Factor-V-Leiden-alteration cause unsuitable blood clot (thrombus) formation in veins, a situation called deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or venous thromboembolism (VTE). The lab test is ordered to assist in diagnosing the root of it. Factor V and prothrombin are the two coagulation factors that are fundamental to proper blood clot formation. People who have a mutation in one of the genes that code for these factors have an increased risk of blood clots. Testing for Factor V Leiden and PT 20120 mutations is used to help determine if an adult individual has inherited a disorder linked with blood clots and can settle on whether the person has 1 copy or two copies of the change (heterozygous or homozygous.)
When your doctor suspect factor V Leiden you too must have to do some actions before going for the test. List the symptoms or the recurring changes in your health, medicines, allergies, and any past or current medication. Inform your doctor of all of these. If you are required to take blood-thinning medications (anticoagulants) such as warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) pills or heparin injection, the doctor may have some advice for you. Anticoagulants may interfere with them. The genetic test is the suitable one then. No special diet prior to the test is recommended. Drink lots of water to keep yourself hydrated.
A coagulation screening test or DNA examination of the F5 gene can be used to make a diagnosis factor V Leiden thrombophilia. Factor V Leiden refers to the exact G-to-A substitution. If inherent testing direct to that a person has one Factor V Leiden or PT 20210 gene copy, then the human being is heterozygous; if there are two copies, then the person is homozygous for the mutation. Persons with two copies of the Factor V Leiden mutation may have up to 80 times the danger of budding a blood clot while those with one copy have 4 to 8 times the possibility.
There are two types of tests which can be selected as per the situation: Activated protein C resistance test- The test requires patient’s blood sample. Insert needle in the superficial vein in the elbow pit. Collect the sample and test it for the resistant of blood to activated protein C. A mutation in the factor V gene is confirmed if your blood is resistant to activated protein C. Genetic test- A genetic test is the examination done when the activated protein C resistance test is not possible.
Mutation Detection is Factor V Leiden
All age groups
Present in positive cases
Adverse respiratory events (AREs) are leading causes of post-operative morbidity and mortality. Anesthesia is the use of medicine to prevent or reduce the feeling of pain or sensation during surgery or other painful procedures (such as getting stitches). Giving as an injection or through inhaled gases or vapours, different types of anesthesia affect the nervous system in various ways by blocking nerve impulses and, therefore, pain.
Anesthesia can help control your breathing, blood pressure, blood flow, and heart rate. It may be used to:
Adverse Respiratory Events (ARE)
Adverse outcomes of such events are fatal and lead to Death & Brain Damage. Three mechanisms of injury are reported to account for highest adverse respiratory events:
Inadequate Ventilation: Insufficient Gas Exchange can produce the adverse outcome. Esophageal Intubation: Incubation between the two sides of the esophagus inadvertently.
Difficult tracheal intubation: Tracheal Intubation is the placement of a flexible plastic tube into the trachea (windpipe) to maintain an open airway. It is performed facilitate ventilation of lungs in severely ill, anesthetized patients.
Other’s are as listed below:
Residual neuromuscular blockade is an important postoperative complication associated to the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs and is commonly observed in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) after non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are administered intra-operatively. Incomplete neuromuscular recovery can be minimized with acceleromyography monitoring. The risk of adverse respiratory events during early recovery from anesthesia can be reduced by intra-operative acceleromyography use.
Reintubation is a serious adverse respiratory event and the consequences include increased cardiac and respiratory complications, prolonged length of stay at the PACU, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital, prolonged mechanical ventilator support, higher costs, and increased mortality. Overweight and obesity have also been identified as risk factors for postoperative respiratory complications. Most adverse respiratory events are considered preventable with improved monitoring such as:
Closed observation of the clinical factors and appropriate monitoring by well trained people are factors necessary to prevent adverse outcome. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a General Surgeon.
Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein clots occur in the lower leg or thigh. If the vein swells, the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem in the lung, called a pulmonary embolism.
Sitting still for a long time can make you more likely to get a DVT. Some medicines and disorders that increase your risk for blood clots can also lead to DVTs. Common symptoms are
Treatment includes medicines to ease pain and inflammation, break up clots and keep new clots from forming. Keeping the affected area raised and applying moist heat can also help. If you are taking a long car or plane trip, take a break, walk or stretch your legs and drink plenty of liquids.