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Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection Tips

7 Ways to Get Rid of Mouth Sores

Dr.Premendra Goyal 91% (999ratings)
BDS
Dentist, Mumbai
7 Ways to Get Rid of Mouth Sores

One of the irritating conditions that can affect the mouth of a person is sores, which can be quite painful. These sores can affect anyone of any age group or gender. Sores may make it difficult for a person to eat, speak or even swallow. Here are a few ways through which you can get rid of mouth sores quickly or at least alleviate the symptoms to lessen the pain:

1. Topical Products - There are various types of creams and lotions which are available in the market as over the counter drugs for treating or at least lessening the symptoms of mouth sores. Some of the common chemicals used to treat the sores are Fluocinonide, Benzocaine and Hydrogen peroxide.

2. Food and nutritional supplements - In many cases the sores are caused within the body due to deficiency of nutrients such as Zinc, Vitamin B12 or B6 and the doctor may prescribe special medications to supplement the need for those within the body.

3. Rinses - Certain special types of oral rinses are prescribed by the doctors when treating mouth sores. Most of the rinses prescribed by the doctors have a steroid, namely dexamethasone, which proves to be effective in the treatment of mouth sores.


4. Cauterizing or destroying sores - In certain cases where topical or oral treatments haven't worked it may be necessary to correct it by cauterizing or using a special device to burn and destroy the sore so that new tissues can grow in its place.

5. Oral medications - Certain oral medications may be prescribed for sores which are caused due to underlying physical conditions such as ulcers.

6. Avoiding spicy food - Spicy foods are also a leading cause for canker sores as it may cause chemical imbalances within the stomach as well as inside the mouth and hence should be avoided as much as possible.

7. Improving general oral hygiene - Regular brushing, flossing, and proper oral care will definitely reduce the chances of getting oral sores.

Related Tip: Do You Know Excessive Hair Growth in Women is Hirsutism?

4545 people found this helpful

Mouth Sores - 7 Ways to Get Rid of it!

BDS
Dentist, Gurgaon
Mouth Sores - 7 Ways to Get Rid of it!

One of the irritating conditions that can affect the mouth of a person is sores, which can be quite painful. These sores can affect anyone of any age group or gender. Sores may make it difficult for a person to eat, speak or even swallow. Here are a few ways through which you can get rid of mouth sores quickly or at least alleviate the symptoms to lessen the pain:

1. Topical products - There are various types of creams and lotions which are available in the market as over the counter drugs for treating or at least lessening the symptoms of mouth sores. Some of the common chemicals used to treat the sores are Fluocinonide, Benzocaine and Hydrogen peroxide.

2. Food and nutritional supplements - In many cases the sores are caused within the body due to deficiency of nutrients such as Zinc, Vitamin B12 or B6 and the doctor may prescribe special medications to supplement the need for those within the body.

3. Rinses - Certain special types of oral rinses are prescribed by the doctors when treating mouth sores. Most of the rinses prescribed by the doctors have a steroid, namely dexamethasone, which proves to be effective in the treatment of mouth sores.


4. Cauterizing or destroying sores - In certain cases where topical or oral treatments haven't worked it may be necessary to correct it by cauterizing or using a special device to burn and destroy the sore so that new tissues can grow in its place.

5. Oral medications - Certain oral medications may be prescribed for sores which are caused due to underlying physical conditions such as ulcers.

6. Avoiding spicy food - Spicy foods are also a leading cause for canker sores as it may cause chemical imbalances within the stomach as well as inside the mouth and hence should be avoided as much as possible.

7. Improving general oral hygiene - Regular brushing, flossing, and proper oral care will definitely reduce the chances of getting oral sores. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Dentist.

6081 people found this helpful

Eye Allergy - All You Must Know!

Dr.Roopali Nerlikar 87% (10ratings)
MBBS, DNB - Ophthalmology, Fellowship In Glaucoma, FRCS - Ophthalmology
Ophthalmologist, Pune
Eye Allergy - All You Must Know!

EYE ALLERGIES TO BE ENDURED NO MORE!

As spring/summer approaches there is a spate of children with itching and redness of the eyes. Most of these children suffer from spring catarrh (Vernal Kerato Conjunctivitis or VKC) or sometimes seasonal allergic conjunctivitis VKC is more common in young boys but affects girls as well. It usually affects children between 3 to 16 years of age, though it may appear earlier than that and continue into adulthood. In the majority of cases, symptoms resolve at puberty. Although the name suggests a seasonal spring time occurrence, frequently the disease persists throughout the year with exacerbations episodically.SYMPTOMS include intense itching, irritation, photophobia (sensitivity to light) and burning. The itching is worse with exposure to wind, dust, and bright light and hot weather. Some patients complain of a sticky, stringy mucous discharge. There may be associated runny nose or sinusitis and some children even have allergic asthma

TREATMENT IS SYMPTOMATIC AND TAILORED TO THE SEVERITY OF THE DISEASE 

Apart from medication, eye hygiene and protective eyewear to minimise exposure to the allergen (pollen or dust), as well as cold compresses, help in controlling the symptoms MEDICATION. Artificial tear substitutes provide a barrier function and help to improve the first-line defence at the level of conjunctival mucosa. These agents help to dilute various allergens and inflammatory mediators that may be present on the ocular surface, and they help flush the ocular surface of these agents. Chilled artificial tears can provide symptomatic relief as well. Those with milder symptoms are given topical antihistamines (epinastine and azelastine) which are very effective in controlling the itch.though they sometimes cause dryness. Simultaneously mast cell stabilisers such as sodium cromoglycate or newer agents such as olopatadine & bepostatine are started. The mast cell stabilisers generally do not relieve existing symptoms and thus are not effective alone when symptoms are active They must be used regularly three to four times daily, continued even when there are no symptoms in order to stabilise the mast cells and prevent the release of histamine and recurrence of symptoms. They can limit or stop the use of steroid drops over the course of the disease. They do not have any of the side effects of steroids and can, therefore, be used for a prolonged period. Those presenting with more severe disease are given topical steroid drops (e.g. prednisolone, dexamethasone. To be used 4-6 times a day-sometimes even 2 hourly. The steroid can also be given in an ointment form to be used at bedtime. A mast cell stabiliser should be started simultaneously. Steroids should be used frequently initially and then tapered to a stop once the acute stage of the disease is stabilised (usually a couple of weeks). Their use requires monitoring because of the possible effect on intraocular pressure. Long term unsupervised use can lead to glaucoma and cataract. Those not responding to conventional treatment may be given supratarsal (into the lid) injection of steroids (long-acting steroids such as triamcinolone and shorter-acting steroids dexamethasone). In very young children this may necessitate short general anaesthesia. Topical cyclosporine or tacrolimus(immunomodulators) may be effective in reducing some of the signs and symptoms of VKC without adverse effects of steroid(steroid-sparing regimen) and are used in the treatment of more severe ocular allergies. Oral antihistamines may be useful if the allergy is more widespread, affecting the nose and sinuses as well. Montelukast & cetirizine orally are other agents that have been used for symptomatic relief

REMEMBER!

Seeking help early and adequate treatment (often long term) is the key to controlling the disease and preventing serious side effects (which thankfully are uncommon). Apart from medication the role of hygiene and protective eyewear to minimise exposure to the allergen (pollen or dust) as well as cold compresses cannot be emphasised enough. Poorly controlled disease apart from making the child miserable runs the risk of complications like corneal scarring /weakening with resultant keratoconus-which have serious visual consequences. Unregimented self-medication runs the risk of major side effects like cataract and glaucoma due to unwarranted steroid overuse.

1927 people found this helpful

Cushing Syndrome - How To Diagnose It?

Dr.Rajesh Jain 91% (220ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD Preventive Medicine, PG Diploma Diabetes
Endocrinologist, Kanpur
Cushing Syndrome - How To Diagnose It?

Cushing syndrome or round face syndrome, as some like to call it, is a hormonal disorder that is relatively uncommon. It is all about the stress hormone called Cortisol and how it can throw off the body systems. Read on to know the causes and symptoms of this disorder. But first of all, let us know what exactly is the Cushing syndrome?

When an individual's body is exposed more to a particular hormone called Cortisol, he/she may develop a condition called as Cushing syndrome. This can lead to unusual and uncomfortable symptoms. However, this condition of hypercortisolism is completely curable and the patients can continue to lead a normal life. Cushing syndrome is more common in women than in men and occurs mostly between the age of 25 to 40.

Symptoms of cushing syndrome

  1. Excessive weight gain and obesity
  2. Fatty deposits that tend to accumulate in the midsection, face (causing moon facies) or between the shoulders and upper back causing a hump
  3. Fatigue and muscle weakness
  4. Thinning skin that is prone to bruises easily
  5. Purple stretch marks on the arms, thighs, abdomen and breast
  6. Cognitive dysfunction with increased anxiety, irritability and depression
  7. Women can experience extra facial and body hair with irregular or absent periods
  8. High blood pressure and high blood sugar levels
  9. Low sex drive and erectile dysfunction
  10. Weak bones and osteoporosis
  11. Children with this ailment tend to obese and experience a slow growth rate

Causes of Cushing Syndrome
As mentioned above the major cause of Cushing syndrome is the high production of Cortisol. This hormone is produced by the adrenal gland that sits on top of your kidneys. The prime reasons for the over-production of Cortisol can be:

  1. High-stress levels
  2. Malnutrition
  3. Alcoholism
  4. Depression, panic disorder and high levels of emotional stress
  5. Athletic training

Also, another prime cause of this syndrome is the use of corticosteroid medications, such as prednisone, in high doses for a long period. These prescriptions are often given for conditions of asthma, organ transplant, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. A tumor in the pituitary gland that is located at the base of the brain or a tumor in the adrenal glands can also lead to excessive production of Cortisol, thereby leading to Cushing Syndrome.

Diagnosis and treatment
Diagnosis is done by your doctor to determine the cause of the excess production of the hormone. Tests can include:

  1. Blood Test or imaging scans
  2. Dexamethasone suppression test
  3. 24-hour urinary free cortisol test
  4. Late-night salivary cortisol level

Treatment will vary with the actual cause of the disorder. Medications to decrease cortisol levels or block them can be given.

2800 people found this helpful

Cushing Syndrome - All You Need To Know!

Dr.Anurag Bajpai 90% (13ratings)
MBBS, MD - Paediatrics, FRACP - Pediatrc Endocrinology, SCE, Endocrinology
Endocrinologist, Kanpur
Cushing Syndrome - All You Need To Know!

Cushing syndrome or round face syndrome, as some like to call it, is a hormonal disorder that is relatively uncommon. It is all about the stress hormone called Cortisol and how it can throw off the body systems. Read on to know the causes and symptoms of this disorder. But first of all, let us know what exactly is the Cushing syndrome?

When an individual's body is exposed more to a particular hormone called Cortisol, he/she may develop a condition called as Cushing syndrome. This can lead to unusual and uncomfortable symptoms. However, this condition of hypercortisolism is completely curable and the patients can continue to lead a normal life. Cushing syndrome is more common in women than in men and occurs mostly between the age of 25 to 40.

Symptoms of cushing syndrome

  1. Excessive weight gain and obesity
  2. Fatty deposits that tend to accumulate in the midsection, face (causing moon facies) or between the shoulders and upper back causing a hump
  3. Fatigue and muscle weakness
  4. Thinning skin that is prone to bruises easily
  5. Purple stretch marks on the arms, thighs, abdomen and breast
  6. Cognitive dysfunction with increased anxiety, irritability and depression
  7. Women can experience extra facial and body hair with irregular or absent periods
  8. High blood pressure and high blood sugar levels
  9. Low sex drive and erectile dysfunction
  10. Weak bones and osteoporosis
  11. Children with this ailment tend to obese and experience slow growth rate

Causes of Cushing Syndrome
As mentioned above the major cause of Cushing syndrome is the high production of Cortisol. This hormone is produced by the adrenal gland that sits on top of your kidneys. The prime reasons of over-production of Cortisol can be:

  1. High-stress levels
  2. Malnutrition
  3. Alcoholism
  4. Depression, panic disorder and high levels of emotional stress
  5. Athletic training

Also, another prime cause of this syndrome is the use of corticosteroid medications, such as prednisone, in high doses for a long period. These prescriptions are often given for conditions of asthma, organ transplant, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. A tumor in the pituitary gland that is located at the base of the brain or a tumor in the adrenal glands can also lead to excessive production of Cortisol, thereby leading to Cushing Syndrome.

Diagnosis and treatment
Diagnosis is done by your doctor to determine the cause of the excess production of the hormone. Tests can include:

  1. Blood Test or imaging scans
  2. Dexamethasone suppression test
  3. 24-hour urinary free cortisol test
  4. Late-night salivary cortisol level

Treatment will vary with the actual cause of the disorder. Medications to decrease cortisol levels or block them can be given.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3559 people found this helpful

Adrenal Insufficiency - What Causes It?

Dr.Ravindra Chhajed 89% (338ratings)
MBBS, FCPS - Medicine, DNB - General Medicine (I)
Diabetologist, Pune
Adrenal Insufficiency - What Causes It?

Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands of the patient do not produce sufficient amount of steroid hormones. It mostly affects the production of cortisol but in some cases, the production of aldosterone may also be reduced. At times, dysfunction of the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland can also cause adrenal insufficiency because the hormones produced by these two glands help in regulating the functions performed by hormones secreted by the adrenal gland. These steroid hormones play an important role in bodily functions such as metabolism, immunity development, salt/water balance, sexual development and others. So, when these hormones are not produced in adequate amount, the individual experiences specific problems and thus, treatment for adrenal insufficiency becomes necessary.

Causes: Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by many reasons. Sudden withdrawal of long-term corticosteroid therapy, adrenoleukodystrophy, stress in people who already suffer from chronic adrenal insufficiency, craniopharyngioma, and Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome are responsible for adrenal insufficiency. In some cases, Addison's disease and congenital adrenal hyperplasia also surface in the form of adrenal insufficiency.

Adrenal insufficiency can be categorized into three sections based on the ways through which they affect the adrenal gland and cause the low production of cortisol and other steroid hormones.

  1. The first is adrenal dysgenesis in which the gland has not formed properly in the patient.
  2. The second is impaired steroidogenesis in which the gland is not able to produce cortisol due to biochemical inefficiency
  3. The third is adrenal destruction in which the gland gets damaged because of some disease.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of adrenal insufficiency manifest in the form of dehydration, weight loss, weakness, low blood pressure, muscle pain, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) vomiting, diarrhea, craving for salt or salty food, change in mood, kidney failure, and shock. These symptoms are a result of hormonal deficiency caused by adrenal insufficiency and if not taken seriously, they can affect the patient seriously.

Diagnosis and Treatment: Adrenal insufficiency can be diagnosed with the help of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test, which examines the functioning of the adrenal gland. A CT scan of the adrenal gland can also detect structural abnormalities in it. An MRI scan of the pituitary gland is also recommended in some cases as this gland also plays a secondary role in adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency can be treated by giving the patient hormonal therapy. The hormones are given in the form of medications. Since cortisol inadequacy is the primary effect of adrenal insufficiency, it is supplemented with the help of medicines such as hydrocortisone (Cortef), prednisone (Deltasone), prednisolone (Delta-Cortef), methylprednisolone (Medrol) and dexamethasone (Decadron).

In cases of severe adrenal insufficiency, the patient is given intravenous fluids and intravenous steroids, which can give relief from the discomforting symptoms. Where the patient is found to be suffering from mineralocorticoid deficiency (low aldosterone), fludrocortisone acetate is given to balance the sodium and potassium imbalance. It should be remembered that the adrenal gland performs vital functions in the body and if it is deficient, then the body is bound to suffer. So, the patient should go for immediate diagnosis and follow the treatment therapy prescribed by the doctor. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4707 people found this helpful

Unhealthy Bones at Old Age - How to Prevent it?

Dr.Rakesh G. Nair Nair 86% (18ratings)
DNB (Orthopedics), Diploma in Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedic Doctor, Mumbai
Unhealthy Bones at Old Age - How to Prevent it?

Bones play a significant role in our body. They make our structure and help in organ protection, anchoring the muscles and storing calcium. From childhood to adulthood, bones are continuously changing. While new bones are generated, the old bones are torn down. So, it is important to keep our bones healthy with the advancement of old age. There are many ways by which we can avoid unhealthy bones in old age. Some of these ways have been discussed below:

Adequate amount of calcium intake in our body greatly influences healthy bone with good bone density and mitigate the risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures in old age. Older adults need 1,200 mg of calcium a day by having milk, yogurt or cheese. We should also include non-dairy products like tofu, broccoli, almonds, and green leafy vegetables. These items contain Vitamin D, which help the body in absorbing and process calcium. Good sources of calcium are dairy products and fish such as sardines and salmon.

According to the Institute of Medicine, 1,000 mg of calcium a day is needed for most adults and 1,200 mg/day for women after menopause and men after 70. Adults that are 70 years and older require 800 IU of vitamin D a day to in order to prevent falls and fractures.

Physical Activity: Physical activity reduces the risk of osteoporosis and keeps your bone mobility healthy and strong. According to research, avoiding use of tobacco and alcohol contributes healthy bones. Consumption of these poses threat to the health of the bones. Alcohol increases the risk of osteoporosis as it has the ability to interfere with the body’s absorption of calcium.
Eating disorders and other conditions: People with anorexia or bulimia are at risk of bone loss. In addition, stomach surgery (gastrectomy), weight-loss surgery and conditions such as Crohn's disease, celiac disease and Cushing's disease can affect your body's ability to absorb calcium. So, one should have a healthy diet and maintain a disciplined life.

Certain medications: Long-term use of corticosteroid medications, such as prednisone, cortisone, prednisolone and dexamethasone, are damaging to bone. Other drugs that might increase the risk of osteoporosis include aromatase inhibitors to treat breast cancer, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, methotrexate, some anti-seizure medications, such as phenytoin (Dilantin) and phenobarbital, and proton pump inhibitors. So, while taking medicines one should consult doctor so as to avoid those medicines for long term which affect bone’s health. While taking these medications one should eat adequate amount of calcium as medicine and food in order to minimize the side effects.

Avoid taking caffeine as it makes our body to excrete calcium more quickly. So drink less regular coffee, tea and soft drinks and avoid high caffeine energy drinks. Avoid using salty foods that causes loss of calcium and weakens the bone. Foods that are processed and canned have high salt, so avoid eating these foods.

1994 people found this helpful

Hives Urticaria - Causes, Symptoms And Its Treatments!

Dr.Radhika A (Md) 89% (13ratings)
MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
Hives Urticaria - Causes, Symptoms And Its Treatments!

What is Hives Urticaria?

Hives are red, swollen and very itchy welts that form on the skin. While most cases of hives go away within a few weeks or less, for some people they are a long-term problem.

Symptoms of Hives Urticaria-

  • Raised whitish or flesh-colored bumps on the skin
  • Itching, which may be severe
  • Rarely, burning or stinging in the affected area
  • Chest tightness
  • Breathing difficulties

Causes of Hives Urticaria-

  • Insect bites and stings
  • Contact with an irritant, such as nettles, chemicals or latex
  • Certain medications – such as NSAIDs
  • Extremes of temperatures
  • Sunlight
  • Water on the skin

Risk factors of Hives Urticaria-

  • Have had hives or angioedema before
  • Other allergic reactions
  • Emotional stress
  • Environmental factors such as sunlight, heat, cold, water
  • Family history of hives, angioedema or hereditary angioedema
  • Food allergies to eggs, milk, berries, shellfish, tomatoes, nuts, or chocolate 

Complications of Hives Urticaria-

  • Itching
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Anaphylactic shock

Diagnosis of Hives Urticaria-

A careful case analysis and evaluation is required to make a correct diagnosis. Hormonal study and thyroid profile may be indicated if the clinical picture so suggests. If the cause of your hives or angioedema isn’t apparent from your medical history your doctor may recommend an allergy skin test.

  • Puncture, prick or scratch (percutaneous) test – Tiny drops of purified allergen extracts are pricked or scratched into your skin’s surface.
  • Intradermal (intracutaneous) test – Purified allergen extracts are injected into the skin of your arm.

Precautions & Prevention of Hives Urticaria-

  • Avoid substances certain foods and medications that triggered your skin reaction
  • Avoid hot baths or showers just after an episode of hives.
  • Don’t wear tight-fitting clothing

Treatment of Hives Urticaria-

  • Homeopathic Treatment of Hives Urticaria
  • Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Hives Urticaria
  • Psychotherapy Treatment of Hives Urticaria
  • Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Hives Urticaria
  • Surgical Treatment of Hives Urticaria
  • Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Hives Urticaria
  • Other Treatment of Hives Urticaria

Homeopathic Treatment of Hives Urticaria-

Homeopathy offers an effective treatment for Chronic and Recurrent Urticaria. Homeopathic treatment of utricaria offers immuno-correction hence gives deep-level healing. It also offers long-lasting cure instead of temporary relief. Homeopathic remedies for treatment of hives urticaria include:

  • Arsenic alb
  • Bovista
  • Dulcamara
  • Nux vomica
  • Urtica urens
  • Rhus Tox
  • Ledum

Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Hives Urticaria-
Acupuncture and acupressure Treatments can provide quick relief for acute symptoms and can provide significant and lasting relief from recurrent or chronic hives. It uses the surface of the skin to stimulate the body’s self-curative abilities. It also promotes blood circulation and releases muscle tension.

Psychotherapy and Hypnotherapy Treatment of Hives Urticaria-

Psychotherapy and hypnotherapy can help in stress relief. They can help in better coping and early relief.  Psychological techniques that can actually help to reduce complaints are Individual and group counseling, Biofeedback, Relaxation techniques, Self-hypnosis, Visual imaging and Learning or conditioning techniques. Hypnotherapy is safe and quick treatment of deep seated psychological issues and barriers.

Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Hives Urticaria-

For severe cases of hives, the allopathic remedies include corticosteroids. These drugs, which may be administered orally or by injection, suppress the immune system’s allergic response. Some corticosteroids are prednisone (Deltasone), dexamethasone (Decadron), and methylprednisolone (Medrol).

Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Hives Urticaria-

  • Take fresh fruits and vegetables daily
  • Drink a lot of water
  • Drink fresh fruit juices, especially from citrus fruits
  • Avoid alcoholic beverages

 

Recurrent Miscarriage - How To Resolve It?

Dr.Nalini Gupta 88% (264ratings)
M.Sc, MD, MBBS
IVF Specialist, Delhi
Recurrent Miscarriage - How To Resolve It?

What is recurrent miscarriage?

If you have three or more miscarriages in a row, doctors call it recurrent miscarriage. If you have experienced recurrent miscarriage, your GP or midwife will refer you to a gynaecologist. Your gynaecologist will try to identify the reason for your losses.

Having miscarriage after miscarriage may leave you feeling utterly drained of hope. At times, it may be hard to keep trusting in the future. This experience affects every aspect of a woman’s life from her mental and emotional health to her physical health and social well-being. 

If you can, try to draw comfort from the fact that most women who experience recurrent losses do go on to have a baby. This is especially the case if tests can find no reason for the losses. Six out of 10 women who have had three miscarriages will go on to have a baby in their next pregnancy.

Treatment of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Treatment for anatomic abnormalities of the uterus involves surgical restoration through removal of local lesions such as fibroids, scar tissue and endometrial polyps or timely insertion of a cervical cerclage (a stitch placed around the neck of the weakened cervix) or the excision of a uterine septum when indicated.

A thin endometrial lining has been shown to correlate with compromised pregnancy outcome. Often times this will be associated with reduced resistance to blood flow to the endometrium. Such decreased blood flow to the uterus can be improved through treatment with sildenafil (Viagra), Terbutaline and possibly aspirin.

Sildenafil (Viagra) Therapy Viagra has been used successfully to increase uterine blood flow. However, to be effective it must be administered starting as soon as the period stops up until the day of ovulation and it must be administered vaginally (not orally). Viagra in the form of vaginal suppositories given in the dosage of 25 mg four times a day has been shown to increase uterine blood flow as well as thickness of the uterine lining. To date, we have seen significant improvement of the thickness of the uterine lining in about 70% of women treated. Successful pregnancy resulted in 42% of women who responded to the Viagra. It should be remembered that most of these women had previously experienced repeated IVF failures.

Terbutaline this is a medication that relaxes the muscle in the uterine wall and so permits improved hormone delivery to the endometrium. The use of Terbutaline will often cause an increase in heart rate. It should not be prescribed to women who have irregular heart beats (arrhythmias), and women who have decreased cardiac reserve.

Aspirin this is an antiprostaglandin that improves blood flow to the endometrium. It is administered at a dosage of 81mg orally, daily from the beginning of the cycle until ovulation.

Selective Immunotherapy Using Intralipid, heparin, aspirin and corticosteroid

Many causes of pregnancy loss or failure can be treated with immunotherapy comprising combinations of aspirin and heparin and corticosteroids (dexamethasone or prednisone) and Intralipid (IL) to regulate increased NKa. Achievement of optimal success with Intralipid/corticosteroid therapy requires that the treatment be initiated well before ovulation takes place (about 7-14 days prior to anticipated implantation). Given the fact that only 10-15% of natural cycles (with or without the use of insemination and/or fertility drugs) will result in a pregnancy, it follows that repeated administration of Intralipid will be required in most cases before a pregnancy will occur. IVF achieves pregnancy rates that are often 2-3 times higher. This often makes IVF a treatment of choice in cases of immunologic recurrent pregnancy loss.

Role of IVF

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) a procedure whereby the embryo can be tested for genetic or structural chromosomal abnormalities requires the use of IVF to select the best embryo(s) for transfer to the uterus. In cases of structural chromosomal (translocations) egg or sperm donation is often another option worth considering.

In those cases where due to intractable anatomical or alloimmune dysfunction IVF repeatedly is unsuccessful or is not an option, Gestational Surrogacy might represent the only recourse other than adoption.
If a couple with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss is open to all of the diagnostic and treatment options referred to above, a live birth rate of 70% – 80% is ultimately achievable.

3227 people found this helpful

How To Treat Recurrent Miscarriage?

MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
IVF Specialist, Hyderabad
How To Treat Recurrent Miscarriage?

What is recurrent miscarriage?

If you have three or more miscarriages in a row, doctors call it recurrent miscarriage. If you have experienced recurrent miscarriage, your GP or midwife will refer you to a gynaecologist. Your gynaecologist will try to identify the reason for your losses.

Having miscarriage after miscarriage may leave you feeling utterly drained of hope. At times, it may be hard to keep trusting in the future. This experience affects every aspect of a woman’s life from her mental and emotional health to her physical health and social well-being. 

If you can, try to draw comfort from the fact that most women who experience recurrent losses do go on to have a baby. This is especially the case if tests can find no reason for the losses. Six out of 10 women who have had three miscarriages will go on to have a baby in their next pregnancy.

Treatment of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Treatment for anatomic abnormalities of the uterus involves surgical restoration through removal of local lesions such as fibroids, scar tissue and endometrial polyps or timely insertion of a cervical cerclage (a stitch placed around the neck of the weakened cervix) or the excision of a uterine septum when indicated.

A thin endometrial lining has been shown to correlate with compromised pregnancy outcome. Often times this will be associated with reduced resistance to blood flow to the endometrium. Such decreased blood flow to the uterus can be improved through treatment with sildenafil (Viagra), Terbutaline and possibly aspirin.

Sildenafil (Viagra) Therapy Viagra has been used successfully to increase uterine blood flow. However, to be effective it must be administered starting as soon as the period stops up until the day of ovulation and it must be administered vaginally (not orally). Viagra in the form of vaginal suppositories given in the dosage of 25 mg four times a day has been shown to increase uterine blood flow as well as thickness of the uterine lining. To date, we have seen significant improvement of the thickness of the uterine lining in about 70% of women treated. Successful pregnancy resulted in 42% of women who responded to the Viagra. It should be remembered that most of these women had previously experienced repeated IVF failures.

Terbutaline this is a medication that relaxes the muscle in the uterine wall and so permits improved hormone delivery to the endometrium. The use of Terbutaline will often cause an increase in heart rate. It should not be prescribed to women who have irregular heart beats (arrhythmias), and women who have decreased cardiac reserve.

Aspirin this is an antiprostaglandin that improves blood flow to the endometrium. It is administered at a dosage of 81mg orally, daily from the beginning of the cycle until ovulation.

Selective Immunotherapy Using Intralipid, heparin, aspirin and corticosteroid

Many causes of pregnancy loss or failure can be treated with immunotherapy comprising combinations of aspirin and heparin and corticosteroids (dexamethasone or prednisone) and Intralipid (IL) to regulate increased NKa. Achievement of optimal success with Intralipid/corticosteroid therapy requires that the treatment be initiated well before ovulation takes place (about 7-14 days prior to anticipated implantation). Given the fact that only 10-15% of natural cycles (with or without the use of insemination and/or fertility drugs) will result in a pregnancy, it follows that repeated administration of Intralipid will be required in most cases before a pregnancy will occur. IVF achieves pregnancy rates that are often 2-3 times higher. This often makes IVF a treatment of choice in cases of immunologic recurrent pregnancy loss.

Role of IVF

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) a procedure whereby the embryo can be tested for genetic or structural chromosomal abnormalities requires the use of IVF to select the best embryo(s) for transfer to the uterus. In cases of structural chromosomal (translocations) egg or sperm donation is often another option worth considering.

In those cases where due to intractable anatomical or alloimmune dysfunction IVF repeatedly is unsuccessful or is not an option, Gestational Surrogacy might represent the only recourse other than adoption.
If a couple with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss is open to all of the diagnostic and treatment options referred to above, a live birth rate of 70% – 80% is ultimately achievable.

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