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Decadron 4 MG Injection Tips

Adrenal Insufficiency - What Causes It?

Dr.Ravindra Chhajed 89% (338ratings)
MBBS, FCPS - Medicine, DNB - General Medicine (I)
Diabetologist, Pune
Adrenal Insufficiency - What Causes It?

Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands of the patient do not produce sufficient amount of steroid hormones. It mostly affects the production of cortisol but in some cases, the production of aldosterone may also be reduced. At times, dysfunction of the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland can also cause adrenal insufficiency because the hormones produced by these two glands help in regulating the functions performed by hormones secreted by the adrenal gland. These steroid hormones play an important role in bodily functions such as metabolism, immunity development, salt/water balance, sexual development and others. So, when these hormones are not produced in adequate amount, the individual experiences specific problems and thus, treatment for adrenal insufficiency becomes necessary.

Causes: Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by many reasons. Sudden withdrawal of long-term corticosteroid therapy, adrenoleukodystrophy, stress in people who already suffer from chronic adrenal insufficiency, craniopharyngioma, and Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome are responsible for adrenal insufficiency. In some cases, Addison's disease and congenital adrenal hyperplasia also surface in the form of adrenal insufficiency.

Adrenal insufficiency can be categorized into three sections based on the ways through which they affect the adrenal gland and cause the low production of cortisol and other steroid hormones.

  1. The first is adrenal dysgenesis in which the gland has not formed properly in the patient.
  2. The second is impaired steroidogenesis in which the gland is not able to produce cortisol due to biochemical inefficiency
  3. The third is adrenal destruction in which the gland gets damaged because of some disease.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of adrenal insufficiency manifest in the form of dehydration, weight loss, weakness, low blood pressure, muscle pain, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) vomiting, diarrhea, craving for salt or salty food, change in mood, kidney failure, and shock. These symptoms are a result of hormonal deficiency caused by adrenal insufficiency and if not taken seriously, they can affect the patient seriously.

Diagnosis and Treatment: Adrenal insufficiency can be diagnosed with the help of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test, which examines the functioning of the adrenal gland. A CT scan of the adrenal gland can also detect structural abnormalities in it. An MRI scan of the pituitary gland is also recommended in some cases as this gland also plays a secondary role in adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency can be treated by giving the patient hormonal therapy. The hormones are given in the form of medications. Since cortisol inadequacy is the primary effect of adrenal insufficiency, it is supplemented with the help of medicines such as hydrocortisone (Cortef), prednisone (Deltasone), prednisolone (Delta-Cortef), methylprednisolone (Medrol) and dexamethasone (Decadron).

In cases of severe adrenal insufficiency, the patient is given intravenous fluids and intravenous steroids, which can give relief from the discomforting symptoms. Where the patient is found to be suffering from mineralocorticoid deficiency (low aldosterone), fludrocortisone acetate is given to balance the sodium and potassium imbalance. It should be remembered that the adrenal gland performs vital functions in the body and if it is deficient, then the body is bound to suffer. So, the patient should go for immediate diagnosis and follow the treatment therapy prescribed by the doctor. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4707 people found this helpful

Hives Urticaria - Causes, Symptoms And Its Treatments!

Dr.Radhika A (Md) 89% (13ratings)
MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
Hives Urticaria - Causes, Symptoms And Its Treatments!

What is Hives Urticaria?

Hives are red, swollen and very itchy welts that form on the skin. While most cases of hives go away within a few weeks or less, for some people they are a long-term problem.

Symptoms of Hives Urticaria-

  • Raised whitish or flesh-colored bumps on the skin
  • Itching, which may be severe
  • Rarely, burning or stinging in the affected area
  • Chest tightness
  • Breathing difficulties

Causes of Hives Urticaria-

  • Insect bites and stings
  • Contact with an irritant, such as nettles, chemicals or latex
  • Certain medications – such as NSAIDs
  • Extremes of temperatures
  • Sunlight
  • Water on the skin

Risk factors of Hives Urticaria-

  • Have had hives or angioedema before
  • Other allergic reactions
  • Emotional stress
  • Environmental factors such as sunlight, heat, cold, water
  • Family history of hives, angioedema or hereditary angioedema
  • Food allergies to eggs, milk, berries, shellfish, tomatoes, nuts, or chocolate 

Complications of Hives Urticaria-

  • Itching
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Anaphylactic shock

Diagnosis of Hives Urticaria-

A careful case analysis and evaluation is required to make a correct diagnosis. Hormonal study and thyroid profile may be indicated if the clinical picture so suggests. If the cause of your hives or angioedema isn’t apparent from your medical history your doctor may recommend an allergy skin test.

  • Puncture, prick or scratch (percutaneous) test – Tiny drops of purified allergen extracts are pricked or scratched into your skin’s surface.
  • Intradermal (intracutaneous) test – Purified allergen extracts are injected into the skin of your arm.

Precautions & Prevention of Hives Urticaria-

  • Avoid substances certain foods and medications that triggered your skin reaction
  • Avoid hot baths or showers just after an episode of hives.
  • Don’t wear tight-fitting clothing

Treatment of Hives Urticaria-

  • Homeopathic Treatment of Hives Urticaria
  • Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Hives Urticaria
  • Psychotherapy Treatment of Hives Urticaria
  • Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Hives Urticaria
  • Surgical Treatment of Hives Urticaria
  • Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Hives Urticaria
  • Other Treatment of Hives Urticaria

Homeopathic Treatment of Hives Urticaria-

Homeopathy offers an effective treatment for Chronic and Recurrent Urticaria. Homeopathic treatment of utricaria offers immuno-correction hence gives deep-level healing. It also offers long-lasting cure instead of temporary relief. Homeopathic remedies for treatment of hives urticaria include:

  • Arsenic alb
  • Bovista
  • Dulcamara
  • Nux vomica
  • Urtica urens
  • Rhus Tox
  • Ledum

Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Hives Urticaria-
Acupuncture and acupressure Treatments can provide quick relief for acute symptoms and can provide significant and lasting relief from recurrent or chronic hives. It uses the surface of the skin to stimulate the body’s self-curative abilities. It also promotes blood circulation and releases muscle tension.

Psychotherapy and Hypnotherapy Treatment of Hives Urticaria-

Psychotherapy and hypnotherapy can help in stress relief. They can help in better coping and early relief.  Psychological techniques that can actually help to reduce complaints are Individual and group counseling, Biofeedback, Relaxation techniques, Self-hypnosis, Visual imaging and Learning or conditioning techniques. Hypnotherapy is safe and quick treatment of deep seated psychological issues and barriers.

Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Hives Urticaria-

For severe cases of hives, the allopathic remedies include corticosteroids. These drugs, which may be administered orally or by injection, suppress the immune system’s allergic response. Some corticosteroids are prednisone (Deltasone), dexamethasone (Decadron), and methylprednisolone (Medrol).

Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Hives Urticaria-

  • Take fresh fruits and vegetables daily
  • Drink a lot of water
  • Drink fresh fruit juices, especially from citrus fruits
  • Avoid alcoholic beverages

 

3 Symptoms Of Bipolar disorder And Its Treatment!

Dr.Sarthak Dave 91% (566ratings)
MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Ahmedabad
3 Symptoms Of Bipolar disorder And Its Treatment!

Bipolar disorder is also known as maniac depression. This usually sets in low and high moods in a person along with change in energy and sleep.
People with bipolar disorder tend to have periodical changes; sometimes they are over happy and other times they might feel sad, depressed and hopeless. Between these changes they are normal. The highs and lows are considered as extreme poles of moods, thus the name bipolar disorder.

Manic term is used when a person with bipolar disorder is highly excited and feels confident. Also, feelings of irritability and recklessness along with irrationality might occur. Some people with mania might have a hallucination that is they see and hear things that are not there, along with delusions. 

The term hypomania is used to describe mild symptoms of mania, in which a person does not have hallucinations and delusions and the symptoms do not interfere with their daily life. Similarly, the term depressive is used to describe a person's time when they feel depressed or sad. 

Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

  • The highs and lows in a bipolar disorder do not follow any set pattern. One might feel manic or depressed for hours or days or weeks, months and even years together before they actually switch to a happy mood. The severity depends from person to person and also changes with time by becoming less or more severe.
  • Symptoms of mania or the high are extreme excitement, change from being happy to angry and irritable along with restlessness, speech is rapid with low concentration, less sleep and increased energy, high se drive, grand plans, alcohol and drug abuse and impulsiveness.
  • Symptoms of low or depressive phase are lethargy, worthlessness, feeling of sadness and hopelessness, lowered concentration, irritability, loss of sleep or excessive sleeping, loss of appetite and suicidal tendencies.

Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder:
In case someone exhibits symptoms of bipolar disorder, then talking to a psychiatrist or a doctor helps. Doctors ask questions related to the mental illness and the associated concerns. Diagnosis is basically recognizing the symptoms of the person, whether they are due to some underlying cause or mood swings because of excessive alcohol. The symptoms have to be noted and the duration for which they last along with the severity should all be noted. The most obvious symptoms are that of lows and highs in mood and changes in behavior, energy, sleep and thoughts.

Consulting a doctor or talking to family and friends helps to differentiate the symptoms of bipolar disorder from unipolar disorder.

Treatment:
Medicines which involve mood stabilizers such as lamotrigine, valproate, lithium, carbamazepine and antipsychotics such as olanzapine, quetiapine should be taken. Psychotherapy is also recommended.

2400 people found this helpful

Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment

Dr.Ketan Parmar 88% (330ratings)
M.D Psychiatry , DPM, MBBS
Psychiatrist, Mumbai
Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment

Bipolar disorder is also known as manic depression. This usually sets in low and high moods in a person along with changes in energy and sleep.

People with bipolar disorder tend to have periodical changes; sometimes they are over happy and other times they might feel sad, depressed and hopeless. Between these changes they are normal. The highs and lows are considered as extreme poles of moods, thus the name bipolar disorder.

Manic term is used when a person with bipolar disorder is highly excited and feels confident. Also, feelings of irritability and recklessness along with irrationality might occur. Some people with mania might have a hallucinations that is they see and hear things that are not there, along with delusions.

The term hypomania is used to describe mild symptoms of mania, in which a person does not have hallucinations and delusions and the symptoms do not interfere with their daily life. Similarly, the term depressive is used to describe a person's time when they feel depressed or sad.

Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

  • The highs and lows in a bipolar disorder do not follow any set pattern. One might feel manic or depressed for hours or days or weeks, months and even years together, before they actually switch to a happy mood. The severity depends from person to person and also changes with time by becoming less or more severe.
  • Symptoms of mania or the high are extreme excitement, change from being happy to angry and irritable along with restlessness, speech is rapid with low concentration, less sleep and increased energy, grand plans, alcohol and drug abuse and impulsiveness.
  • Symptoms of low or depressive phase are lethargy, worthlessness, feeling of sadness and hopelessness, lowered concentration, irritability, loss of sleep or excessive sleeping, loss of appetite and suicidal tendencies.

Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder

  • In case someone exhibits symptoms of bipolar disorder, then talking to a psychiatrist or a doctor helps. Doctors ask questions related to the mental illness and the associated concerns. Diagnosis is basically recognizing the symptoms of the person, whether they are due to some underlying cause or mood swings because of excessive alcohol. The symptoms have to be noted and the duration, for which they last along with the severity should all be noted. The most obvious symptoms are that of lows and highs in mood and changes in behavior, energy, sleep and thoughts.
  • Consulting a doctor or talking to family and friends helps to differentiate the symptoms of bipolar disorder from unipolar disorder.

Treatment

2773 people found this helpful

Bipolar Disorder - Understanding The Disease!

MD - Psychiatry, MBBS, Certificate in CBT (Beck Institute, Pennsylvania, USA), ACT therapy certification UK, DBT certification course, Functional analytic psychotherapy course
Psychiatrist, Bangalore
Bipolar Disorder - Understanding The Disease!

Bipolar disorder is also known as manic depression. This usually sets in low and high moods in a person along with changes in energy and sleep.

People with bipolar disorder tend to have periodical changes; sometimes they are over happy and other times they might feel sad, depressed and hopeless. Between these changes they are normal. The highs and lows are considered as extreme poles of moods, thus the name bipolar disorder.

Manic term is used when a person with bipolar disorder is highly excited and feels confident. Also, feelings of irritability and recklessness along with irrationality might occur. Some people with mania might have a hallucinations that is they see and hear things that are not there, along with delusions.

The term hypomania is used to describe mild symptoms of mania, in which a person does not have hallucinations and delusions and the symptoms do not interfere with their daily life. Similarly, the term depressive is used to describe a person's time when they feel depressed or sad.

Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

  • The highs and lows in a bipolar disorder do not follow any set pattern. One might feel manic or depressed for hours or days or weeks, months and even years together, before they actually switch to a happy mood. The severity depends from person to person and also changes with time by becoming less or more severe.
  • Symptoms of mania or the high are extreme excitement, change from being happy to angry and irritable along with restlessness, speech is rapid with low concentration, less sleep and increased energy, grand plans, alcohol and drug abuse and impulsiveness.
  • Symptoms of low or depressive phase are lethargy, worthlessness, feeling of sadness and hopelessness, lowered concentration, irritability, loss of sleep or excessive sleeping, loss of appetite and suicidal tendencies.

Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder

  • In case someone exhibits symptoms of bipolar disorder, then talking to a psychiatrist or a doctor helps. Doctors ask questions related to the mental illness and the associated concerns. Diagnosis is basically recognizing the symptoms of the person, whether they are due to some underlying cause or mood swings because of excessive alcohol. The symptoms have to be noted and the duration, for which they last along with the severity should all be noted. The most obvious symptoms are that of lows and highs in mood and changes in behavior, energy, sleep and thoughts.
  • Consulting a doctor or talking to family and friends helps to differentiate the symptoms of bipolar disorder from unipolar disorder.

Treatment

2337 people found this helpful

Bipolar Disorder - What It Means

Dr.P. Madhurima Reddy 87% (11ratings)
M.Ed., M.A - English, M.Sc - Psychology
Psychologist, Hyderabad
Bipolar Disorder - What It Means

Bipolar disorder is also known as maniac depression. This usually sets in low and high moods in a person along with change in energy and sleep.
People with bipolar disorder tend to have periodical changes; sometimes they are over happy and other times they might feel sad, depressed and hopeless. Between these changes they are normal. The highs and lows are considered as extreme poles of moods, thus the name bipolar disorder.

Manic term is used when a person with bipolar disorder is highly excited and feels confident. Also, feelings of irritability and recklessness along with irrationality might occur. Some people with mania might have a hallucination that is they see and hear things that are not there, along with delusions. 

The term hypomania is used to describe mild symptoms of mania, in which a person does not have hallucinations and delusions and the symptoms do not interfere with their daily life. Similarly, the term depressive is used to describe a person's time when they feel depressed or sad. 

Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

The highs and lows in a bipolar disorder do not follow any set pattern. One might feel manic or depressed for hours or days or weeks, months and even years together before they actually switch to a happy mood. The severity depends from person to person and also changes with time by becoming less or more severe.

Symptoms of mania or the high are extreme excitement, change from being happy to angry and irritable along with restlessness, speech is rapid with low concentration, less sleep and increased energy, high se drive, grand plans, alcohol and drug abuse and impulsiveness.

Symptoms of low or depressive phase are lethargy, worthlessness, feeling of sadness and hopelessness, lowered concentration, irritability, loss of sleep or excessive sleeping, loss of appetite and suicidal tendencies.

Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder

In case someone exhibits symptoms of bipolar disorder, then talking to a psychiatrist or a doctor helps. Doctors ask questions related to the mental illness and the associated concerns. Diagnosis is basically recognizing the symptoms of the person, whether they are due to some underlying cause or mood swings because of excessive alcohol. The symptoms have to be noted and the duration for which they last along with the severity should all be noted. The most obvious symptoms are that of lows and highs in mood and changes in behavior, energy, sleep and thoughts.

Consulting a doctor or talking to family and friends helps to differentiate the symptoms of bipolar disorder from unipolar disorder.

Treatment

Medicines which involve mood stabilizers such as lamotrigine, valproate, lithium, carbamazepine and antipsychotics such as olanzapine, quetiapine should be taken. Psychotherapy is also recommended.

4985 people found this helpful

Bipolar Disorder - What Should You Know About It?

Dr.Shrikant Reddy 86% (15ratings)
MD - Psychiatry, MBBS
Psychiatrist, Indore
Bipolar Disorder - What Should You Know About It?

Bipolar disorder is also known as manic depression. This usually sets in low and high moods in a person along with changes in energy and sleep.

People with bipolar disorder tend to have periodical changes; sometimes they are over happy and other times they might feel sad, depressed and hopeless. Between these changes they are normal. The highs and lows are considered as extreme poles of moods, thus the name bipolar disorder.

Manic term is used when a person with bipolar disorder is highly excited and feels confident. Also, feelings of irritability and recklessness along with irrationality might occur. Some people with mania might have a hallucinations that is they see and hear things that are not there, along with delusions.

The term hypomania is used to describe mild symptoms of mania, in which a person does not have hallucinations and delusions and the symptoms do not interfere with their daily life. Similarly, the term depressive is used to describe a person's time when they feel depressed or sad.

Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder:

  • The highs and lows in a bipolar disorder do not follow any set pattern. One might feel manic or depressed for hours or days or weeks, months and even years together, before they actually switch to a happy mood. The severity depends from person to person and also changes with time by becoming less or more severe.
  • Symptoms of mania or the high are extreme excitement, change from being happy to angry and irritable along with restlessness, speech is rapid with low concentration, less sleep and increased energy, grand plans, alcohol and drug abuse and impulsiveness.
  • Symptoms of low or depressive phase are lethargy, worthlessness, feeling of sadness and hopelessness, lowered concentration, irritability, loss of sleep or excessive sleeping, loss of appetite and suicidal tendencies.

Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder:

  • In case someone exhibits symptoms of bipolar disorder, then talking to a psychiatrist or a doctor helps. Doctors ask questions related to the mental illness and the associated concerns. Diagnosis is basically recognizing the symptoms of the person, whether they are due to some underlying cause or mood swings because of excessive alcohol. The symptoms have to be noted and the duration, for which they last along with the severity should all be noted. The most obvious symptoms are that of lows and highs in mood and changes in behavior, energy, sleep and thoughts.
  • Consulting a doctor or talking to family and friends helps to differentiate the symptoms of bipolar disorder from unipolar disorder.

Treatment:

4511 people found this helpful

Bipolar Disorder - What Should You Know?

Dr.Aravinda Jawali 91% (1523ratings)
Psychiatrist, Bangalore
Bipolar Disorder - What Should You Know?

Bipolar disorder is also known as manic depression. This usually sets in low and high moods in a person along with changes in energy and sleep.

People with bipolar disorder tend to have periodical changes; sometimes they are over happy and other times they might feel sad, depressed and hopeless. Between these changes they are normal. The highs and lows are considered as extreme poles of moods, thus the name bipolar disorder.

Manic term is used when a person with bipolar disorder is highly excited and feels confident. Also, feelings of irritability and recklessness along with irrationality might occur. Some people with mania might have a hallucinations that is they see and hear things that are not there, along with delusions.

The term hypomania is used to describe mild symptoms of mania, in which a person does not have hallucinations and delusions and the symptoms do not interfere with their daily life. Similarly, the term depressive is used to describe a person's time when they feel depressed or sad.

Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder:

  • The highs and lows in a bipolar disorder do not follow any set pattern. One might feel manic or depressed for hours or days or weeks, months and even years together, before they actually switch to a happy mood. The severity depends from person to person and also changes with time by becoming less or more severe.
  • Symptoms of mania or the high are extreme excitement, change from being happy to angry and irritable along with restlessness, speech is rapid with low concentration, less sleep and increased energy, grand plans, alcohol and drug abuse and impulsiveness.
  • Symptoms of low or depressive phase are lethargy, worthlessness, feeling of sadness and hopelessness, lowered concentration, irritability, loss of sleep or excessive sleeping, loss of appetite and suicidal tendencies.

Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder:

  • In case someone exhibits symptoms of bipolar disorder, then talking to a psychiatrist or a doctor helps. Doctors ask questions related to the mental illness and the associated concerns. Diagnosis is basically recognizing the symptoms of the person, whether they are due to some underlying cause or mood swings because of excessive alcohol. The symptoms have to be noted and the duration, for which they last along with the severity should all be noted. The most obvious symptoms are that of lows and highs in mood and changes in behavior, energy, sleep and thoughts.
  • Consulting a doctor or talking to family and friends helps to differentiate the symptoms of bipolar disorder from unipolar disorder.

Treatment

4261 people found this helpful

Bipolar Disorder - How To Get Rid Of It?

MD - Psychiatry, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Psychiatrist, Vijayawada
Bipolar Disorder -  How To Get Rid Of It?

Bipolar disorder is also known as maniac depression. This usually sets in low and high moods in a person along with change in energy and sleep. People with bipolar disorder tend to have periodical changes; sometimes they are over happy and other times they might feel sad, depressed and hopeless. Between these changes they are normal. The highs and lows are considered as extreme poles of moods, thus the name bipolar disorder.

The manic term is used when a person with bipolar disorder is highly excited and feels confident. Also, feelings of irritability and recklessness along with irrationality might occur. Some people with mania might have a hallucination that is they see and hear things that are not there, along with delusions. 

The term hypomania is used to describe mild symptoms of mania, in which a person does not have hallucinations and delusions and the symptoms do not interfere with their daily life. Similarly, the term depressive is used to describe a person's time when they feel depressed or sad. 

Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

The highs and lows in a bipolar disorder do not follow any set pattern. One might feel manic or depressed for hours or days or weeks, months and even years together before they actually switch to a happy mood. The severity depends from person to person and also changes with time by becoming less or more severe.

Symptoms of mania or the high are extreme excitement, change from being happy to angry and irritable along with restlessness, speech is rapid with low concentration, less sleep and increased energy, high sex drive, grand plans, alcohol and drug abuse and impulsiveness.

Symptoms of low or depressive phase are lethargy, worthlessness, feeling of sadness and hopelessness, lowered concentration, irritability, loss of sleep or excessive sleeping, loss of appetite and suicidal tendencies.

Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder:

In case someone exhibits symptoms of bipolar disorder, then talking to a psychiatrist or a doctor helps. Doctors ask questions related to the mental illness and the associated concerns. Diagnosis is basically recognizing the symptoms of the person, whether they are due to some underlying cause or mood swings because of excessive alcohol. The symptoms have to be noted and the duration for which they last along with the severity should all be noted. The most obvious symptoms are that of lows and highs in mood and changes in behaviour, energy, sleep and thoughts.
Consulting a doctor or talking to family and friends helps to differentiate the symptoms of bipolar disorder from a unipolar disorder.

Treatment:
Medicines which involve mood stabilizers such as lamotrigine, valproate, lithium, carbamazepine and antipsychotics such as olanzapine, quetiapine should be taken. Psychotherapy is also recommended.

3967 people found this helpful

Bipolar Disorder - What Causes It?

MD - Psychiatry, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Psychiatrist, Delhi
Bipolar Disorder - What Causes It?

Bipolar disorder is also known as maniac depression. This usually sets in low and high moods in a person along with change in energy and sleep.
People with bipolar disorder tend to have periodical changes; sometimes they are over happy and other times they might feel sad, depressed and hopeless. Between these changes they are normal. The highs and lows are considered as extreme poles of moods, thus the name bipolar disorder.

Manic term is used when a person with bipolar disorder is highly excited and feels confident. Also, feelings of irritability and recklessness along with irrationality might occur. Some people with mania might have a hallucination that is they see and hear things that are not there, along with delusions. 

The term hypomania is used to describe mild symptoms of mania, in which a person does not have hallucinations and delusions and the symptoms do not interfere with their daily life. Similarly, the term depressive is used to describe a person's time when they feel depressed or sad. 

Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

The highs and lows in a bipolar disorder do not follow any set pattern. One might feel manic or depressed for hours or days or weeks, months and even years together before they actually switch to a happy mood. The severity depends from person to person and also changes with time by becoming less or more severe.

Symptoms of mania or the high are extreme excitement, change from being happy to angry and irritable along with restlessness, speech is rapid with low concentration, less sleep and increased energy, high se drive, grand plans, alcohol and drug abuse and impulsiveness.

Symptoms of low or depressive phase are lethargy, worthlessness, feeling of sadness and hopelessness, lowered concentration, irritability, loss of sleep or excessive sleeping, loss of appetite and suicidal tendencies.

Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder:

In case someone exhibits symptoms of bipolar disorder, then talking to a psychiatrist or a doctor helps. Doctors ask questions related to the mental illness and the associated concerns. Diagnosis is basically recognizing the symptoms of the person, whether they are due to some underlying cause or mood swings because of excessive alcohol. The symptoms have to be noted and the duration for which they last along with the severity should all be noted. The most obvious symptoms are that of lows and highs in mood and changes in behavior, energy, sleep and thoughts.
Consulting a doctor or talking to family and friends helps to differentiate the symptoms of bipolar disorder from unipolar disorder.

Treatment:

Medicines which involve mood stabilizers such as lamotrigine, valproate, lithium, carbamazepine and antipsychotics such as olanzapine, quetiapine should be taken. Psychotherapy is also recommended.

4056 people found this helpful