Urogynecology, in present times, is known by diverse names. While in few nations, it is known as gynaecology's sub-specialty, in other countries, it is known as Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery.
Its parent branch is gynaecology which deals with women's health care and especially diagnoses problems associated with a female's reproductive system. Generally, a gynaecologist is a physician who deals with all kinds of disorders associated with female reproductive system, namely, vagina, uterus, ovaries and breasts.
The gynaecologist may refer a patient to an urogynecologist who deals with clinical problems which are associated with pelvic floor and bladder's dysfunction affecting the bladder, reproductive organs, and bowels.
There are many problems associated with female's reproductive organs. Prominent among them include bladder prolapse. This problem is reported when the vagina's front wall starts supporting the bladder and this wall can then weaken or loosen after a certain age. This problem multiples with delivery and the vaginal wall continues to get damaged. Further deterioration of this wall leads to bladder prolapse which means it is no longer supported by vagina. Such a problem can lead to urinary disease, causing discomfort and inconvenience. It can also lead to urinary leakage during sneezing, coughing and exertion.
Prolapsed bladders are also called cystoceles or fallen bladders. They are generally separated into four grades which are based on the limit to which the bladder has been drooped into the vagina. Most of the patients refer to female urologist in this context.