Treatment Of Erectile Dysfunction
Treatment Of Male Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Diabetic Diet Counseling
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
Pre And Post Delivery Care
Sperm Donor Program
Adult Diabetes Treatment
Type 1 Diabetes Treatment
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Patient Review Highlights
My father is 70 years old with diabetes and single bypass. His average sugar level is within 200. But of late, he is having 350 sugar level with severe constipation. Whatever he eats, he is vomiting and very weak. He is on insulin once daily at night, can the insulin dosage be given twice for couple of days to reduce sugar level. Two, is there any medicine which would immediately give relief from gas and constipation. For the weakness, what kind of ORS can be given to him. Please respond ASAP, this is very urgent. Thanks, Usha.
Thyroid cancer occurs in the cells of the thyroid gland which is found at the base of your neck, just below your Adam's apple. Your thyroid produces important hormones like TSH that regulate your heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and weight. Thyroid cancer is an uncommon kind of cancer which usually doesn’t cause symptoms in the early stage.
However, symptoms like the following mean that you should see a doctor immediately
- A lump on your neck that can be felt
- Changes in your voice, including an increase in hoarseness
- Difficulty in swallowing
- Pain in the neck and throat
Risk factors and causes
The precise cause of thyroid cancer and the risk factors is still unknown, but research is going on to try to find out more. There are, however, a number of factors that may increase your risk of developing thyroid cancer. These are called risk factors. These are a few common ones:
- Benign or non-cancerous thyroid disease like:
- An enlarged thyroid or goitre
- Thyroid nodules or adenomas
- Inflammation of the thyroid called thyroiditis
- Benign thyroid disease is genetic. You are more at risk of getting thyroid cancer if you have family members with this disease. Your risk is even higher if more than one member of your family is affected.
- Exposure to radiation:
- Any type of radiotherapy to the neck area can increase your risk of developing thyroid cancer years later.
- Exposure to high levels of radiation in the environment can also increase your risk.
- Diabetes - A number of studies are pointing to the fact that diabetes may play a big role in thyroid cancer risk. Research is confirming that there is a very strong role in metabolic syndrome, obesity, and diabetes as precipitating factors in thyroid cancer development. Plausible reasons that may link diabetes to higher thyroid cancer risk include:
- Chronic thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation: Diabetics are susceptible to disruption in thyroid hormone balance, upping cancer risk. Elevated circulating insulin levels in type 2 diabetics with insulin resistance increase risk too. Anti-diabetic medication is linked to thyroid cancer.
- Concomitant increased body mass index (BMI): In diabetics is also associated with increased risk for cancer in general, and thyroid cancer in particular.
- Chronic exposure to glucose: This has been linked recently to increased thyroid cancer risk.
- Elevated prevalence of vitamin D deficiency: The diabetics in animal studies is linked to increased cancer risk.
- Inherited gene: Your risk of developing thyroid cancer goes up if you have inherited an altered gene that causes a bowel condition called familial adenomatous polyposis or FAP. So, you should get yourself tested if anyone in your family has this genetic condition to see if you have the same altered gene.
- Sex: Being female Thyroid cancer is more common in women than men.
- Weight: People who are overweight may have a higher risk of getting thyroid cancer. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Endocrinologist.
A Stress test is done by making you do exercises like walking on a treadmill or riding a stationary bike during an Electro Cardiogram or ECG. Sometimes, medication to stimulate your heart is used instead of exercise.
The stress test compares the circulation of blood in the heart when you are resting and when you are under optimum physical pressure. There are various types of stress tests, but the most common of them is the Treadmill Stress Test or TMT.
Why it’s done?
- A stress test is a common test for identifying a heart problem like Coronary Artery Disease or CAD in which the major blood vessels that supply your heart with blood, oxygen and nutrients, also called coronary arteries, get blocked, damaged or diseased.
- It’s also used for determining the condition of your heart after a heart attack.
- TMT utilizes exercise so it helps to show up extreme shortness in breathing, chest discomfort, dizziness and sudden weakness- all of these indicating an underlying heart condition.
- TMT is also used to check the efficiency of the heart medications for diseases like angina and ischemia and to monitor heart function in patients who’ve had an angioplasty or a heart attack earlier.
- It is also to identify an abnormal heart rhythm due to exercise.
CAD and Diabetes
People with diabetes are at high risk of coronary artery disease, as it tends to present late, Diabetics also suffer more silent heart muscle problems like Ischemia. This is why TMT is a lifesaver for diabetics as early detection and intervention can save lives.
- You need to prepare yourself before you take a stress test.
- You must not eat or drink anything but water for four hours before the exercise stress test which includes TMT.
- You should not drink any beverage with caffeine for twelve hours before the test too.
- You must stop all medications for the heart on the day the test is scheduled, unless specifically instructed by your doctor.
- If you are a diabetic, you should ask your doctor how much insulin can you inject on the day of the test, and if you are on pills, be aware that the medication is only to be taken after the completion of the stress test.
- You should wear comfortable clothes and soft walking shoes or sneakers for the TMT.
How is a TMT done?
A nurse or technician will place electrodes on your chest. These are then attached to wires that carry the electrical activity of your heart to the monitor and recorder of the ECG/EKG machine. These leads record different parts of your heart.
- Before you start the test, the EKG will record your heart activity on paper. This is called the Resting EKG.
- Initially, the treadmill is switched on at a rather slow ‘warm-up’ speed and gradually both the incline of the treadmill and the speed is increased every three minutes called stages.
- During TMT your blood pressure is recorded at the second minute in every stage.
- A stress test generally takes up to 90 minutes from beginning to end, but the exercise part of the test takes only 20 minutes.
- If you develop any uneasiness, TMT is stopped before the target heart rate is achieved.
How TMT Works
During the TMT, the healthy arteries in the heart dilate more than the blocked ones. This uneven dilation means that more blood is provided to the heart by the healthy arteries as compared to the blocked ones to their designated areas. This lowered blood flow makes the muscles in those areas thirsty for more blood during the TMT, creating symptoms like chest pain, and/or shortness of breath. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Endocrinologist.