The Interstitium is a network of tissues in the lungs. It supports the functioning of microscopic air sacs in the lungs, known as Alveoli. Tiny blood vessels travelling through the interstitium help in exchange of gases between blood and air. In ILD or Interstitial lung disease, this important function of the lungs is disturbed. This can lead to ILD, including Sarcoidosis.
Causes Of Interstitial Lung Disease
It is estimated that regular exposure to irritants through inhalation, at work or otherwise, can precipitate ILD. Bacteria, Viruses, and Fungi are known to cause Interstitial Pneumonias. The following irritants can cause ILD:
● Silica dust
● Coal dust and other dusts, such as those inhaled during working in mines
● Bird proteins (such as Chicken or Pigeon food)
● Grain dust inhaled from farming
In Sarcoidosis, there is growth of tiny inflammatory cells in different organs of the body, such as the Lymph nodes, Skin, Eyes and the Lungs. Lungs are the most common organs which Sarcoidosis affects.
Symptoms of ILD and Sarcoidosis
● Symptoms may include Fever, Fatigue, Shortness of breath, Weight loss, Persistent cough, Swollen lymph nodes, Chest pain, Wheezing etc.
● There may be reddish-purple bumps on shins or ankles, sores on nose, ears and cheeks, growth of nodules under the skin, etc.
● The patient may have Blurred vision, Eye pain, Severe redness and Sensitivity to light.
● A patient may also suffer from Chest pain, Shortness of breath, Fainting, fatigue, Irregular heartbeats, Palpitations, Swelling due to Accumulation of Fluid, etc.
Treatment of ILD and Sarcoidosis
● Antibiotics for Interstitial Pneumonia condition
● Corticosteroids or Immunosuppressants for skewed immune response
● Oxygen inhalation for low oxygen level in body due to ILD
● Antioxidants to reduce the rate of decline in lung function.
● Though there is no cure for this disease, a patient may be treated through medicine if the disease starts affecting the functioning of other organs.
● The patient may be given Corticosteroids to Suppress Inflammation.
● If the condition is worse, the patient may also be given Immunosuppressants and other medicines to overcome specific organic problems.
ILD and Sarcoidosis are common diseases nowadays due to increasing pollution all around. In case of any of the symptoms of ILD and Sarcoidosis show up in a patient, it is highly recommended to get advice from an experienced Pulmonologist. The treatment is mostly antibiotic-based, and curbs the infection out of the body. The sooner the treatment can start, the better it is.
What is Thyroxine?
Thyroxine, also known as T4, is the main hormone which is secreted by the thyroid gland into the bloodstream. Although it is an inactive form, most of it is converted to an active form called triiodothyronine by organs such as the liver and kidneys. The hypothalamus in the brain along with the pituitary and thyroid glands modulate the production and release of thyroid hormones.
What Happens If You Have Too Little Thyroxine?
If the level of thyroxine in the blood is low, then the pituitary gland releases more thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to try and stimulate the thyroid gland to make more thyroxine. Therefore, a raised level of TSH means the thyroid gland is underactive and is not making enough thyroxine. When the thyroid gland produces very little quantity of thyroxine, then the condition is known as hypothyroidism.
As thyroid hormones are essential for physical and mental development, so hypothyroidism during development or before birth and during childhood causes mental impairment and reduced physical growth.
Symptoms usually show a slow and gradual progression before they become worse over months or years as the level of thyroxine in the body gradually falls.
In adults it causes a decrease in metabolic rate resulting in symptoms that include:
Less Common Symptoms include:
Diagnosis and Investigations:
It involves a blood test which screens the levels of TSH and free T4 and T3. Usually, the reports show high TSH and T3 and T4 levels.
Treatment usually involves taking a daily tablet of thyroid hormone levothyroxine to replace the missing thyroxine. Treatment works very well for most people with hypothyroidism but is required for life. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!