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Kidney Stones - Know The Different Types Of Stones!

Written and reviewed by
Dr. Mahendra Mulani 90% (218 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - General Medicine, DM - Nephrology
Nephrologist, Ahmedabad  •  10 years experience
Kidney Stones - Know The Different Types Of Stones!

Kidney stones have become a very common disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Kidney stones can be extremely painful. However, with advancements in medical science, this condition can be easily treated. So, you can put an end to all the angst and worry.

When we talk about stones, the first question that comes to the mind is, how can a stone form in one’s kidneys?
Kidney stones are formed when the minerals and salt in the fluid get deposited in the kidneys. Incidentally, kidney stones form twice as often in men as women and once you get a stone, you are at 50 % risk of getting another one.

Classification of kidney stones
Kidney stones are categorized into calcium containing or calcareous stones and non-calcareous stones.

Why do they form? the

You will be surprised but causal factor for most kidney stones is a nano-bacterial disease like a Helicobacter pylori infection along with peptic ulcer disease. This bacteria forms a calcium phosphate shell and around this further crystallization occurs mostly due to what we eat and a few other issues like Cystinuria and hyperoxaluria about which we are going to be talking in some detail.

Hyperoxaluria

  • Hyperoxaluria is defined as excretion of oxalate in excess of 45 mg/day in the urine.
  • This is a disorder when you have too much oxalate in your urine.
  • Oxalate is a natural chemical in your body, and you can also ingest it via food like beets, rhubarb, spinach, chocolate, nuts, tea, wheat bran, strawberries, and soya foods.
  • Actually, there is no known need for oxalate by the human body and it is normally eliminated as waste through the kidneys.
  • But too much oxalate in your urine can cause serious problems like kidney stones. These stones form when the excess oxalate binds with calcium in the urine to form kidney stones.
  • Apart from your diet, Hyperoxaluria can also be caused due to an intestinal disease like Crohn's, an inherited disorder and surgeries that cause an Ileal bypass or a short bowel syndrome, low calcium intake and other such factors.
  • Sometimes hyperoxaluria may result from changes in the way kidneys handle normal amounts of body oxalate.
  • Hyperoxaluria is found in about 20 percent of individuals with kidney stones and quick diagnosis and treatment of hyperoxaluria is important to the long-term health of your kidneys.

Cystinuria

  • Cystinuria is an inherited or genetic disorder that causes stones made of the amino acid cystine in your kidneys, bladder, and ureters.
  • The first symptoms typically occur in young adults in their 20s and 30s and they continue life-long.
  • Cystinuria has to be managed and treated properly otherwise it can be very painful and can have serious consequences which can damage your kidneys.
  • It causes frequent stone formation which causes blockages in the kidneys and you may need repeated surgical procedures to get rid of them and this can impact kidney function over time.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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