Asked for male, 54 years old from Delhi
Immunotherapy is a new treatment approach for patients with colorectal cancer. There are currently six approved immunotherapies for colorectal cancer patients. Bevacizumab (Avastin®) and ramucirumab (Cyramza®) are drugs that target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which helps tumors form new blood vessels to get nutrients (a process known as angiogenesis). Cetuximab (Erbitux®) and panitumumab (Vectibix®) are both monoclonal antibodies that specifically attack the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is often highly expressed on cancer cells and helps them grow. Two anti-PD-1 checkpoint immunotherapies—nivolumab (Opdivo®) and pembrolizumab (Keytruda®)—have also been approved for colorectal cancer patients with advanced, relapsed tumors that are characterized by high microsatellite instability (MSI-hi).