible improvement in patients with Parkinsonism. Oil massages using Ashwagandha and Bala can work wonders.
  2. Brahmi is another wonder herb used to treat Parkinsonism.
  3. Meditation, exercise (light to moderate), yoga can be helpful in the case of Parkinsonism.
  4. Try and make the diet as nutritious and healthy as possible.
  5. A Warm Ayurvedic Oil Application is very effective in relieving these kinds of aches and pain if done on regular basis.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4535 people found this helpful

Parkinsonism - Factors That Can Lead To It!

Dr. Harshita Sethi 91% (215 ratings)
MD - Ayurveda, CIY, Guru Shishya parampara, BAMS
Ayurvedic Doctor, Gurgaon
Parkinsonism - Factors That Can Lead To It!

Parkinsonism is often mistaken for Parkinson's Disease. Though similar in quite a few aspects, yet Parkinsonism is not the same as Parkinson's Disease. Parkinsonism is a medical condition whereby the affected individual exhibits some symptoms identical to those observed in the case of a Parkinson's disease.

Factors that lead to Parkinsonism
Parkinsonism can result from a host of factors and health condition such as

  1. Increased and repeated exposure to toxic gases and substances, namely organic solvents, cyanide, manganese, or carbon monoxide.
  2. People suffering from the repeated head injury (as in the case of boxing or wrestling).
  3. The medications used in the treatment of psychiatric problems (antipsychotic medicines) or those used in treating nausea (Prochlorperazine or even Metoclopramide). Some of the antipsychotic drugs have the potential to interfere (block) with the activity of the neurotransmitter Dopamine resulting in parkinsonism.
  4. The use of MPTP (1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine), especially the oxidized product MPP+ (1-methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium) can wreck havoc resulting in parkinsonism and the associated symptoms.

Some of the medical conditions that can contribute towards Parkinsonism include

  1. Viral Encephalitis (resulting in acute brain inflammation).
  2. Alzheimer's Disease (a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that triggers cognitive and behavioral problems often accompanied with dementia).
  3. Multiple system atrophy (a progressive neurodegenerative disorder resulting in dysfunctioning of the autonomic nervous system and the voluntary movements).
  4. Progressive supranuclear palsy or Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome (a rare disorder of the brain that interferes with the balancing, walking, and the eye movements of the affected person.
  5. Stroke or a brain tumor.
  6. Lewy body dementia (a condition triggered by the unusual accumulation of alpha-synuclein protein in the brain with the person exhibiting symptoms associated with both Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease).
  7. Wilson Disease (an autosomal recessive condition whereby copper starts accumulating in the vital organs including the liver and the brain).


Symptoms
In patients with parkinsonism,

  1. The muscles appear stiff. A person experiences a resting tremor (tremor that mainly affects one hand even when the muscles are relaxed), along with difficulty while walking or balancing their body. (These symptoms are also characteristic of a Parkinson's disease).
  2. Further, there may be early signs of dementia (loss of memory or forgetfulness). There may be Agnosia, Aphasia, or Apraxia
  3. Constipation, a dip in the blood pressure, difficulties in eating or swallowing of food.
  4. Hallucinations and loss of judgment (such as failing to locate the kitchen or bathroom at home).
  5. Unusual eye movements.

Ayurvedic Treatment
According to Ayurveda, Parkinsonism is a manifestation of the vitiation of the Vata Dosha (Wind energy) that takes place in the cranial nerves. Thus, corrective measures are followed to restore the balance between the Vata, Kapha, and Pitta Dosha.

  1. Panchakarma can bring about a visible improvement in patients with Parkinsonism. Oil massages using Ashwagandha and Bala can work wonders.
  2. Brahmi is another wonder herb used to treat Parkinsonism.
  3. Meditation, exercise (light to moderate), yoga can be helpful in the case of Parkinsonism.
  4. Try and make the diet as nutritious and healthy as possible.
  5. A Warm Ayurvedic Oil Application is very effective in relieving these kinds of aches and pain if done on regular basis.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4446 people found this helpful

Alzheimer's Disease - Can Surgery Help You Treat It?

MBBS, MD - Radiology, DNB (Radiology), DM (Diagnostic & Interventional Neuroradiology), CCST (UK)
Neurosurgeon, Kolkata
Alzheimer's Disease - Can Surgery Help You Treat It?

In recent times, the advancement of medical science has substantially contributed in comprehending the Alzheimer’s disease. Unfortunately, the number of individuals suffering from the disease is expected to rise in the next ten years which pose a threat to the allocation of health care resources and public health. Alzheimer’s disease is thought to be a complex disease which influences a person’s behavior as well as cognition through numerous mechanisms.

Can surgery be deemed as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease?
The surgery is a multicenter clinical trial which is making a new direction in clinical research. It is devised to halt or slow down the problems caused by the disease which gradually erases a lifetime of memories in elderly patients. Though there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, it has been found that low-voltage electric charges delivered right at the brain. Only the symptomatic therapies for Alzheimer’s disease are provided which do not have any effect on the evolution of the disease. The standard medical treatments for Alzheimer’s disease include cholinesterase inhibitors along with a partial N-methyl D-aspartate antagonist. In most cases of mild to moderate symptoms of this disease, a combination of treatments is used according to the clinical history, age and condition of the patient.

Mental activity supporting cognition
Many patients having normal cognition or mild impairment have a fear that they may develop AD. Many experts are of the opinion that mentally challenging activities including brain teasers and crossword puzzles can be helpful in reducing the risks in such patients. Clinical trials are under the way for determining whether or not these types of activities have any substantial effect on halting the progression of AD.

Treating AD in its moderate to the severe stage
Numerous studies have shown that blockade of NMDA receptors by memantine can be used safely in combination with ChEls. This combination has been shown to delay the institutionalization in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

Treating secondary symptoms
A variety of behavioral as well as pharmacologic interventions can help in overcoming the clinical manifestations of the disease. These include anxiety, psychotic behavior, depression and agitation among others. The effectiveness of this disease can range from modest to excellent. No particular agent or dose of it can be unanimously accepted to be the sole treatment option for the wide range of clinical issues. Moreover, in the recent time, the FDA has not accepted any psychotropic agent for treating AD.

Along with these treatment options, there are behavioral interventions that can range from patient-centred approaches to caregiver training for helping manage the cognitive and behavioral manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease. Last but not the least, it is very crucial to point out the significance of treatment in the early stages of AD in order to cure it better. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2944 people found this helpful

Seizures - How To Get Rid of It?

MS - General Surgery, MCh - Neuro Surgery, MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Greater Noida
Seizures - How To Get Rid of It?

The primary aim of the treatment in patients suffering from seizure is leasing a seizure-free life without giving way to any adverse effects. This goal can be accomplished in over 60 percent people with the help of anticonvulsants. Some patients also experience adverse effects since they suffer from a seizure which is refractory to medical therapy. Here are some of the common treatment options for seizures:

  1. Monotherapy: Sometimes, monotherapy is given as it reduces the chance of all sorts of adverse effects and even avoids drug interactions. Moreover, this type of treatment approach is much less expensive than polytherapy since many older generation of the anticonvulsant agent comprises of hepatic enzyme which is responsible for reducing the serum level of the concomitant drug which leads to an increase in the dosage level of such medicines.
  2. Social And vocational rehabilitation: People suffering from problems in psychosocial adjustments after the diagnosis may also need social and vocational rehabilitation. Many physicians do not pay enough attention to the consequences that an epilepsy diagnosis may leave on the patient. For instance, people with epilepsy may have a fear of experiencing next attack of seizure and they may be unable to work at heights or drive.
  3. Consulting an expert: It is important to refer patients with intractable spells to epileptologist or neurologist for subsequent workup. A neurosurgical consultation may also be needed when the patient has to be treated surgically.

Importance of anticonvulsant therapy
Patients who have had already suffered from recurrent attacks of unprovoked seizure may need treatment with an anticonvulsant. This treatment is not recommended until the person has risk factors for suffering from the problem yet again. The primary means of treating seizure is anticonvulsant therapy where the most suitable drug is chosen based on accurate diagnosis of the syndrome as a response to specific anticonvulsants may vary from one patient to another. The difference in response may reflect the various pathophysiologic mechanisms in different types of seizures.

Types of anticonvulsant therapy
Some of the anticonvulsant therapy medication may have multiple action mechanism while some have an only single mechanism of action. Some of the most common variants of the therapy include:

  1. Neuronal potassium channel referred to as KCNQ opener
  2. Blockers of unique binding sites such as perampanel, gabapentin, and levetiracetam
  3. H-current modulators such as lamotrigine and gabapentin
  4. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as zonisamide and topiramate
  5. Alpha-amino 3-hydroxy 5-methyl 4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor blockers like topiramate and perampanel.
  6. N and L-calcium channel blockers like zonisamide, valproate, topiramate, and lamotrigine

Even though there are so many types of drugs available, all of them cannot be used for the treatment of seizures. Doctors would evaluate the condition thoroughly before prescribing a medication that can be helpful in reducing the severity of the condition. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2541 people found this helpful

Signs Of Hypertension During Pregnancy!

Dr. Amrita Saha 86% (23 ratings)
MBBS, MD / MS - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Kanpur
Signs Of Hypertension During Pregnancy!

Blood pressure is the thrust exerted by the blood against the artery walls or blood vessels. A certain count of blood pressure is necessary for blood circulation, but anything excessive may prove to be trouble. A reading above the count considered normal; 140/90 (mmHg) may induce symptoms, such as short breath, severe headaches, nosebleeds and anxiety.

Any sort of hypertension during pregnancy can take a toll on the baby.

1. Preeclampsia is a condition wherein, the blood pressure peeks high after 20 weeks of conception accompanied by traces of protein in urine and functional disorders in a few organs.

2. Hypertension might often result in the delivery of an underdeveloped (abnormally small size) baby.

3. High blood pressure might also give rise to a complication wherein, one might have to go for Caesarian section rather than a normal vaginal delivery.

4. The placenta detaches itself from the uterine wall much prior to the delivery.

5. Preeclampsia escalates one’s risks of suffering from heart disorders or other cardiovascular diseases.

6. It restricts the blood flow to the placenta (an organ nourishing the baby), thus cutting off adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus.

Signs and symptoms:

1. Excessive protein content in urine

2. Impaired liver functioning

3. Low urine levels

4. Nausea or vomiting

5. Intense pain and tenderness in the upper abdomen

6. Problems in eyesight such as double vision or temporary loss of vision, light sensitivity and blurriness.

7. Abnormal swelling

8. Persistent and a severe headache

Treatment:

Medications do meddle with pregnancy. However, certain medications are considered safe to be used for keeping blood pressure levels under control. These include B blocker or alpha methyl dopa. However, do consult a doctor to get your dosage administered accurately.

2805 people found this helpful

How Ayurveda Helps Treat Joint And Spine Pain?

Dr. P K Dhawan 88% (1378 ratings)
MSc Applied Biology, Diploma in Naturopathy
Ayurvedic Doctor, Delhi
How Ayurveda Helps Treat Joint And Spine Pain?

Panchakarma is an ayurvedic technique which is used to detoxify the body, boost the immune system and restore the balance in the body. Due to lack of exercise and a poor diet, the waste material generated by the body is not effectively discharged. This causes accumulation of toxins in the body that can result in diseases.

Panchakarma can be used to treat and heal the pain in the joints and the spine. There are specific treatments in panchakarma that targets these regions, they are:

1. Abhyanga - Abhyanga is a technique where warm oil is used to cover the entire body. The oil is then gently massaged so that it can penetrate the underlying tissues. It is used to lubricate the joints, muscle toning and to increase blood supply around nerve endings.

 2. Pindasweda - In this technique hot cotton bags consisting of herbs, rice, and sand or medical powder are used to massage the body. This rejuvenating therapy induces perspiration in the body by which the herbs and the heat penetrates into the body. It is used to treat problems of the joints such as gout, arthritis, and sciatica.


 3. Upanaha - A combination of herbal medicine is applied to the affected part and then covered with medicinal leaves. The herbs help in easing the muscles and tendons of the affected part. It relieves pain, reduces swellings and improves mobility in the joint.

 4. Kati vista - In this treatment, medicated oil is pooled into a collar made from dough and then placed on the lower back for a specific amount of time. It strengthens the lower back, lubricates the spine and acts as a muscle pain reliever.

Also, natural shark cartilage preprations, oral as well as for local applictions if available help relief in pain lubricating joints by gulucosamine /chondrite sulphate because those sulpher compounds in methyl sulphamethane creams are found to provide relief. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ayurveda.

3134 people found this helpful

Mouthwash - How Vital Is It?

Dr. Arunima Chandra 91% (404 ratings)
BDS , MCP
Dentist, Bangalore
Mouthwash - How Vital Is It?

Mouthwash has become an essential ingredient of one's oral hygiene kit. Though not a substitute for flossing or brushing, it offers additional oral protection.

Due to a host of ingredients, such as alcohol, chlorhexidine, cetylpyridinium chloride, menthol, methyl salicylate, fluoride, antibacterial enzymes, hydrogen peroxide, essential oils, zinc chloride and other herbs and natural ingredients, mouthwash has a number of benefits.

Alcohol is the basic ingredient in all of them. While fluoride protects against decay, chlorhexidine protects against gum diseases. Hydrogen peroxide produces a mild bleaching effect. Herbs and essential oils produce a freshening effect.

Benefits of using a mouthwash -

  1. Reduces the formation of tartar and plaque.
  2. Protects from oral problems like gingivitis and periodontal disease, especially if it contains cetylpyridinium or essential oils. Chlorhexidine is also effective in protecting plaque formation and gingivitis.
  3. Kills bacteria in the mouth and prevents cavities or decay, especially if it contains fluoride.
  4. Mouthwash, to some extent, covers up bad breath due to oral hygiene or oral disease and produces a fresher breath.
  5. Certain mouthwashes containing cetylpyridinium chloride and zinc chloride produce a better breath freshening effect.
  6. Helps manage dry mouth, especially if containing Biotene.

Types of Mouthwash -

1. Cosmetic
2. Therapeutic

The cosmetic one is usually for freshening up the breath and is not regulated by the FDA. The therapeutic ones contain active ingredients aimed at addressing one of the issues like plaque formation, bad breath, dry mouth, or decay. They kill bacteria, reduce plaque, fight gingivitis, and control decay. They are not a substitute for brushing or flossing but supplement these two very well. These are approved by the FDA and are proven in terms of safety and efficacy. Rinses with zinc chloride are effective against bad breath, those with fluoride are useful in people who are cavity-prone, and chlorhexidine helps prevent gum disease.

Choosing a mouthwash - This depends on the oral health condition, and it is always advisable that the dentist prescribes the right rinse for you.

When and how to use mouthwash - When you are done with your brushing and flossing, rinse your mouth with a capful of the mouthwash liquid. Swish it around your mouth for about 30 seconds and spit it out. Avoid brushing, drinking water, or rinsing your mouth after using a mouthwash for about 15 to 20 minutes. This will give sufficient time for the active ingredients in the mouthwash (especially if it is a therapeutic one) to act in the mouth. Brushing after mouthwash removes all the effect of the rinse.

5255 people found this helpful