Hiv treatment is done by antiviral drugs, there are a number of antiviral drugs available in the market, usually HIV is treated with a combination of drugs, usually two to three drugs are used in treating HIV in the initial stage, we can change the combination of drugs according to the requirement of the patient. Drugs can be adjusted or increased if there is the resistance of HIV in the patient.
There are a number of compounds (about 22 in number) which have been formally approved (by us food and drug administration) for the treatment of HIV infections (aids). According to their point of intervention with the HIV replicative cycle, these compounds can be classified into 5 categories: (1) nrtis (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors): azidothymidine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir and emtricitabine; (2) ntrtis (nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors): tenofovir, administered as its oral prodrug form tdf (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate); (3) nnrtis (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors): nevirapine, delavirdine and efavirenz; (4) pis (hiv protease inhibitors): saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, tipranavir and darunavir; and (5) fis (fusion inhibitors): enfuvirtide. Starting from the drugs which are currently available for the treatment of aids, numerous combinations could be envisaged. Drug combinations are, in principle, aimed at obtaining synergism between the compounds (reasonably expected if they act by different mechanisms), while reducing the likelihood of drug resistance development. Such anti-hiv drug combination regimes were initiated about 10 years ago and have been generally referred to as haart (for highly active antiretroviral therapy). While haart originally consisted of a pill burden of twenty (or more) pills per day, this has been gradually diminished over the past few years, and, since July 2006, an all-in-one pill (teevir from myelin and virotrenz from ranbaxy sun pharma) has become available, which contains three anti-hiv drugs (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg, emtricitabine200mg and efavirenz 600 mg) to be taken as a single pill only once daily. Given the information that has been acquired for the therapeutic use (efficacy, safety) of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate over the past five years, it would now seem mandatory to further consider the prophylactic use of tdf [and its combination with emtricitabine (truvada) and/or atripla], as a single daily pill to prevent HIV infection. New combinations of drugs are also available which include tenofovir 300 mg lamivudine 150 mg which is very new drugs.
The skin is exposed to many things, which causes it to lose its luster and appear dull. Apart from the external factors certain internal factors also cause skin darkening. Internal factors, such as what you eat and how much you exercise also affect its condition and thus in turn, affects how you look. Your skin may develop dark spots, blemishes and tan. Let’s look at some of the ways this can be tackled resulting in fairer skin.
Changing lifestyle habits and your daily routine:
Homemade lightening treatments for your skin:
Hepatitis B and C are considered the world’s chronic viral hepatitis which kills a huge number of people every year. Even though it accounts for massive suffering as well as early death, it could only attract relatively less national and international attention. While the deaths caused by tuberculosis, malaria and HIV/AIDS have reduced to a great extent since the early 2000s, deaths stemming from hepatitis B and C are rising at a fast pace. It kills around 1 million people across the world.
Can medicine help in the treatment of hepatitis B and C?
There are numerous FDA approved medications available for the treatment of Hepatitis B and C. Here are some of the best medicines for this, but before you take them, you must consult an expert who can evaluate your symptoms and recommend the right drugs for you.
Medicines for Hepatitis B:
Medicines for Hepatitis C:
Both in the cases of Hepatitis B and C, it is important to diagnose the infection early. Prevention and cure are possible with precautionary measures and prescribed medications.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
If an HIV infection, treatment is primarily aimed at preventing evolve as long as possible and do not give way to the disease AIDS . In this case, the treatment is against HIV itself. If the emergence of AIDS and its accompanying diseases occur as a lung inflammation or bowel, treatment should include them. It is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle so that the immune system does not see further harmed. Many infected with HIV also have counseling and self-help centers with other affected. Drug Treatments Currently it has good information about certain steps in the single expansion of HIV infection. Thus, it has been possible to develop drugs that inhibit certain evolutions of cell infestation. HIV treatment is also called highly active antiretroviral therapy and its abbreviation is HAART. Specifically, this treatment includes the following medications: The entry inhibitors , which inhibit the entry of 'HIV virus' in human cells. VHI prevent adhesion of immune cells and / or dissolution of the viral envelope with the cell membrane (fusion). The excipient enfuvirtide eg prevents fusion. The reverse transcriptase inhibitor blocks a special top virus that can translate the genetic information of the virus (DNA) reverse transcriptase. This group of drugs includes, for example, substances such as lamivudine , the tenofovir or nevirapine . Another top virus, integrase, incorporating HIV DNA genetic information translated into immune cells. In this case, inhibitors of this enzyme, apply called integrase inhibitors . The drug raltegravir contains these integrase inhibitors. The protease inhibitors destroy other HIV enzyme, the HIV protease. If a cell is infected with HIV, forms a component of protein which could be born new HIV viruses. Protease HIV plays an important role in the composition of this protein. Inhibitors of this enzyme are involved in virus appear less capable of action in affected cells. Examples of protease inhibitors are drugs fosamprenavir , indinavir , nelfinavir, and ritonavir . Although 'AIDS' remains an incurable disease, it may be well with a combination therapy . This combination consists of at least three different drugs; usually several inhibitors of reverse transcriptase which are combined with a protease inhibitor.
What is Hepatitis B?
Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus.
Symptoms of Hepatitis B-
Causes of Hepatitis B-
Risk factors of Hepatitis B-
Complications of Hepatitis B-
Diagnosis of Hepatitis B-
There are a number of tests that can be used to diagnose hepatitis B infection:
Precautions & Prevention of Hepatitis B-
Treatment of Hepatitis B
Homeopathic Treatment of Hepatitis B-
Homeopathy is strongly recommended in cases of hepatitis. Homeopathy is known to work to the immunological level, and has proven its efficacy in the treatment of a wide range of viral infections. Homeopathic treatment can also help in preventing and curing the complications of Hepatitis B. Some of the homeopathic medicines for treatment of Hepatitis B are:
Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Hepatitis B-
Treating chronic or acute hepatitis with acupuncture is a long term process, especially if the condition has been present for many years. Acupuncture and herbs may be especially useful if Western drugs have not been able to reduce the viral load effectively. Acupuncturists usually diagnose hepatitis as Damp Heat in the Liver or Spleen.
Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Hepatitis B-
There are two categories of drugs used to treat chronic hepatitis B: nucleoside analogues and immunomodulators. The immunomodulators include interferon alfa and pegylated interferon. Interferon alfa was one of the first drugs approved to treat hepatitis B. It induces seroconversion from highly infective HBeAg to less infective anti-HBe status in 30 to 40 percent of patients. Lamivudine is the other mainstay of hepatitis B treatment. It helps suppress the replication of the virus and delay the progression of the disease.
Surgical Treatment of Hepatitis B-
Hepatitis B is a viral infection that affects the liver. There is no surgical treatment for hepatitis B. If your liver has been severely damaged, a liver transplant may be an option. During a liver transplant, the surgeon removes your damaged liver and replaces it with a healthy liver.
Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Hepatitis B-Eat a normal healthy and balanced diet
Cardiac problems are increasing in today’s world, because of stress, poor lifestyle, increased obesity and lack of physical activity. A cardiologist expertise in the field of cardiology and can identify early warning signs of any cardiac problems which we may not be able to get hold of. They are specialized in performing simple checks like blood pressure, pulse rate and diagnostic tests such as an ECG, a blood test or an X-ray.
Consult these best cardiologist in Kolkata today to check your heart health.
1. Dr. Sanjib Patra
MBBS, MD - Medicine, DM - Cardiology, Fellowship In Interventional Cardiology, Fellowship In
Consultation fees: ₹1000
Dr. Sanjib Patra is a Senior Consultant Cardiologist at Desun Hospital and heart institute, with 23 years of experience. He has done his DM- Cardiology in 2006 from All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. His areas of specialization are cardiac Electrophysiology and Interventional Cardiology. Dr. Patra has served many reputed institutions in the country. He has also handled certain difficult cases of Angiography, Cardiac ablation, Coronary Bypass Surgery and Mitral Valve Replacement.
2. Dr. Indranil Dutta
Consultation fees: ₹600-800
Dr. Indranil Dutta has over 30 years experience and specializes as interventional cardiologist. He is currently associated with Apollo clinic, Rabindranath Tagore hospital and NG Medicare. He is a member of some reputed international associations like Cardiological Society of India (CSI) and Association of Physicians of India (API). He was awarded with a gold medal in his final year of MD at GRMC & JIwaji University, Gwalior. He has successfully performed several coronary interventions, mitral valvuloplasty, permanent pacing and electrophysiology procedures.
3. Dr. Sandip Rungta
PGDCC, Fellowship in Diabetology, Fellowship in Emergency Medicine
Consultation fees: ₹600
Dr. Sandip Rungta is a renowned cardiologist and has 12 years of working experience. After completing his post graduate diploma in clinical cardiology, he completed fellowship in emergency medicine and diabetology. He runs his own clinic in Girish Park, Kolkata. His areas of expertise are congenital heart defects, coronary artery diseases, heart failures, valvular heart diseases and electrophysiology.
4. Dr. K.M. Mandana
MBBS, Mch, MS - General Surgery
Consultation fees: ₹900
Dr. K.M. Mandana is currently practicing at Fortis hospital in Kolkata as Consultant in cardiothoracic and vascular surgery. He has completed his MS in general surgery from S.N. Medical College, Rajasthan and MCh (Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery) from Kasturba Medical College & Hospital, Manipal. He has performed several critical and complex cardiothoracic and vascular surgeries in his 25 years of career.
5. Dr. Soumya Patra
MBBS, MD - Pediatrics, DM - Cardiology, FACC, FESC
Consultation fees: ₹700
Dr. Soumya Patra is a young interventional cardiologist and has performed various adult and Pediatric Cardiac intervention as well as cardiac device implantation. He is a professional member of American College of Cardiology (ACC), European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Intervention (EAPCI) and Acute Cardiac Care Association (ACCA) of European Society of Cardiology. He has also been awarded fellowship from American College of Cardiology (FACC) and European Society of Cardiology (FESC).
6. Dr. Sudeb Mukherjee
MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Cardiology
Consultation fees: ₹400
Dr. Sudeb Mukherjee is a qualified cardiologist with 4 years of experience. He is currently practicing at Amarjyoti, Kolkata. He completed his MD from Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education And Research, Kolkata.
7. Dr. Priyam Mukherjee
MBBS, MD - Cardiology, DM - Cardiology
Consultation fees: ₹800
Dr. Priyam Mukherjee has about 12 years of experience as a cardiologist. He is currently affiliated with Fortis hospital, Kolkata. He completed his MBBS from Calcutta university, after which he did MD and DM in cardiology from the same university.
8. Dr. Prithwiraj Bhattacharjee
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Cardiology
Consultation fees: ₹800
Dr. Prithwiraj Bhattacharjee is a consultant in Cardiology at Fortis Hospital, Kolkata. He has 9 years of working experience in this field and has performed various Angiography and Angioplasty procedures. He is an active member of Interventional Cardiology handouts and has national and international publications to his name.
9. Dr. Ritendra Nath Talapatra
MBBS, Diploma in Family Medicine (DFM), DNB - General Medicine, MNAMS (Membership of the National Academy), Post Graduate in Clinical Cardiology
Consultation fees: ₹400
Dr. Ritendra Nath Talapatra is a qualified DNB cardiologist and currently works at Charnock Hospital, Kolkata. He is a professional member of National Academy of Medical Sciences and has also been awarded with Dr. Abdul Kalam Gold Medal Award in 2015. His areas of interest are Non-invasive and Invasive Cardiology.
10. Dr. Arindam Pande
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Cardiology, FACC, FESC, FRCP
Consultation fees: ₹400
Dr. Arindam Pande has 14 years of experience as a cardiologist and currently works as a consultant at Apollo Gleneagles Hospital, Kolkata. His areas of specialization are structural heart disease interventions, coronary angiography and angioplasty via the radial route, permanent pacemaker implantation, implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD), cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV), BPV, electrophysiology (EP) study, peripheral vascular interventions and device closure of congenital heart disease.
He is member of some reputed associations such as Indian Medical Association (IMA), Cardiological Society of India (CSI), Indian college of cardiology, Fellowship of the European Society of Cardiology (FESC) and American College of Cardiology.
Tachycardia is also known as tachyarrhythmia. It is a common type of heart rhythm disorder. For adults, the normal resting heart rate is between 60 - 100 beats per minute. In tachyarrhythmia, the heart rate is greater than 100 beats per minute. The heart rate generally rises during exercise or when you take a lot of stress. But in case of tachycardia, the heartbeats are faster than normal in the upper or lower chambers or both while at rest. Various treatment options are available including medications and surgery to treat the heart disorder of tachycardia. Sometimes, people are not able to recognise the symptoms of tachycardia. Tachycardia can lead to serious heart problems or complications if not treated properly on time or left untreated. Heart failure, stroke, sudden cardiac arrest, or death can be some of the serious complications of tachycardia. So, if you find out that you are suffering from the symptoms of tachycardia then should visit the doctor at the earliest for a diagnosis.
Due to the fast heartbeat rate, your heart is not able to pump the blood properly to your body. This can lead to various symptoms or signs of tachycardia:
- Pain in the chest
- Rapid pulse rate
- Heart palpitations
- Sudden weakness
Sometimes, people do not experience the symptoms at all. They get to know about it from their doctor after the physical examination or electrocardiogram test.
Tachycardia happens when something disrupts the normal electrical impulses that control the rate of pumping action of your heart. Many things can cause the problem of tachycardia. Sometimes, it becomes hard to recognise the exact cause of tachycardia. Check out the various causes of tachycardia:
- Drinking too much alcohol and beverages that contain caffeine can lead to the problem of tachycardia.
- Congenital heart conditions which are present at the time of birth can lead to tachycardia.
- Sudden stress or hypertension can cause tachycardia.
- Tachycardia can also happen due to smoking, the consumption of cocaine and some other recreational drugs.
- Side effects can happen due to the intake of certain medicines which can result in tachycardia.
- Electrolytes are the mineral-related substances required for conducting electrical impulses. The imbalance of electrolytes can lead to tachycardia.
- Overactive thyroid, high or low blood pressure, fever, anaemia, certain lung diseases and more are some of the other causes of tachycardia.
How is it diagnosed?
As soon as you experience any or some of the symptoms of tachycardia, you should visit the doctor. The doctor will conduct a physical examination in order to diagnose the problem. Your doctor will ask you about your medical history and health habits. You may be asked to get some tests done including:
- Electrocardiogram (ECG or ECK): It is a painless test done to diagnose tachycardia. The small sensors (electrodes) are attached to your chest or arms in order to record the electrical activity of your heart. This test helps your doctor to know what type of tachycardia you have and how problems in your heart leading to a fast heart rate. This test provides the information for a limited time period. If your doctor wants more information then he may ask you to use portable ECG devices.
- Holter Monitor: It is a portable ECG device. This device helps to record your heart's activity for around 24 hours. You can easily carry this device in your pocket. It can also be worn on a belt or shoulder strap. If your doctor wants to check the record of your heart activity for a longer period then he may ask you to use this device.
- Event Monitor: It is also a portable electrocardiogram device helps to monitor your heart activity for a few months or weeks. You wear this device for the whole day but it allows you to record the heart activity at the certain times. Whenever you experience the symptoms of fast heart rate, you have to push a button on the device in order to record. There are some monitors that automatically sense your abnormal heart rhythms and start recording your heart's activity. By the help of this, your doctor is able to see the activity of your heart at the time of your symptoms.
- Electrophysiological test: This non-surgical test is done to confirm the diagnosis and to pinpoint the location where the problem is. In this test, a doctor inserts electrodes tipped catheters into your arm, groin or neck and guided through blood vessels to various spots in your heart. Electrophysiologist does this test in the EP lab.
- Stress test: In the stress test, extra stress is given to you in order to check how your heart functions when it works hard. During this test, your doctor may ask you to do exercise may be on a treadmill or stationary bicycle and at the same time, your heart activity would be monitored.
- Tilt-table test: If the electrocardiogram and Holter monitor fail to diagnose the problem then your doctor may perform a tilt-table test. This test helps to monitor the rhythm of the heart, blood pressure, and heart rate.
- Blood tests: Blood tests help to know if thyroid problem or other substances leading to tachycardia.
- Chest X-ray: Chest X-ray is done to check if your heart is enlarged. By the help of this test, the still images of your heart and lungs are taken to check their condition.
A healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of tachycardia. The problem of tachycardia can be prevented by making some changes in health habits including:
- You should quit smoking.
- The intake of beverages that contain caffeine should be reduced.
- You should reduce the consumption of alcohol.
- Exercise and weight loss can also reduce the risk of tachycardia.
- Avoid the situations that give you stress.
- Avoid having spicy and fatty food and stick to a healthy diet.
The treatment depends on the cause of your tachycardia. It also depends on your age and health record. In tachycardia, the treatment is given to slow down the fast heart rate and minimize the complications that can arise in the future. The following treatment options are available for the people suffering from tachycardia:
Ways to slow down a fast heartbeat:
- Vagal manoeuvres: It is an action performed to slow down your heart rate. Your doctor may ask you to perform this action during an episode of a fast heartbeat. The vagal nerve regulates your heartbeat and vagal manoeuvres affect this nerve. Manoeuvres include coughing, heaving as if you are having a bowel movement and putting an ice pack on the face.
- Medications: If vagal manoeuvres do not show any result then your doctor may give you an injection of an anti-arrhythmic medication for restoring the normal heart rate. Your doctor may also recommend you pill version of an anti-arrhythmic drug.
- Cardioversion: In this, an electric current is given to your heart through electrodes placed on your chest. This helps to restore a normal heart rhythm. This treatment method is used when there is an emergency or vagal manoeuvres and medications do not work with your type of tachycardia.
Ways to prevent episodes of a fast heart rate:
- Catheter ablation: In this, doctor inserts catheters tipped with electrodes into your arm, neck or groin and guide them through the blood vessels to your heart. This method is used when an extra electrical pathway is the cause of increased heart rate.
- Medications: Your doctor may ask you to have anti-arrhythmic medications in pills version regularly to prevent a fast heart rate. Calcium channel blockers and beta blockers are the other types of drugs that may be prescribed by your doctor as an alternative to or in combination with anti-arrhythmic medications.
- Pacemaker: Pacemaker helps in treating some types of tachycardias. A pacemaker is a small device that is implanted under your skin through a surgery. An electrical pulse is emitted by this device whenever it senses an abnormal heartbeat. The electrical pulse helps your heart to resume a normal beat.
- Implantable cardioverter: In this, a device of pager size named implantable cardioverter-defibrillator is implanted in your chest through a surgery. This device helps continuously to monitor your heartbeat, detect an increase in heart rate and deliver calibrated electrical shocks, if required, in order to restore a normal rhythm of the heart. This treatment is recommended if you are having a life-threatening tachycardia.
- Surgery: Doctors recommend surgery when all the other options do not work or when surgery is required to treat another heart disorder. Open-heart surgery is generally done to damage an extra electrical pathway leading to tachycardia. The maze procedure is another type of surgery in which a surgeon makes small cuts in heart tissue.
- Ways to prevent blood clots:
- Blood-thinning medication: Those people who suffer from the heart disorder of tachycardia have a great risk of developing a blood clot. A blood clot can cause a heart attack or stroke. For this purpose, your doctor may prescribe you blood thinners to reduce the risk of developing a blood clot.
The various complications that are associated with tachycardia are:
- Blood clots: This is one of the common complications of tachycardia. Due to tachycardia, the risk of developing blood clots increase. Blood clots formation can lead to a stroke or heart attack.
- Heart failure: If your condition of tachycardia is not controlled on time then it can make your heart weak. Weak heart increases the chance of heart failure. In heart failure, the heart does not pump the blood properly to all the organs of the body. Due to this, the body of the person can be affected from the left side, right side or both the sides.
- Sudden death: Sometimes, ventricular tachycardia can lead to sudden death.
- Other complications: The other complications of tachycardia are fainting, dizziness, tiredness, fatigue, and shortness of breath.
Myth #1: If your heart rate is higher than the normal resting heart rate then it means you are stressed out.
In tachycardia, the heart rate is greater than the normal resting rate. It is true that stress can spike your heart rate. But heart rate can also rise due to other causes including fever, anemia, thyroid disease, consumption of alcohol and beverages containing caffeine, smoking and more.
Tachycardia is a heart disorder in which the heart rate is higher than the normal resting heart rate. The normal resting heart rate is between 60 - 100 beats per minute for adults. People who suffer from tachycardia experience the heart rate of greater than 100 beats per minute. Sometimes, people are not able to recognize tachycardia as they do not experience the symptoms at all. Your doctor can help you to diagnose tachycardia through the physical examination and various tests. As soon as you experience any or some of the symptoms of tachycardia, you should reach out to the best doctor. Fever, high or low blood pressure, lung diseases, anemia, consuming alcohol, smoking, drinking beverages having caffeine, thyroid disease and various heart diseases can lead to tachycardia.