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Adalirel 40mg Injection Tips

What Is Uveitis? How Can It Be Treated?

Dr. Sharp Sight 90% (58 ratings)
Super-Speciality Trained Ophthalmologists
Ophthalmologist, Delhi
What Is Uveitis? How Can It Be Treated?

Uveitis is a set of inflammatory diseases that results in the swelling and damaging of the eye tissue. It can lead to temporary or permanent loss of vision. This disease often affects a part of the eye called the uvea, from which it has derived its name. It can affect people of all ages and can last from a short to long period of time. Ophthalmologists categorize uveitis into four major parts posterior uveitis, anterior uveitis, panuveitis uveitis and intermediate uveitis. This disease can be infectious or noninfectious, depending on the nature of the infection.

What causes uveitis and what are the major risk factors?
This disease is caused by the eye's inflammatory response and is caused by a series of potential factors such as the following:

  • Immune system attack from the body
  • Eye bruises
  • Eye infection or tumor within the eye
  • Foreign toxins that penetrate the eye

What are the diseases associated with uveitis?
Uveitis is associated with a range of diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Behcet's syndrome, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's (VKH) disease, psoriasis, herpes zoster infection, tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis.

What are the typical symptoms of uveitis?
One or both eyes can be affected by uveitis. Some of the common symptoms include pain in the eye, light sensitivity and blurred and dark spots in vision. Moreover, the symptoms might vary from person to person and greatly depends on the type of inflammation. The symptoms also vary according to the type of uveitis.

What is the detection process?
The process of detection starts with a patient's medical history followed by several medical tests to rule out autoimmune disorders. This is followed by an evaluation of the central nervous system to rule out multiple sclerosis. Some of the other tests conducted by ophthalmologists include measuring the ocular pressure, slit lamp exam, funduscopic exam and visual acuity test.

The primary aim of the treatment is to eradicate inflammation, restore vision, prevent tissue damage and reduce pain. The treatment plan depends on the type of uveitis a patient displays. Doctors often suggest a dose of corticosteroid eye drops to arrest the infection in and around the eye. Other treatment methods include the prescription of immunosuppressive agents.

Furthermore, a doctor may suggest steroidal medication in the form of an eye drop, pill or injection. It can also be surgically infused into the eye. Some other agents used for treatment are azathioprine, methotrexate and mycophenolate. Medications such as these require regular monitoring of the blood to check for any side effects. Doctors also suggest biologics such as infliximab, rituximab, and adalimumab. Most of these drugs have a specific target in the immune system.

4560 people found this helpful

Uveitis - Do You Know It Can Increase The Risk Of Other Diseases?

Dr. Rajeev Gupta 87% (27 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Ophthalmology
Ophthalmologist, Ghaziabad
Uveitis - Do You Know It Can Increase The Risk Of Other Diseases?

Uveitis is a set of inflammatory diseases that results in the swelling and damaging of the eye tissue. It can lead to temporary or permanent loss of vision. This disease often affects a part of the eye called the uvea, from which it has derived its name. It can affect people of all ages and can last from a short to long period of time. Ophthalmologists categorize uveitis into four major parts posterior uveitis, anterior uveitis, panuveitis uveitis and intermediate uveitis. This disease can be infectious or noninfectious, depending on the nature of the infection.

What causes uveitis and what are the major risk factors?
This disease is caused by the eye's inflammatory response and is caused by a series of potential factors such as the following:

  • Immune system attack from the body
  • Eye bruises
  • Eye infection or tumor within the eye
  • Foreign toxins that penetrate the eye

What are the diseases associated with uveitis?
Uveitis is associated with a range of diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Behcet's syndrome, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's (VKH) disease, psoriasis, herpes zoster infection, tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis.

What are the typical symptoms of uveitis?
One or both eyes can be affected by uveitis. Some of the common symptoms include pain in the eye, light sensitivity and blurred and dark spots in vision. Moreover, the symptoms might vary from person to person and greatly depends on the type of inflammation. The symptoms also vary according to the type of uveitis.

What is the detection process?
The process of detection starts with a patient's medical history followed by several medical tests to rule out autoimmune disorders. This is followed by an evaluation of the central nervous system to rule out multiple sclerosis. Some of the other tests conducted by ophthalmologists include measuring the ocular pressure, slit lamp exam, funduscopic exam and visual acuity test.

The primary aim of the treatment is to eradicate inflammation, restore vision, prevent tissue damage and reduce pain. The treatment plan depends on the type of uveitis a patient displays. Doctors often suggest a dose of corticosteroid eye drops to arrest the infection in and around the eye. Other treatment methods include the prescription of immunosuppressive agents.

Furthermore, a doctor may suggest steroidal medication in the form of an eye drop, pill or injection. It can also be surgically infused into the eye. Some other agents used for treatment are azathioprine, methotrexate and mycophenolate. Medications such as these require regular monitoring of the blood to check for any side effects. Doctors also suggest biologics such as infliximab, rituximab, and adalimumab. Most of these drugs have a specific target in the immune system.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

5045 people found this helpful

Uveitis - Know How It Can Be Diagnosed!

Asg Eye Hospital 85% (19 ratings)
ABC
Ophthalmologist, Jodhpur
Uveitis - Know How It Can Be Diagnosed!

Uveitis is a set of inflammatory diseases that results in the swelling and damaging of the eye tissue. It can lead to temporary or permanent loss of vision. This disease often affects a part of the eye called the uvea, from which it has derived its name. It can affect people of all ages and can last from a short to long period of time. Ophthalmologists categorize uveitis into four major parts posterior uveitis, anterior uveitis, panuveitis uveitis and intermediate uveitis. This disease can be infectious or noninfectious, depending on the nature of the infection.

What causes uveitis and what are the major risk factors?
This disease is caused by the eye's inflammatory response and is caused by a series of potential factors such as the following:

  • Immune system attack from the body
  • Eye bruises
  • Eye infection or tumor within the eye
  • Foreign toxins that penetrate the eye

What are the diseases associated with uveitis?
Uveitis is associated with a range of diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Behcet's syndrome, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's (VKH) disease, psoriasis, herpes zoster infection, tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis.

What are the typical symptoms of uveitis?

One or both eyes can be affected by uveitis. Some of the common symptoms include pain in the eye, light sensitivity and blurred and dark spots in vision. Moreover, the symptoms might vary from person to person and greatly depends on the type of inflammation. The symptoms also vary according to the type of uveitis.

What is the detection process?
The process of detection starts with a patient's medical history followed by several medical tests to rule out autoimmune disorders. This is followed by an evaluation of the central nervous system to rule out multiple sclerosis. Some of the other tests conducted by ophthalmologists include measuring the ocular pressure, slit lamp exam, funduscopic exam and visual acuity test.

The primary aim of the treatment is to eradicate inflammation, restore vision, prevent tissue damage and reduce pain. The treatment plan depends on the type of uveitis a patient displays. Doctors often suggest a dose of corticosteroid eye drops to arrest the infection in and around the eye. Other treatment methods include the prescription of immunosuppressive agents.

Furthermore, a doctor may suggest steroidal medication in the form of an eye drop, pill or injection. It can also be surgically infused into the eye. Some other agents used for treatment are azathioprine, methotrexate and mycophenolate. Medications such as these require regular monitoring of the blood to check for any side effects. Doctors also suggest biologics such as infliximab, rituximab, and adalimumab. Most of these drugs have a specific target in the immune system.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

6486 people found this helpful

Uveitis - How To Detect It?

Dr. Anurag Bansal 85% (13 ratings)
DNB Ophtalmology, MBBS
Ophthalmologist, Ludhiana
Uveitis - How To Detect It?

Uveitis is a set of inflammatory diseases that results in the swelling and damaging of the eye tissue. It can lead to temporary or permanent loss of vision. This disease often affects a part of the eye called the uvea, from which it has derived its name. It can affect people of all ages and can last from a short to long period of time. Ophthalmologists categorize uveitis into four major parts posterior uveitis, anterior uveitis, panuveitis uveitis and intermediate uveitis. This disease can be infectious or noninfectious, depending on the nature of the infection.

What causes uveitis and what are the major risk factors?
This disease is caused by the eye's inflammatory response and is caused by a series of potential factors such as the following:

  • Immune system attack from the body
  • Eye bruises
  • Eye infection or tumor within the eye
  • Foreign toxins that penetrate the eye

What are the diseases associated with uveitis?
Uveitis is associated with a range of diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Behcet's syndrome, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's (VKH) disease, psoriasis, herpes zoster infection, tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis.

What are the typical symptoms of uveitis?
One or both eyes can be affected by uveitis. Some of the common symptoms include pain in the eye, light sensitivity and blurred and dark spots in vision. Moreover, the symptoms might vary from person to person and greatly depends on the type of inflammation. The symptoms also vary according to the type of uveitis.

What is the detection process?
The process of detection starts with a patient's medical history followed by several medical tests to rule out autoimmune disorders. This is followed by an evaluation of the central nervous system to rule out multiple sclerosis. Some of the other tests conducted by ophthalmologists include measuring the ocular pressure, slit lamp exam, funduscopic exam and visual acuity test.

The primary aim of the treatment is to eradicate inflammation, restore vision, prevent tissue damage and reduce pain. The treatment plan depends on the type of uveitis a patient displays. Doctors often suggest a dose of corticosteroid eye drops to arrest the infection in and around the eye. Other treatment methods include the prescription of immunosuppressive agents.

Furthermore, a doctor may suggest steroidal medication in the form of an eye drop, pill or injection. It can also be surgically infused into the eye. Some other agents used for treatment are azathioprine, methotrexate and mycophenolate. Medications such as these require regular monitoring of the blood to check for any side effects. Doctors also suggest biologics such as infliximab, rituximab, and adalimumab. Most of these drugs have a specific target in the immune system.

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis - Know More About It!

Dr. Bodhisatwa Choudhuri 89% (26 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, MRCEM(UK), MEM, Diploma in Rheumatology, PGCC - Rheumatology, MACEP, FCCS
Rheumatologist, Kolkata
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis - Know More About It!

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis also known as juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a commonly occurring arthritis in children under the age of 15. Some common problems that are faced by patients with this disease include stiffness, joint pain, and swelling. While the symptoms might persist for a few months for some patients, for others it might continue for the rest of their lives. Patients might face serious complications such as inflammation of the eye, problems related to growth etc. The treatment of this condition focuses on preventing the bones from getting damaged, pain control and improving the function of the body.

What are some of the common symptoms of juvenile arthritis?

  1. Pain: A child suffering from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis might face extreme pain in the joints. They might limp after a nap or night sleep due to pain or stiff joints.

  2. Swelling: Larger joints such as the knee might swell frequently. The swelling might occur in smaller joints too.

  3. Stiffness: In addition to limping the child might appear rough and clumsy after waking from night sleep or a nap.

Other conditions could include rashes, swollen lymph nodes, frequent fever, headache, etc.

What are the causes of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis occurs when the immune system of the body attacks its own tissues and cells. It is still unclear as to why it happens, although, researchers believe that the environment and heredity have a role to play. Certain genetic mutations might make a child more vulnerable and susceptible to microbes that can trigger this condition.

What are the complications involved?

There could be several complications that might arise due to this condition. It is, therefore, wise to keep a close watch on the child. Seeking immediate medical attention can go a long way in mitigating the risk of these complications.

  • Problems related to the eye: Juvenile Rheumatoid arthritis can damage the eye by causing an inflammation known as uveitis. If this condition is not treated, it might result in other conditions such as glaucoma, cataracts, blindness etc.

  • Growth problems: Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis could result in growth problems. To treat this, a child would require a dose of corticosteroid.

How to diagnose juvenile arthritis?

It is not very easy to diagnose juvenile arthritis. Doctors often prescribe blood tests to get an idea of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, rheumatoid factor, C-reactive protein, anti-nuclear antibody, cyclic citrullinated peptide etc. A doctor might also prescribe imaging tests such as X-rays, MRI etc to detect congenital defects, fractures, tumors etc.

What are the treatment options available?

The overall treatment goal is to control symptoms, prevent joint damage, and maintain function. Oral steroids such as prednisone, deflazocort may be used in certain situations, but only for as short a time and at the lowest dose possible. Some of the medications that are prescribed for this condition include NSAID such as ibuprofen and naproxen, DMARD such as methotrexate and leflunomide, TNF blockers such as adalimumab and etanercept, immune suppressants such as rituximab. In addition to this, doctors would also prescribe exercises and therapies.

3865 people found this helpful

In Detail About Colorectal Disorders!

Dr. Tarun Bharadwaj 87% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Gastroenterology, Fellowship in Advanced endoscopy, Fellowship in Endoscopic Ultrasound(EUS), Observer fellowship in NBI and ESD, Fellowship in Hepatology
Gastroenterologist, Bhopal
In Detail About Colorectal Disorders!

Problems of the large intestine are very common and patients should usually consult gastroenterologists for the proper diagnosis and treatment

1. Bleeding per rectum: Bleeding through the anal canal or rectum is usually the most common problem of the patients. It can be due to following reasons: 

A. Piles also known as Hemorrhoids: Hemorrhoids are dilated venous channels of the anal canal. They occur due to long term constipation or chronic cough or due to less fibre intake in the diet. Sigmoidoscopy or proctoscopy is required for diagnosis. Treatment options include medicines and high fibre intake, Injection therapy(Sclerotherapy) for stopping bleeding from piles and Stapler hemorrhoidectomy if the piles are large.

B.  Polyps: Polyps are soft tissue growths seen in the large intestine. They are usually silent but can present with bleeding or anaemia. Polyps usually grow slowly in size and large polyps can turn into cancer of large intestine also known as colorectal carcinoma. Colonoscopy is required for the diagnosis. The gastroenterologists can diagnose the presence of polyps by colonoscopy. Smaller polyps can be removed by polypectomy by gastroenterologists without the need for open surgery. However large polyps or those polyps with suspicion of cancer require surgery.

C. Large intestine Ulcer: They can occur due to early cancer, SRUS, Infections or drugs. They require colonoscopy for the diagnosis. The gastroenterologists usually take Biopsy from the ulcer to know the cause of the ulcer. The mere taking of biopsy does not mean cancer and biopsy samples are seen in the microscope for better diagnosis.

D. Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s disease: Ulcerative colitis is one form of Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The other IBD is known as Crohn’s disease. Whereas ulcerative colitis involves only large intestine, Crohn’s disease can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract including small intestine. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease present with Loose stools(diarrhea), bleeding , abdominal pain, weight loss, Anemia and Perianal fissures and  fistula. The diagnosis of IBD is challenging and involves blood tests, CT Scan abdomen, Colonoscopy with biopsy and clinical history. Management includes Medicines which control the inflammation such as Pentasa, Rowasa, Mesacol etc. Severe disease requires additional drugs such as Azathioprine and Anti TNF sich as Infliximab and Adalimumab. Occasional cases require surgery such as those with tight stricture of the intestine, severe dilatation of Large intestine (also known as Toxic megacolon), excessive bleeding, the disease not responding to medical management, or presence of cancer with IBD.

E. Anal fissures: Cut in the anal skin (fissure) causes severe pain in the anal area during passing motions. It is usually due to constipation or straining. It is usually treated by Gastroenterologists initially by medicines and ointments. If the pain continues Surgery is required named as Lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS).

2. Loose motions or Diarrhea: Excessive passing of liquid motions is known as diarrhea or commonly lose motions. It is usually due to Infections caused by contaminated food and water. It is usually self-limiting. Severe cases with dehydration require admission for IV fluids and antibiotics for the infection. Loose motions for more than 6 to 8 weeks is known as chronic diarrhea. It is evaluated by blood tests and colonoscopy. Usual causes include tuberculosis, celiac disease, ulcerative colitis, microscopic colitis, Malabsorption such as chronic pancreatitis and small bowel bacterial overgrowth.

3. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): IBS is very common and at least 20 to 30 percent of Indian patients suffer from it. Symptoms include altered bowel habits such as diarrhoea or constipation, abdominal pain which is usually relieved or increased by defecation. Weight loss or bleeding is not the feature of IBS. Few simple blood tests are required and good medicines are now available for IBS. Few cases may require colonoscopy to rule out alternative causes of the symptoms.

Understanding colonoscopy: Colonoscope is a flexible tube with a camera at its tip to see the inside of the large and small intestine. Bowel preparation is required at least 8 hours before the procedure so that the inside of the large intestine can be seen clearly without the interference of stools.colonoscopy is an OPD based procedure where the patients are discharged the same day. A colonoscopy helps in evaluation symptoms of the large intestine such as loose stools, bleeding and abdominal pain.

1295 people found this helpful

Spondyloarthritis

Dr. Srikanth Md 90% (943 ratings)
MD
General Physician, Secunderabad
Spondyloarthritis

Spondyloarthritis (also known as spondyloarthropathy) is the term which describes the connective tissue diseases. It is the group of inflammatory diseases, including arthritis of the peripheral joints and spine (sacroiliitis or spondylitis); including the area where ligaments and tendons attach to bones (enthesitis or enthesopathy). These diseases cause pain or stiffness in the leg or arm joints, spine, ligaments and tendons become inflamed. Skin rashes, eye, and intestinal problems may also be able to occur.

Epidemiology

  • Spondyloarthritis is a pathology that specifically strikes young people. The symptoms most frequently start before the age of 45. It affects more males than females.
  • Predisposition to spondyloarthritis, especially spa, is determined largely by genetic factors.
  • The incidence rate is higher in populations with a higher prevalence of hla-b27.
  • Psoriatic skin lesions and colitis due to inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) have been considered as both basic, subtype-defining entities with their own genetic background (distinct from hla-b27 genotype), and as manifestations of spondyloarthritis.
  • There is a strong need to diagnose patients with spa in an earlier stage; currently, there is a delay of 5–10 years between onset of the first symptoms and diagnosis.

Types

There are five types of spondyloarthritis

Ankylosing spondylitis or bechterew disease: it is the type of arthritis that affects the spine. Symptoms include pain and stiffness in the lower back and in the neck. Spine bones fuse together and it will become rigid spine and it leads to stoope over posture.

Psoriatic arthritis: psoriatic arthritis is the form of arthritis that affects the people who have psoriasis. Most people diagnosed with psoriasis and later diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis. It may affect any part of the body such as fingertips and spine. The main symptoms are joint pain, stiffness, and swelling.

Psoriatic arthritis

Reactive arthritis: it occurs due to the infection by certain bacteria. Often the bacteria’s from genitals (chlamydia trachomatis) or bowel (campylobacter, salmonella, shigella, and yersinia). It usually targets your knees and joints of ankles or feet.

Reactive arthritis

Undifferentiated arthritis: undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis does not conform to any of the recognized inflammatory arthritis types. It may include monoarthritis of a single joint; oligoarthritis, which is usually when four or fewer joints are involved; or polyarthritis, which usually involves many small joints.

Risk factors

Risk factors may be higher due to following reasons:

  • Family member having the gene which causes spondyloarthritis
  • Positive results for the hla-b27 gene
  • Recurring bacterial infection in your gut
  • Have other inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis or inflammatory bowel disease

Causes

  • The main cause is not known, but researchers pointed out that the hereditary genetics playing an important role in this disease. Since this disease occurs often in family members of patients who have spondyloarthritis.
  • Many genes cause it. Up to 30 genes have been found. But the major gene that causes spondyloarthritis is hla-b27.
  • Bacterial infections can also cause reactive spondyloarthritis known to be triggered by a bacteria chlamydia or food borne infections.

Symptoms and complications of spondyloarthritis

The first and major symptoms of all types of spondyloarthritis are severe low back pain, swelling of arms, stiffness, and fatigue. The different types of spondyloarthritis can be manifested by the following signs and symptoms.

  • Alternative or unilateral buttock pain
  • Arthritis in small joints
  • Arthritis in large joints such as knee joint, ankle joint and elbow joint (peripheral arthritis)
  • Numbness and tingling sensation in arms and legs
  • Spinal fusion may occur in ankylosing spondylitis
  • Inflammation at the interfaces between bone and tendon or ligament of limbs (enthesitis)
  • Inflammation of intestine, urinary tract and aortic heart valves. These can lead to spinal joints inflammation.
  • Inflammation of joints in pelvis and spine (sacroiliitis)
  • Enteropathic arthritis shows symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain
  • Digestive problems
  • Skin disease like psoriasis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Redness of eye (iritis)
  • Swollen fingers and
  • Pain in the heels cause difficult to walk, stand even for small duration

Diagnosis and testing

First a doctor may ask for patient’s medical history, physical exam and may suspects for symptoms of spondyloarthritis. To confirm doctor may perform the following diagnosis and tests.

  • X-rays: x-ray images shows the change of the sacroiliac joints in the pelvis and fusion of spine. If these changes not observed, but symptoms shows spondyloarthritis doctor will suggest mri scan. Mri shows these changes more promptly than the x-ray.
  • Mri scans: it can show a very clear image of enthesitis and also the changes of sacroiliac joints.
  • Ct scans: ct also used for the imaging of bone joints.
  • Hla-b27: most patients with spondyloarthritis have hla-b27 gene, but some people don’t have this gene. So it is necessary to go for a hla-b27 test if the symptoms suspects spondyloarthritis.
  • Complete blood count (cbc): cbc can be useful to find the inflammation.
  • Musculoskeletal ultrasound scanning: ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce the images of inflammatory conditions of muscles, ligaments, and tendons.
  • Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (dexa) scans: used for measuring the bone mineral density usually the bones of the lower spine and hips. Bone loss is measured through this technique.

Treatment of spondyloarthritis.

  • There is no way to cure this disease condition, but there are treatments to counterparts the symptoms.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: certain nsaid’s like naproxen, ibuprofen, meloxicam, or indomethacin are prescribed by doctors to relief from the pain due to symptoms.
  • Corticosteroid medication: inflammation around the tendons and in the joints can be overcome by taking some corticosteroid drugs. This helps to reduce the swelling in the joints.
  • Antibiotics: antibiotics can be used in the case of reactive spondyloarthritis in which bacteria cause the major problems.
  • Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (dmard’s): sulfasalazine (azulfidine) and methotrexate are the best dmard’s to be used for the joint damages in limbs affected by arthritis.
  • Tumor necrosis alpha (tnf-alpha) blockers: fda approved tnab are adalimumab (humira), adalimumab-atto (amjevita), a biosimilar to humira, certolizumab pegol (cimzia), etanercept (enbrel), etanercept-szzs (ereizi), a biosimilar to enbrel, golimumab (simponi), infliximab (remicade), infliximab-dyyb (inflectra), a biosimilar to remicade, and secukinimab (cosentyx). These are biosimilars used to treat arthritis in spine joints.
  • Surgery: patients with over inflammation of pelvis joints needs hip replacement. In the case of heavy damage in the cartilage of joints needs surgery to repair. In some rare cases, spinal surgery also needed.

Prevention and control measures

  • Prevention from spondyloarthritis needed some lifestyle changes as follows.
  • Quit smoking: smoking speeds up the spinal fusion in addition to other bad health effects.
  • Follow good posture: practicing a proper sitting and posture makes your spine to escape from growing into slumped-over position and strain.
  • Daily physical exercise: frequent home exercise and physiotherapy is essential to reduce the stiffening of spine and other joint problems. It also helps to have your heart healthy.
  • Good diet: follow the diets that are rich in calcium. Dairy products are preferred foe calcium rich foods.
Psoriatic arthritis
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