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Dr. Santhosh

Neurosurgeon, Bangalore

300 at clinic
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Dr. Santhosh Neurosurgeon, Bangalore
300 at clinic
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My favorite part of being a doctor is the opportunity to directly improve the health and wellbeing of my patients and to develop professional and personal relationships with them....more
My favorite part of being a doctor is the opportunity to directly improve the health and wellbeing of my patients and to develop professional and personal relationships with them.
More about Dr. Santhosh
Dr. Santhosh is an experienced Neurosurgeon in Sunkadakatte, Bangalore. You can visit him at Sri Lakshmi Multi Speciality Hospital in Sunkadakatte, Bangalore. Save your time and book an appointment online with Dr. Santhosh on Lybrate.com.

Lybrate.com has a number of highly qualified Neurosurgeons in India. You will find Neurosurgeons with more than 33 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Neurosurgeons online in Bangalore and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.

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Sri Lakshmi Multi Speciality Hospital

#127/1, Sri Gandhada Kaval, Sunkadakatte, Vishwaneedam Post, Magadi Main Road. Landmark: Near Petrol BunkBangalore Get Directions
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Is Your Kid Troubled With Numb Limbs? Then You Must Visit A Pediatrician!

Diploma in Child Health (DCH), F.I.A.M.S. (Pediatrics)
Pediatrician, Muzaffarnagar
Is Your Kid Troubled With Numb Limbs? Then You Must Visit A Pediatrician!

Your child needs complete care whether it is emotional, psychological or physical. A thorough evaluation of your child’s body and mind is vital at nascent stages. Especially if you observed any complaints by your little one that may require medical help, such as:

1. Frequent headaches
Much like adults, children too can experience headaches that last from 30 minutes to 3 hours. A range of primary or secondary headaches like, migraine, meningitis, sinusitis or tension may affect children due to neurological issues.

2. Blurry vision
If you observe either a vision developmental delay or near-sightedness and farsightedness in your child, it might be related to neurological issues.

3. Slurred Speech
If your child is 7-8 months and is not responding to sounds or cannot babble non-sense words, it calls for a neurological check-up.

4. Motor and Co-ordination Delay
Sometimes babies are unable to perform motor skill activities like crawling, walking or using fingers to grip or hold, such delay requires attention of the parent.

5. Fatigue
Check if your kid has become lazy and decreased his physical activities due to fatigue and tiredness suddenly of late.

6. Abnormal Movements
Common involuntary movements or tics like eye blinking, twitching of nose, grimacing or making sounds is in some cases overlooked. Tourette syndrome is an example of such a tic, which has been evaluated as a neurological issue.

7. Tremors or Seizures
Children are prone to febrile seizures (fits) or tremors along with fever that occur between 6 months and 5 years. These are signs of neurological issues that require an immediate check-up.

8. Numbness in Limbs
Neurological complications in your child’s infancy may also cause joint pain and numbness of arms and legs.

9. Behavioural disorders
A change in behaviour or attitude in your child is noticed if he/she is suffering from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, school problems, sleep issues, intellectual disability or other neural conditions.

10. Weakness
This symptom is tricky in children, as it may be confused with general tiredness by your human eye. It may be unheard of but many children face trouble in performing easy tasks. A neurological exam may identify the source for treatments.

An underlying problem to the nervous system can cause harm or impairment in the normal growth and development of your kid. Early diagnosis helps in correct care, recovery and prevention of long-term problems. You can opt for a routine neurological examination if you find such symptoms in your child. These exams check the functioning of your child’s brain, spinal cord, nerves that come from the brain and spinal cord and offers accurate diagnosis. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.

2923 people found this helpful

I am suffering from One side headache migraine problem. What to do? Please help me.

MBBS, cc USG
General Physician, Gurgaon
I am giving some health tips for Migraine headache •1.You can turn off light for some time •2.Apply hot or cold compresses to your head or neck. •Ice packs have a numbing effect, which may dull the sensation of pain. •Hot packs and heating pads can relax tense muscles. •3.Warm showers or baths may have a similar effect. •4.You can take Tea or coffee( but not excess) 5.Sleep well Here are some tips to encourage sound sleep. Establish regular sleep hours. •Minimize distractions. •Your eating habits can influence your migraines. •Be consistent. Eat at about the same time every day. Don't skip meals. Fasting increases the risk of migraines Avoid foods that trigger migraines kindly consult Physician for further management
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Please tell me systems of migraine and precautions to prevent from migraine and headache. Thankyou.

MBBS
General Physician, Cuttack
Unilateral Headache, eye pain Throbbing and pulsating pain Nausea and Vomiting Increased sensitivity to light and sound Feeling of Dizzy or Faint Take Paracetamol 500mg one Tablet sos after food, drink plenty of water and take rest.. Check your BP, avoid stressand anxiety since it precipitates migraine attack If You have chronic migraine, you have to take migraine prophylaxis after consulting doctor. Check your BP, avoid anxiety and stress since it precipitates attack
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My brain is blanked. I didn't have any memory.One told the any thing I forgot immediately.

M.B.B.S., F.I.C.A. (USA), P.G.D.I.H, F.C.G.P., D.C.A.H
Psychiatrist, Vadodara
Get yourself checked up by a competent specialist and if it turns normal then you need to trust yourself, everything could be due to stress and worries of life. I f you cant manage yourself connect with a specialist like me. You will be fine.
25 people found this helpful
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My mother age 82 years suffering from trigeminal neuralgia. acute pain at lower left jaw in mount. At present taking Gabapentinne 300 Tegritol 100 mg. Due to age, we are giving only in night. M R I has done twice. Doctors advice not to operate. Sometimes very a cute pain. Advice pls.

DM - Neurology, MD - Medicine, MBBS
Neurologist, Faridabad
My mother age 82 years suffering from trigeminal neuralgia. acute pain at lower left jaw in mount. At present taking ...
Dosage of tegritol and gabapentin can be increased as the dosage you mentioned are minimal and there are other multiple medicine that can be given.
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I have pain bw left shoulder and neck when I down my neck When I drive motorcycle then also neck and left hand experience pain and a little bit vibrations Please help.

Physiotherapist, Hyderabad
I have pain bw left shoulder and neck when I down my neck When I drive motorcycle then also neck and left hand experi...
Hi. The symptoms which you are describing may be because of improper handle position of your bike. Try to check that. And pain is more now. Try hot water formentation and few physio sessions. Good luck.
1 person found this helpful
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Do you have any cure for diabetic neuropathy spread into back bone to right foot? giving tingling pain and heaviness in foot -walking is painful right foot.

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician,
Do you have any cure for diabetic neuropathy spread into back bone to right foot? giving tingling pain and heaviness ...
Proper diabetic control and neurobion forte tab should help you. You tell me your fb, hba1c and medicines you take and diet plans.
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I am 50 years old left hand fingers are feeling numb from 6 to 7 hours what should I do?

BHMS
Homeopath, Madhubani
I am 50 years old left hand fingers are feeling numb from 6 to 7 hours what should I do?
Pressure upon the arm nerves or vessels causing numbness, tingling or temporary paralysis of the arm may result from: Sleeping with the hand under the head Sitting with the arm hanging over the back of a chair Wearing straps or carrying a bag or rucksack Inflated cuff during measuring blood pressure Raising the Arms Above the Level of the Heart Keeping the hand (s) above the level of the heart during work or sleep can prevent appropriate blood perfusion of the hands, and cause numbness, tingling or partial paralysis of the hand (s) within few minutes. Cold In cold weather, narrowing of the arteries in the hands and fingers can prevent appropriate blood supply and thus numbness, tingling, pain or temporary paralysis of the hands and fingers. DISORDERS OF THE NECK (CERVICAL) SPINE Cervical Disk Syndrome Degenerative disc disease (DDD) or injury, like hyper-extension injury in car accidents (head moves rapidly toward the back), can result in bulging or herniated disc (s) pressing upon the cervical (neck) spinal nerves, thus causing symptoms of cervical disc syndrome: Position/movement dependent pain, tingling or numbness in the neck, shoulders, upper back, arm, hand or fingers (when the roots of cervical spinal nerves are compressed) Stumbling gait, difficulty with fine hand moves, tingling in the body or legs (when the cervical spinal cord is compressed) Symptoms can appear immediately after the injury, or develop slowly over the weeks or months. Diagnosis is made by a CT or MRI of the neck spine. Therapy includes immobilization, cold therapy followed by heat therapy, cervical traction, analgesics, muscle relaxants, physical therapy or surgical decompression of the nerve roots or spinal cord. Cervical Spondylosis Cervical spondylosis is an age-related deformation of the cervical spine; deformed vertebra or discs can press upon the spinal cord or nerve roots in the neck and cause chronic symptoms, like in the cervical disc syndrome (see above). INJURIES Disorders of the Brachial Plexus The brachial plexus is formed by the cervical nerves C5-C8 and thoracic nerve Th1. The plexus extends from the lower part of the neck to the armpit. From brachial plexus all main nerves to the arm (axillary, musculocutaneus, ulnar, radial, and median nerve) arise. Brachial Plexus Injuries Most of brachial plexus injuries usually occur in car, motorcycle and sport accidents, during birth, or in bullet or knife injuries. Symptoms and prognosis depend on the nerves involved and extent of an injury: nerve stretching, scar tissue (neuroma), partial or complete nerve rupture or tearing of the nerve from the spinal cord. A limp or paralyzed arm, severe pain and numbness, especially in the neck and shoulders, and weak arterial pulses in the arm are main symptoms. Some brachial plexus injuries may heal without treatment. Many children who are injured during birth improve or recover by 3 to 4 months of age. Treatment of brachial plexus injuries includes physical therapy and, if necessary, surgery. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Thoracic outlet is the space between the collar bone (clavicle), first rib and corresponding ligaments through which nerves and vessels travel from the base of the neck toward the armpit. Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) results from a compression or extension of the subclavian artery or vein, or brachial plexus (nerves), commonly occurring in motorbike accidents, athletes, swimmers, weight lifters, etc. Symptoms include: Muscle wasting at the base of the thumb, numbness, feeling of pins and needles, or pain in the shoulder, armpit, arm or hand (when nerves are compressed) Pale, cool arm with weakened arterial pulse in the arm, numbness and pain (when vessels are compressed) Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy Radiation-induced damage of the brachial plexus can follow radiotherapy of the chest, axillary region, thoracic outlet or neck. Symptoms may appear months to years after radiation therapy and include numbness, swelling, weakness or pain in the arm. Broken Shoulder Blade Shoulder blade (scapula) is the bone in the upper back that connects the collar bone (clavicle) and arm bone (humerus). Broken shoulder blade, usually from a car or motorbike accident, can result in pain, swelling, bruising or deformation of the shoulder blade area, and weakness, numbness or tingling in the shoulder or arm. Broken Arm, Wrist, Hand or Finger Symptoms of broken arm (the arm bone – humerus, elbow, and bones of the forearm – radius and ulna) include: Severe pain increasing with arm movement Obvious deformity, swelling, tenderness and bruising over the site of bone fracture Stiffness or inability to move your arm, hand or finger Weakness, numbness or tingling in the arm, hand or fingers Cubital Tunnel Syndrome or Ulnar Neuropathy The ulnar nerve arises from the brachial plexus in the neck and travels under the collar bone, downside along the inner side of the upper arm, behind the inner part of the elbow (Latin cubitus), where it can be felt as a “funny bone” and then down to the wrist, hand and little and ring finger. Ulnar nerve entrapment usually results from an elbow injury or constant pressure upon the elbow, like in cyclists or typists. Symptoms, known as cubital tunnel syndrome, include: Pain on the inner side of the elbow or electric shock sensation after touching the elbow The hand, ring and little finger are numb and falling asleep, especially after bending the elbow Limited movements of the ring and little finger (“handlebar palsy” in cyclists) Hand (on the little finger side) sensitivity to cold Prevention of ulnar nerve entrapment is by avoiding excessive elbow use. Treatment includes special arm exercises, anti-inflammatory drugs, like ibuprofen, and wearing an elbow splint. DISORDERS OF THE SPINAL CORD AND BRAIN Multiple Sclerosis Multiple sclerosis is a disease of an uncertain cause affecting the nerve tissue of the spinal cord, brainstem or brain. Symptoms can appear suddenly or gradually, “travel” among various body parts and include: numbness or tingling in one or both arms (or any other body part), blurred or double vision or blindness, weak or paralysed limbs, problems with urinating or defecating, difficulty maintaining balance, tiredness, etc. Symptoms can last from few weeks to several months, disappear completely and appear again, and, in general, worsen with time. Diagnosis is with MRI of the brain and spinal cord, and examination of cerebrospinal fluid obtained by lumbar punction. Apart from treating symptoms, there is no treatment for multiple sclerosis at the time. ACUTE BRACHIAL NEURITIS Acute brachial neuritis is a rare, supposedly autoimmune inflammation of brachial plexus, occurring at any age, but primarily in young men. Symptoms include severe pain in the upper arms and shoulders, followed by numbness and weak reflexes; the disorder resolves in few months on its own. WRIST DISORDERS Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) Carpal tunnel syndrome (Latin carpus = wrist) is a painful condition of the wrist, hand and fingers, caused by repetitive use of the wrist, or swelling of the tissues in the wrist, resulting in a pressure upon the median nerve. CTS is a common problem in assembly line workers, computer workers, musicians, mechanics, tennis players, etc. Bone spurs in rheumatoid arthritis, or fluid in hypothyroidism, kidney disease or menopause may also press on the median nerve. Symptoms usually start gradually and include: Tingling or numbness in the thumb, index, middle and ring finger and related part of the hand Pain in the wrist, palm or forearm Difficulty grasping small objects or gripping Hand pain at night Ganglion Cyst Ganglion cyst (Greek ganglion = tumor, cyst = fluid filled sac) is a soft lump, usually appearing on the back of the hand in some people between 20-40 years of age. It is a noncancerous fluid filled sack arising from the tendon sheets or capsule of the joint from an unknown reason. Ganglion cysts may not be always seen from the outside. Gymnasts often have them. Symptoms include: A soft lump or lumps of various size (may exceed an inch), on the back of the hand, inner side of the wrist, base of the finger, or on the last finger joint. Pain or numbness in the wrist, hand or finger (s) DISORDERS OF FINGER ARTERIES Raynaud’s Disease Raynaud’s disease is a painful finger condition due to spasms in the finger arteries. Disease may also affect toes or, rarely, nose, ears, lips and nipples. The cause is not known. Symptoms are triggered by cold (even short term cold like taking something from a freezer) or strong emotions, and appear in the following sequence: Fingers (one, more or all in one or both hands) become pale, numb or cold due to lack of blood flow, then bluish due to a lack of oxygen, then red, with throbbing pain and tingling as blood returns to the affected area. Attacks can occur daily, weekly or occasionally and can last from less than a minute to several hours, usually about 15 minutes. Different areas can be affected at different times. Severe, although rare, attacks can result in finger sores or tissue death (gangrene). Raynaud’s Phenomenon Raynaud’s phenomenon is a term used for the same finger symptoms as in Raynaud’s disease, when the cause is known. Causes include: connective tissue diseases, like scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren’s syndrome, dermatomyositis, and polymyositis, carpal tunnel syndrome, obstructive arterial disease, anti-hypertensive drugs, ergotamine (used for treating migraine), chemotherapeutic medications, etc. In workers exposed to vinyl chloride, using vibrating tools, typists and pianists, Raynaud’s phenomenon also commonly occurs. DIAGNOSIS OF ARM NUMBNESS OR TINGLING History of arm numbness. Knowing an exact time course of tingling or numbness, and eventual arm weakness, head or legs involvement, history of arm or neck injuries, repetitive elbow or wrist use, reactions to cold, hypothyroidism, diabetes, menopause may give a strong evidence about the cause. Neurological examination. Testing of sensitivity of a particular arm dermatome can reveal which nerves are involved. Imaging. X-ray may reveal arthritis in the neck spine, or a broken arm bone. Myelography can reveal herniated disc or narrowed spinal canal. MRI and CT show soft tissues like tumors. Electromiography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies can show the nature of the nerve damage. Together with imaging they are important to evaluate the extent of brachial plexus injury. Blood tests can reveal diabetes, abnormalities in serum levels of sugar (diabetes), calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, vitamins B6 or B12, thyroxine (hypothyroidism), sex hormones (menopause). Cold simulation test can reveal Raynaud’s disease or phenomenon. TREATMENT OF ARM NUMBNESS OR TINGLING Firstly, the cause of numbness should be treated if possible. Non-steroid anti-rheumatic drugs like ibuprofen, or antidepressants, may relieve pain and numbness.
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MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Understanding Autism.


Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 1-2 people out of every 1,000 people worldwide. It is a wide spectrum disorder, so no two people with autism will have the exact same symptoms. There are those who function easily, those who are impaired and struggle to live normally and then there are others in between. Difficulties in communicating, social impairment and repetitive patterns of behaviour are some of the major symptoms that characterise autism and the related autism spectrum disorders (ASD).


Read the following articles to gain a better understanding of this condition:


Diagnosing Autism

In order to create awareness and combat this problem, early diagnosis and social acceptance is necessary. Here's a brief on what we can do to recognise autism.

 

Decoding the Symptoms of Autism

Although there is no scientific cure for autism, its symptoms can be worked upon with the help of a communication or behavioural therapist. 

 

Treatments for Autism

In this article, we chalk out the main treatments and therapies for curing autism in children and adolescents.

 

In conclusion, it’s important to treat these conditions not as disorders but to accept them as differences. Accept them in the same way we accept people of all races. These conditions are not caused by any disease or injury but because of genetics andenvironmental factors. Science suggests that neurological diversity has helped humans throughout their evolution to survive in the environment. It’s possible that those affected might just come up with solutions for problems that might escape those with normal brain wiring. Not because they’re necessarily smarter, or better, but because they think differently.  So it’s necessary to accept, respect and accommodate those with such conditions.  To care, not repair is the outlook we should have for the betterment of mankind.

1 person found this helpful

I am 30 years old male, I have migraine headache, what is the solution of this type of headache?

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Hyderabad
You have not mentioned the age and since how long you have this problem. Avoid foods that aggrevate the problem. Don't take spicy fried food sour food during the attack.
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I am 18 years old and having a problem of migraine, sometime it goes worst and worst. What should I do.

PGFCP, PGDEMS, Bachelor Of Ayurvedic Medicine And Surgery
Ayurveda, Satara
DEAR lybrate-user. You have to follow some basic things so that you get better results in a short period of time. 1) take solid diet two times in a day and liquid diet two times in a day 2) drink only 100-150 ml of lukewarm water during meals . 3) don’t drink water before meal for one hour and one hour after meal 4) avoid oily, spicy, junk, fermented and stale foods. 5) avoid late night sleeping habits 6) avoid coffee and tea. A) take 40 ml of DAAAIMAVLEHA after meals along with 30 ml of water. B) take 4 tablets of sutshekhar rasa after meals C) Eat 1 tsf of flax seeds after meals, do all things for 7 days. This formulation is 100% effective.
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My sister is suffering from sever migraine along with vomiting. What is the best solution for treating this?

BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Delhi
Hello. Firstly migraine doesn't hv any exact treatment. You should go for. *Regular exercises. *Meditation. *Proper diet. *Avoid stress. Try to rule out the factor responsible for the migraine attack. It would be really helpful as if you get it then you can tackle it. Go through my page on Facebook-Pulse Physiotherapy Clinic. It might help you in any form. Regards!
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I was suffering migraine in so many years but I can't escape from dis illness so pls help me n kindly suggest a treatment for dis illness.

MBBS, MD Psychiatry, DNB Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Nagpur
Migraine is a relapsing headache. It's treatment includes treatment of acute headaches first and then treatment to prevent future relapses. The treatment plan is decided according to the onset of headaches, it's duration, severity and associated symptoms of sleep, anxiety, stress etc. Consult a psychiatrist or headache specialist for the same. You may consult me online for any further queries or treatment thereof.
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Hi I am 32 years old male, I am having migraine head ache for the last 3 years. Is there any treatment avail for this ?

MBBS
General Physician, Delhi
Take tablet brufen twice daily with tablet rantac empty stomach for 3 days in pain period. Start taking tablet beta cap plus once daily night time for 3 months.
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My mother is 78 years old, she is having arthritis, BP and her back is bent. She is having numbness in her hand.

PhD, Human Energy Fields, Diploma in PIP, EFI, Aura scanning for Health evaluation; Energy field assessment, Fellowship Cardiac Rehabilitation, Cardiac Rehabilitation, MD (Ayur - Mind Body Med), Mind Body Medicine
Non-Invasive Conservative Cardiac Care Specialist, Pune
My mother is 78 years old, she is having arthritis, BP and her back is bent. She is having numbness in her hand.
Change her diet to avoid all foods that cause acidity and which are difficult to digest. Give her 25 ml of edible coconut oil like a medicine daily and increase Cows ghee in diet. These will help in a great way. Encourage her to do simple stretching exercises while lying down on bed to release the strain of bent back.
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What is the cause of migraine and what is the changes happening in the brain during migraine?

MBBS
General Physician,
Exact cause of migraine is not known yet. However it is aggravated by stress and strain, anxiety neurosis. Migraine is an intense throbbing pain in one side or both sides of the head associated with nausea, vomiting sensitive to light sound and flashing of light sometimes temporary loss of vision. You should change of lifestyle also. Have pain killers for relieving the headeche.
1 person found this helpful

Hi, I have headache problem since my childhood, it pains just like any thing while I'm driving, due to light, max sound etc. I feel that is migran what would you say.

BAMS, MD Ayurveda
Sexologist, Lonavala
Hi, I have headache problem since my childhood, it pains just like any thing while I'm driving, due to light, max sou...
The symptoms of migraine is as follows feeling dizzy or faint. increased sensitivity to light and sound. nausea. pain on one side of the head. pulsing and/or throbbing pain. vomiting. you can go for following remedy 1. Take ½ glass of carrot juice 2. Add ½ glass of spinach juice 3. Mix well 4. Drink this juice to cure migraine and for headache you can apply following remedy 1. Remove peels from 5 lemons 2. Grind them well 3. Add a little water and make paste 4. Apply this paste on the forehead
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Best Physiotherapy/Rehab Exercises for Cerebral Palsy/Delayed Milestones

BPTh/BPT, MPTh/MPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
Best Physiotherapy/Rehab Exercises for Cerebral Palsy/Delayed Milestones

CEREBRAL PALSY

Cerebral palsy is a term used to describe a broad spectrum of motor disability which is non-progressive and is caused by damage to brain at or around birth. It is a disorder which develops due to damage to CNS and this damage can take place before, during, or immediately after the birth of the child. The damage won't worsen but remains constant. However the child may appera to worsen if not given proper intervention not because of an increase in lesion in the brain but just beacuse the damaged brain is not able to cope up with the physical demand of the growing body and the increasing demand of the environment surrounding the child.

CAUSES:

ANTENATAL CAUSES:

  • Genetic causes: First or second degree consanguineous marriage.
  • Intrauterine virus infection: Rubella and cytomegalovirus infections which lead to severe brain damage along with associated visual and hearing problem with cataract.
  • Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar for long period lead to brain damage and epilepsy. Cerebellum is more vulnerable leading to ataxia and visual problems. Infant of diabetic mothers are more prone to hypoglycemia.

Trauma to the mother:

  • Infection to the mother can make the baby prone to develop it.
  • Malnourishment of the fetus especially in case of twins.
  • Exposure to the mother’s abdominal area to repeated X-ray radiation, prolonged use of medications like steroids by mother.

NEONATAL CAUSES:

  • Prematurity: Premature babies are prone to brain damage either due to trauma during delivery and later on due to immature respiratory and cardiovascular system. Therefore, they are likely to develop hypoxia and low blood pressure also, they are more likely to develop low blood sugar, jaundice and hemorrhage because of liver immaturity.
  • Vascular causes: Occlusion of the internal carotid or midcerebral artery during birth can on many occasions lead to hemiplegia.
  • Trauma: trauma can occur either due to disproportion, breech delivery, and forceps delivery, distortion of head and tearing of tentorium.
  • Asphyxia: It can occur by accidents and burns which could be as a result of knotted umbilical cord, cord around the neck or prolapsed cord. Multiple deliveries can cause asphyxia of the second or third infant.
  • Neonatal meningitis: Usually associated with severe residual brain damage.

POSTNATAL CAUSES:

  • Delayed cry: Causes asphyxia to the brain causing CP.
  • Severe jaundice: Presence of high levels of bilirubin cause basal ganglia damage leading to athetoid cerebral palsy and high tone deafness.
  • Trauma: Fall of the body after birth.
  • Infection: Like meningitis, or encephalitis can cause brain damage.

TYPES OF CEREBRAL PALSY:

  1. Basically cerebral palsy children manifest in three common ways spastic, athetoid, and ataxic.
  2. Spasticity seen in cerebral palsy is usually knife that may change with change in position, which means that spasticity may vary from supine to prone.
  3. Athetoid cerebral palsy children exhibits slow, purposeless, wormlike, involuntary movements which flow into each other. It occurs due to basal ganglia damage commonly seen in children who suffers from an attack of jaundice following birth.
  4. Ataxia in cerebral palsy occurs due to cerebellar damage. Both balance and coordination is affected.

 

PHYSIOTHERAPY TREATMENT OF CEREBRAL PALSY

  1. Physiotherapy is one of the most important treatments for CP that usually begins soon after being diagnosed and often continues throughout life. Special devices and equipment are needed for some people with CP to help them with specific problems like,
  2. A child who develops uneven leg length may need to wear special shoes with a higher sole and heel on the shorter leg.
  3. Some people who are not able to walk alone may need to use canes, crutches, walkers, or wheelchairs.

 

EXERCISES IN SUPINE POSITION

Normalizing tone of the muscles: For cases with hypo tonicity slow passive movements, sustained stretch, cryotherapy over the muscle for 15 to 20 minutes, stimulation of antagonist movement and vibrations are used. On the contrary, for cases with hypotinicity weight bearing, joint compression, rhythmic stabilization, vibrations, cryotherapy in brisk manner and taping can be used.

Weight bearing exercises: Weight bearing exercises are necessary to promote development of tone in muscles and also to maintain the absorption of calcium into the bones. Thus the patient should be given activities like bridging, supine on elbows, sitting with weight bearing on the affected arm, and standing should be given as soon as possible within the limitation of the patient’s general medical status..

Skillful TAPING gives a tactile feedback which helps in faster development of tone in the muscles. Weight bearing exercises for the involved upper limb has also been found to be beneficial in preventing this.

Bridging Exercises: The child lies on supine position. Therapist flexed his both the knees n then helps him to lift his back from the mid area so that weight bear on his legs. This should be done in 10 -15 repetitions. Then do bridging on 1 leg and then another.

Stretching and Mobility: The muscles should be maintained at the appropriate physiological length for normal muscle control and normal postural adjustment. In CP because of delay or absence of normal movement muscles are usually in a shortened position hence stretching of the muscles is essential to increase the neuromuscular control. Length of the muscles should be maintained not only through stretching but also through various functional activities.

In supine position, the therapist holds an object so that the child grasp that object by moving his body, in this rolling activity plays an important role. The child rolls right and left to grasp the object sometimes lifting his back and limbs too.

The therapist do some exercises in vestibular ball so that child balance and coordination improves and this is the best spine stretching activity.

Good neck control and developing trunk control by using vestibular ball, he lied down in ball and doing movements that extend his spine and head is looking in upward direction.

EXERCISES IN SITTING

The therapist should hold and support the child in sitting position. Time should be noted daily.

Exercises in vestibular ball to correct the balance. Sit on the vestibular ball and then shift the weight from right side to left side by rolling the ball.

Reaching far objects: As the child sitting in the ball then the therapist should stand in front of him and tell him to reach the object that the therapist holds.

Sit to stand activities and kneeling activities, sit on the toes, sitting by cross leg by maximize wide base of support

EXERCISES IN STANDING

STANDING IN BOTH THE LEGS: The therapist should hold his knees while standing as the child flex his knees and forward trunk to avoid standing.

SQUATTING: The therapist should try and help the child to do some squats about 5 to 10 daily to increase the muscle power and strength.

WALKING with the help of therapist or a cane and use a tilt board for balancing exercises.

Standing on the side of vestibular ball and do reaching objects so that the child lifts his head in upward position for increasing the extension of neck i.e. neck control.

Developing postural reaction: Postural adjustments are essential if the child is move to move freely and to adjust to various environmental demands rapidly. Motor milestones can be best achieved by good postural reactions. Postural reactions consists of righting reactions, protective extension and equilibrium reactions. Initially children first develop righting reactions. Righting reactions allow the child to orient his head in space so that the eyes and mouth are horizontal regardless of the position of the body. It also helps in maintaining the proper alignment of the head with respect to the body.

Oromotor control training: Oromotor function depends on good head control. Common Oromotor problems are: drooling, problems in sucking, swallowing, body movements associated with speech, jaw, hyper or hyposensitivity and inadequate tongue movements. Hence the therapy should consist of good neck control, developing good trunk control, use of brush to decrease drooling.

Speech therapy helps to control the mouth muscles. This therapy can be of great benefit to children with speech or eating problems. Speech therapy often starts before the child begins school and continues throughout the school years.

Both massage therapy and physiotherapy benefit some people with CP by helping them relax tense muscles, strengthen muscles and keep joint flexible.

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