Known as a central nervous system stimulant, Concerta 18Mg Tablet is used to treat attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and narcolepsy. It influences and affects the chemicals in the brain that control impulses and hyperactivity. This means that it helps you to concentrate and pay attention more, and control various behavior problems.
Let your doctor know if you have a history of epilepsy, drug and alcohol addiction, Tourette’s syndrome, and depression. Concerta 18Mg Tablet is not to be used at all if you have used an MAO inhibitor such as methylene blue injection, phenelzine, rasagiline, and selegilinein the last two weeks.
It is vital that you take Concerta 18Mg Tablet exactly as it has been prescribed by your doctor. Take this in the morning as the medicine can cause sleeping problems. Be careful and make sure that no one else has your medicine as it is very habit forming and dangerous for those with drug addictions. While taking this medicine, you may need to undergo regular physical checks with your doctor.
What is ADHD?
ADHD, also called attention-deficit disorder, is a behavior disorder, usually first diagnosed in childhood, that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity. These symptoms usually occur together; however, one may occur without the other(s).
The symptoms of hyperactivity, when present, are almost always apparent by the age of 7 and may be present in very young preschoolers. Inattention or attention-deficit may not be evident until a child faces the expectations of elementary school.
What are the different types of ADHD?
Three major types of ADHD include the following:
ADHD, combined type. This, the most common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors as well as inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, impulsive/hyperactive type. This, the least common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors without inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, inattentive and distractible type. This type of ADHD is characterized predominately by inattention and distractibility without hyperactivity.
What causes attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
ADHD is one of the most researched areas in child and adolescent mental health. However, the precise cause of the disorder is still unknown. Available evidence suggests that ADHD is genetic. It is a brain-based biological disorder. Low levels of dopamine (a brain chemical), which is a neurotransmitter (a type of brain chemical), are found in children with ADHD. Brain imaging studies using PET scanners (positron emission tomography; a form of brain imaging that makes it possible to observe the human brain at work) show that brain metabolism in children with ADHD is lower in the areas of the brain that control attention, social judgment, and movement.
Who is affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
Estimates suggest that about 4% to 12% of children have ADHD. Boys are 2 to 3 times more likely to have ADHD of the hyperactive or combined type than girls.
Many parents of children with ADHD experienced symptoms of ADHD when they were younger. ADHD is commonly found in brothers and sisters within the same family. Most families seek help when their child's symptoms begin to interfere with learning and adjustment to the expectations of school and age-appropriate activities.
What are the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
The following are the most common symptoms of ADHD. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. The 3 categories of symptoms of ADHD include the following:
Short attention span for age (difficulty sustaining attention)
Difficulty listening to others
Difficulty attending to details
Poor organizational skills for age
Poor study skills for age
Often interrupts others
Has difficulty waiting for his or her turn in school and/or social games
Tends to blurt out answers instead of waiting to be called upon
Takes frequent risks, and often without thinking before acting
Seems to be in constant motion; runs or climbs, at times with no apparent goal except motion
Has difficulty remaining in his/her seat even when it is expected
Fidgets with hands or squirms when in his or her seat; fidgeting excessively
Has difficulty engaging in quiet activities
Loses or forgets things repeatedly and often
Inability to stay on task; shifts from one task to another without bringing any to completion
The symptoms of ADHD may resemble other medical conditions or behavior problems. Keep in mind that many of these symptoms may occur in children and teens who do not have ADHD. A key element in diagnosis is that the symptoms must significantly impair adaptive functioning in both home and school environments. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.
How is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosed?
ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder of childhood. A pediatrician, child psychiatrist, or a qualified mental health professional usually identifies ADHD in children. A detailed history of the child's behavior from parents and teachers, observations of the child's behavior, and psychoeducational testing contribute to making the diagnosis of ADHD. Because ADHD is a group of symptoms, diagnosis depends on evaluating results from several different sources, including physical, neurological, and psychological testing. Certain tests may be used to rule out other conditions, and some may be used to test intelligence and certain skill sets. Consult your child's doctor for more information.
Treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Specific treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder will be determined by your child's doctor based on:
Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
Extent of your child's symptoms
Your child's tolerance for specific medications or therapies
Expectations for the course of the condition
Your opinion or preference
Major components of treatment for children with ADHD include parental support and education in behavioral training, appropriate school placement, and medication. Treatment with a psychostimulant is highly effective in most children with ADHD.
Treatment may include:
Psychostimulant medications. These medications are used for their ability to balance chemicals in the brain that prohibit the child from maintaining attention and controlling impulses. They help "stimulate" or help the brain to focus and may be used to reduce the major characteristics of ADHD.
Medications that are commonly used to treat ADHD include the following:
Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat)
A mixture of amphetamine salts (Adderall)
Psychostimulants have been used to treat childhood behavior disorders since the 1930s and have been widely studied. Traditional immediate release stimulants take effect in the body quickly, work for 1 to 4 hours, and then are eliminated from the body. Many long-acting stimulant medications are also available, lasting 8 to 9 hours, and requiring 1 daily dosing. Doses of stimulant medications need to be timed to match the child's school schedule to help the child pay attention for a longer period of time and improve classroom performance. The common side effects of stimulants may include, but are not limited to, the following:
Rebound activation (when the effect of the stimulant wears off, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors may increase for a short period of time)
Most side effects of stimulant use are mild, decrease with regular use, and respond to dose changes. Always discuss potential side effects with your child's doctor.
Antidepressant medications may also be administered for children and adolescents with ADHD to help improve attention while decreasing aggression, anxiety, and/or depression.
Psychosocial treatments. Parenting children with ADHD may be difficult and can present challenges that create stress within the family. Classes in behavior management skills for parents can help reduce stress for all family members. Training in behavior management skills for parents usually occurs in a group setting which encourages parent-to-parent support. Behavior management skills may include the following:
Contingent attention (responding to the child with positive attention when desired behaviors occur; withholding attention when undesired behaviors occur)
Teachers may also be taught behavior management skills to use in the classroom setting. Training for teachers usually includes use of daily behavior reports that communicate in-school behaviors to parents.
Behavior management techniques tend to improve targeted behaviors (such as completing school work or keeping the child's hands to himself or herself), but are not usually helpful in reducing overall inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity.
Prevention of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Preventive measures to reduce the incidence of ADHD in children are not known at this time. However, early detection and intervention can reduce the severity of symptoms, decrease the interference of behavioral symptoms on school functioning, enhance the child's normal growth and development, and improve the quality of life experienced by children or adolescents with ADHD.
ADHD i.e. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a mental disorder that is commonly characterised by attention problems, excessive activity or difficulty in controlling one’s inappropriate behaviour, given his/her age. If ADHD occurs in an adult, the person might face significant issues in maintaining a job, managing time or being in a relationship.
In spite of being the most regularly studied and analysed mental issue in kids and teenagers, the cause, in most of the cases, remains unknown. The symptoms of ADHD might develop as one gets old. Apart from the common symptoms, the person might show signs typical to ADHD such as hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity and disruptive behaviour as well as relationships and academic difficulties. The symptoms of ADHD need to last for about six months to be diagnosed as a disorder.
The typical management methods of ADHD include counselling or medicines, either used separately or in combination.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Cognitive Enhancement is often defined as the effort to increase the performance of cognitive function like attention & concentration, memory, problem-solving in healthy individuals. While every species including humans have consistently and continuously evolved day by day to improve themselves. However, using medications and technological advances in increasing cognitive functions is a relatively new aspect and is a matter of debate on the ground of ethical, philosophical and sociopolitical.
Here it's very important to understand that use of medications is off-label and there is a little evidence of efficacy.
Psychostimulants include Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine. These are commonly used to treat ADHD, Narcolepsy, fatigue associated with cancer, and in depression as an augmentation strategy. However, they have side effects like decreased appetite and weight, insomnia, headache, irritability, and mood changes, palpitations, tachycardia, and potential of abuse. Analysis of current literature suggests no or little evidence except slight positive effect on memory. So, use of psychostimulant to enhance cognitive function should be used cautiously keeping in mind the potential side effects caused by them.
Modafinil a wake-promoting agent that has been mainly used by the healthy individual like students, academics and physician. It is also used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy however it has life-threatening side effects in children, that's why FDA did not approve it for ADHD. Reseach has shown a moderate effect of Modafinil on attention in well-rested individual and more pronounced in sleep-deprived individuals which might be due to "overconfidence" effect.
Individuals suffering from ADHD or Narcolepsy are compelled to take the stimulant to maintain pace with their peers. However, use in the healthy individual has complicated issues. As cognitive enhancer increased productivity in some profession in which sustained concentration is required, the risk of abuse or potential side effects like weight losses, the cardiac risk may outweigh the potential benefits. Finally, they predispose the individuals to the risk of substance use.
What is ADHD?
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity or ADHD is a brain disorder that has seen a sudden rise in the recent years. It is most prevalent among children, however, if left untreated, adults too can continue showing ADHD traits that started in their childhood. In the USA alone, over two million children are currently under treatment for ADHD. As per a study conducted by Skogli and others in 2013, ADHD is more commonly found in boys than in girls, with a ratio of 3:1.
Causes and symptoms:
Researchers are still exploring the factors that may cause ADHD. However, there are chances that this disorder is hereditary. In this fast moving world parents often fail to provide their child with proper attention and care leading to ADHD. It has been found that ADHD is more prevalent among single parent families.
ADHD symptoms range between mild, moderate to severe. These symptoms normally start before the age of twelve, while in some children they may start as early as three. Children with ADHD fail to pay proper attention, easily get distracted, frequently forget to do daily activities, may avoid or dislike tasks that require mental effort and have trouble organizing tasks and activities. Other symptoms include hyperactivity and hypersensitivity - like talking too much, interrupt other’s conversation. If you notice these symptoms in your child don’t hesitate to consult an expert.
Homeopathy in Treating ADHD
Unlike conventional medicine, homeopathy is non-toxic, safe and yet effective. In conventional treatment medicines like Ritalin/methylphenidate and other psychiatric drugs are used. Although these drugs may provide some short-term benefits, however, are ineffective when it comes to long-term benefits. Above all these medications have side-effects such as restlessness, anxiety, tremors, headaches, allergic reactions, dizziness, abdominal discomfort among many. Some children may even experience a dramatic reduction in height. These side-effects make the parents and doctors explore other alternatives to treat ADHD before resorting to conventional medicine.Homeopathy is a viable alternative to treat children and individuals with ADHD.
Various researchers have acknowledged that homeopathy is a much safer treatment with good results. According to Frei and Thurneysen(2001), homeopathic medicines have same benefits to that of conventional drugs like Ritalin. However, homeopathic medicines don’t have the side effects that Ritalin has. Overall Ritalin showed 65 percent improvement rate, while homeopathic medicines showed an impressive 73 percent improvement rate.
Standard Homeopathic remedies to treat ADHD –
As homeopathic medicines are non-toxic and safe to use, one doesn’t necessarily need a prescription to buy them. There are several popular homeopathic remedies that one may use to treat ADHD. Stramonium is one such popular remedy; it is obtained from Datura stramonium. Other popular remedies include Cina, Hyoscyamus, Tuberculinum, Vertaal and Arseniod. These are some of the remedies that may be used to treat ADHD, however before taking any medicine always consult a licensed medical practitioner.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
BP (Blood Pressure):
BP (Blood pressure) is the pressure created on the walls of blood vessel by circulation of blood. It is typically measured in mmHg (millimeters of mercury). It is expressed in terms of systolic pressure over diastolic pressure. Normal blood pressure in a healthy adult is considered to be 120/80 mmHg [120 mmHg (systolic) over 80 mmHg (diastolic).
Types of Blood Pressure Disorders:
There are two major types of blood pressure disorder.
1. Low Blood Pressure - Typically, blood pressure reading in the tunes of 90/60mmHg, or lower is considered to be low blood pressure. Remember, just one of the systolic or diastolic numbers need to be lower than usual to be considered as low blood pressure. This means:
- If the systolic number is 90 or lesser, irrespective of the diastolic number, it may be low blood pressure.
- If the diastolic number is 60 or lesser, irrespective of the systolic number, it may be low blood pressure.
Symptoms of Low Blood Pressure:
Symptoms or signs of low blood pressure are:
- Light-headedness or wooziness
- Black out (fainting)
- Blurry eyesight
- Lack of attentiveness
Extreme low blood pressure symptoms are:
- Mental Confusion
- Pale, damp, cold skin
- Breathing difficulties
- Weak pulse
Diagnosis: To diagnose low blood pressure in a patient, blood pressure and pulse rate are repeatedly checked after a patient has been lying down, soon after he or she stands, and in a few minutes of him or her standing. Doctors may also prescribe Electrocardiogram (ECG) and Echocardiogram. Some patients may also be advised blood tests, exercise stress test or, EP test (electrophysiology test).
Causes of Low Blood Pressure:
Causes of low blood pressure include:
- Hormonal disorders including hypothyroidism, diabetes, or hypoglycemia
- Medicinal side effects
- Heart arrhythmias
- Blood vessel dilation
- Liver diseases
- Excessive bleeding
- Low/high body temperature
- Heart muscle diseases
- Acute dehydration
- Medication or alcohol reaction
It is possible to prevent and treat low blood pressure. Here are some ways to prevent low blood pressure using healthy diet and lifestyle:
- Ensure higher salt intake in diet.
- Intake lots of non-alcoholic fluids.
- Don’t partake in alcohol consumption.
- Drink more water or other fluids during summers and when suffering from viral illness.
- Exercise regularly.
- When getting out of bed, sit upright for a few minutes.
- Avoid lifting heavy objects.
- Don’t strain when in toilet.
- Eat smaller, more frequent meals.
- Don’t take drugs or medication before meals.
Treatment for Low Blood Pressure
The following medication is used to treat low blood pressure:
- Fludrocortisone – It promotes sodium retention by the kidney to improve blood pressure. However, sodium retention can cause a loss of potassium. Therefore, ensure taking enough potassium daily, when taking fludrocortisone.
- Midodrine– It increases blood pressure by activating artery and vein receptors.
Low Blood Pressure Risk Factors
Some of the most common risk factors for low blood pressure are:
- Chances of low blood pressure during pregnancy increase manifold because a woman's circulatory system expands rapidly during pregnancy.
- Dehydration can cause low blood pressure. It is important to keep the body hydrated at all times because dehydration can cause a life-threatening complication oflow blood pressure.
- Excessive blood loss reduces blood in the body leading to sudden low blood pressure.
- Exposure to severe heat may cause excessive sweating which may lead to dehydration and low blood pressure.
- Intake of alcohol increases the chances of low blood pressure.
Low Blood Pressure Complications
Low blood pressure can lead to several complications including:
- Vision Impairment
- Constant Mental confusion
- Constant Fainting
- Mental Shocks
2. High Blood Pressure - Typically, blood pressure reading equal to or more than 140/90mmHg is considered high blood pressure. Like low blood pressure, just one of the systolic or diastolic numbers need to be higher than usual in high BP. This means:
- If the systolic number is 140 or higher, irrespective of the diastolic number, it may be high blood pressure.
- If the diastolic number is 90 or higher, irrespective of the systolic number, it may be low blood pressure.
Common symptoms of high blood pressure are:
- Severe headache
- Mental confusion
- Blurry Vision
- Pain in chest
- Uneven pulse
- Chest pounding
Diagnosis: To determine the condition of low blood pressure in a patient, doctors may suggest ECG (electrocardiogram), and echocardiogram (an ultrasound test to visualize the heart). Patients may also be advised blood tests, stress test and/or electrophysiology test (EP test).
Some of the most common causes of high blood pressure are:
- Excessive weight or obesity
- Intake of excessive salt
- Intake of excessive alcohol
- Family history of high blood pressure
- Chronic kidney disease
- Adrenal and thyroid disorders
It is possible to prevent and treat high blood pressure. Here are some ways to prevent high blood pressure using healthy diet and lifestyle:
- Weight loss in case of obesity
- Quitting smoking
- Healthy diets with lot of fruits, vegetables, and low fat dairy products
- Reducing sodium intake in diets.
- Regular exercise
- Limiting alcohol intake
Treatment for High Blood Pressure
Treatment of high blood pressure can be done using several types of drugs such as:
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
- Calcium channel blockers
- Renin inhibitors
- Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)
- Combination medications
High Blood Pressure Risk Factors
Common risk factors for high blood pressure include:
- Family history of high blood pressure.
- Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may cause high blood pressure.
- Lack of physical activity may cause high blood pressure.
- Excessive sodium intake in diets may cause high blood pressure.
- Excessive fat or obesity may cause high blood pressure.
- Intake of too much alcohol may lead to high blood pressure.
- Obstructive sleep apnea may increase the risk of developing high blood pressure.
- High cholesterol can lead to high blood pressure.
- Patients suffering from Diabetes are more vulnerable to high blood pressure.
- Smoking and tobacco can lead to high blood pressure.
- Too much stress may lead to high blood pressure.
Untreated high blood pressure can lead to several complications including:
- Heart failure
- Vision Impairment
- Metabolic syndrome
- Mental confusion
Blood Pressure Myths
Myth 1: Low blood pressure is nothing to be worried about.
Reality: Low blood pressure, also referred to as hypotension, is a medical condition that can lead to several life-threatening complications.
Myth 2: Those with family history of high blood pressure can’t do anything to prevent it.
Reality: While it is true that those with family history of high blood pressure are more likely to develop it, it can be prevented by healthy diet and lifestyle.
Myth 3: High blood pressure patients show symptoms like anxiety, sweating, and sleep disorder. Those who don’t have such symptoms don’t have high blood pressure.
Reality: Sometimes, high blood pressure patients may not experience any symptoms for years. That’s why it makes sense to get your blood pressure checked regularly.
Myth 4: Blood pressure patients must drink wine heavily.
Reality: Heavy wine drinking can increase blood pressure, which may lead to heart failure or stroke.
Myth 5: Those diagnosed with high blood pressure stop taking medicines when their blood pressure level is maintained.
Reality: High blood pressure is a lifelong medical condition and one shouldn’t stop taking medicines without recommendations of a certified medical professional. Remember, blood pressure can fluctuate leading to several complications.
Question 1: Is it good to have low blood pressure?
Answer: Blood pressure disorder is a medical condition that may lead to several life-threatening complications. Having low blood pressure may cause several problems such as light-headedness, wooziness, fainting, blurry vision, nausea, exhaustion and mental confusion.
Fortunately, you can easily keep your blood pressure level in check by embracing these healthy lifestyle choices:
- Being active
- Quitting smoking
- Limiting the intake of salt in diet
- Ensuring healthy and balanced diet
- Not partaking in heavy alcohol drinking
Furthermore, do well to get your blood pressure level checked at regular intervals and immediately consult your doctor if you find your blood pressure level is not in healthy range.
Question 2: Does low blood pressure affect pregnancy?
Answer: A large number of pregnant women tend to show the symptoms of low blood pressure during pregnancy. Low blood pressure doesn’t affect pregnancy or harm the unborn. However, it is important to get in touch with a certified medical professional about any symptoms you’re experiencing during pregnancy.
Question 3: Can diabetes cause low blood pressure?
Answer: Yes! Diabetes leads to nerve damages and if the part of the nervous system that regulates the blood pressure is affected, it can lead postural hypotension. In this medical condition, you may experience sudden drop in your blood pressure when standing up.
Question 4: What health issues usually follow high blood pressure?
Answer: High blood pressure can lead to several serious and life-threatening health issues. Some such health conditions are:
- Heart Issues: High blood pressure may lead to ischemic heart disease (a medical condition where the heart tissue doesn’t get enough oxygen and blood), Heart failure and hypertensive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (stiffened, atypically heart muscles).
- Kidney Issues: High blood pressure can easily damage the blood vessels and cause harm to the kidney filters. Resultantly, kidneys aren’t able to properly excrete body waste. Here it is important to remember that some kidney diseases also cause high blood pressure in case enough sodium isn’t secreted.
- Stroke: High blood pressure can cause stroke. It can either contribute to atherosclerosis leading to blockages of and/or clots in arteries, or by causing the blood vessel wall to rupture.
- Atherosclerosis: This is a medical condition where arteries are blocked and/or clotted due to plaque, or fatty material. High blood pressure contributes to this disease by adding to the blockage or clot.
- Eyesight Disorders: High blood pressure may lead to damage of blood vessels in the retina causing to vision disorders, temporary blindness or permanent vision impairment.
Question 5: Is there a way to find out if I have High Blood Pressure?
Answer: Typically, high blood pressure patients don’t really experience any symptoms. This is the reason why it is imperative to consult a certified medical professional and get your blood pressure routinely checked at regular intervals. If you have a family history of blood pressure or experience any risk factors associated with high blood pressure, it is vital to consult a certified medical professional immediately. If you’re experiencing strong headache, pounding chest, breathing difficulty, or sudden loss of stamina, it makes sense to immediately consult your doctor.
Question 6: Is there a side effect of high blood pressure medicines?
Answer: High blood pressure medicines are known to have some side effects. Some of the most common side effects are:
- Alpha-blockers: Lightheadedness, strong headaches, pounding chest, nausea, sudden fatigue, weight gain
- Beta-blockers: Lightheadedness, erectile disorder, weak pulse, slow heart rate
- Angiotensin receptor blockers: Sudden fatigue, fainting, diarrhea, lightheadedness
- Diuretics: Strong headaches, sudden weakness
- Calcium channel blockers: Lightheadedness, swelling in feet and ankle, constant constipation and heart rhythm disorder
- ACE inhibitors: Constant dry cough, strong headaches, occasional diarrhea
Question 7: Can prescribed and over-the-counter medicines cause high blood pressure?
Answer: Some over-the-counter medicines and drugs are known to cause high blood pressure. Some such most common medicines are erythropoietin, amphetamines, certain birth control pills, methylphenidate, cyclosporine and certain medicines used for the treatment of migraine. Furthermore, medicines used for the treatment of allergy and cold, and medicines used as appetite suppressants are also known to cause high blood pressure.
Question 8: When to get in touch with your doctor about high blood pressure?
Answer: Patients diagnosed with high blood pressure must go for regular blood pressure check-ups and must routinely consult their doctors. In case you feel that your body isn’t responding to the prescribed high blood pressure medicines, you must immediately consult your doctor. If you’re experiencing side effects of blood pressure medicines, you must immediately seek medical attention.