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Gastrointestinal Surgeries - Know Types Of Them!

Reviewed by
Dr. Sunil Kr Meena 90% (475 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Fellowship in Advanced Gastrointestinal & Endocrine Surgery
General Surgeon, Kota  •  8 years experience
Gastrointestinal Surgeries - Know Types Of Them!

Gastrointestinal surgeries are certain operations that are carried out for treating the problems associated with your digestive system. This includes problems in your stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, oesophagus and rectum. The processes may be used for curing problems like colon cancer, hernia or removal of cancerous growth in the intestine.

Coloproctology is the field of medicine that deals with the study of colon, rectum and anus. The disorders associated with these organs are treated with colorectal surgeries. Colostomy, Colectomy, and endoscopic surgery are some of the types of colorectal surgery.

Problems treated with gastrointestinal surgeries

The following problems can be cured by GI surgeries – 

Gastrointestinal surgeries are of two types – minimally invasive surgeries and open gastrointestinal surgeries. 

Minimally invasive surgeries or laparoscopic surgeries allow the patient to have less pain, blood loss and faster recovery. In these processes, the surgeons operate with small incisions on the body. They also use video cameras and technical equipment to conduct the operation. It also helps to lower the chances of infection due to surgery.

The different types are as follows – 

  • Laparoscopic Appendectomy – This process is used to remove the infected appendix. Here a small tube called cannula is inserted in your abdomen to fill it with carbon dioxide. The surgeon then inserts a laparoscope inside the abdomen that has a camera attached to it. This helps the surgeon to guide his instruments and locate the appendix. It is then removed and the incision is closed by stitches. 

  • Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy – The process uses laparoscopy to cure gallstones by removing the gallbladder.

  • Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery – The process is used for making your stomach smaller that is useful in weight loss.

  • Laparoscopic Nissen – Using laparoscopy, the surgeon sews the top of your stomach with your lower oesophagus. This will tighten your stomach and prevent acid reflux.

Different open gastrointestinal surgeries are – 

  • Whipple procedure – The head of your pancreas, a section of the stomach, the gallbladder, duodenum and surrounding lymph nodes are surgically removed. Once the tumours are removed, the organs are attached together.

  • Adrenalectomy – The process is used for eliminating the adrenal glands to remove tumours.

  • Roux-en-Y – Here, a small pouch is created in your stomach and is connected directly to the small intestine. So, the swallowed food will directly go to the small intestine bypassing most of the stomach. This is a popular weight loss surgery.

Problems treated with colorectal surgeries

The following diseases are treated by colorectal procedures – 

The different types of colon and rectal surgeries are as follows –

  • Colostomy – Here an opening is made in the abdominal wall and the end of the colon is pulled to this opening. The waste from your body will be collected in this opening called stoma. Crohn's Disease and IBS are treated using this.

  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Surgery – IBD usually consists of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis that is treated using this surgery. Here a part of the small or large intestine is removed to treat the inflamed strictures and fistulas.

  • J-Pouch surgery – In this method, the rectum and colon will be removed. A pouch shaped like a J will be created at the end of your small intestine and will be attached to the anus. A temporary opening in the abdominal wall to eliminate waste is made.

While non-surgical procedures will take less time to heal, surgery may require more time and may have side effects. It is recommended that you follow the guidelines mentioned by the doctor after any type of surgery.         

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