Fissure in Ano, also known as Anal Fissure, is basically a small longitudinal cut in skin that lines the opening of the anus. Fissures cause bleeding and severe pain in the bowel movements. These are very common in the general public, but often confused with other pain. A fissure can happen at any point in your lifetime and can have equal general distribution.
Types of Fissure in Ano:
● Acute Fissure: Fissure in Ano less than 6 weeks of duration is known as Acute Fissure.
● Chronic Fissure: Anal Fissure with more than 6 weeks of duration is known as Chronic Fissure.
Causes of Fissures in Ano:
● Anal fissures are basically caused by stretching of the anal muscles beyond its capability.
● In adults, it is caused by the passing of large stools, constipation or by prolonged diarrhea. ● In older adults it is caused by the less flow of blood to that area.
● Anal sex can also be the cause of fissures.
Symptoms of Fissures in Ano:
● Tear in the skin around the anus
● Small lump of skin, or skin tag next to the tear
● Pain during bowel movement
● Stools with blood or pus
● Itching and burning in the anal area
Preventions During Fissures in Ano:
● One should drink enough water.
● One should have high fibre diet so that one does not suffer from constipation.
● Be careful and hygienic after anal defecation.
● In case of suspected fissure or any kind of pain, use a lubricating ointment.
● Sit in lukewarm water
Treatment for Fissures in Ano
Surgical treatments are not recommended, but there are some other measures that can be taken and are listed as follows:
● Some prescribed medication to lower the severity of pain.
● Nitroglycerin ointment may help heal the fissure.
● Having a rich fiber diet as a lifestyle change.
● Drink enough water as that helps in softening the stool.
● Sometimes Stool softeners may be required to soften the bowel movement.
When Anal Fissure does not heal with all of the above listed things, then a surgery may be required:
● Lower most part of the internal anal sphincter is divided laterally. With this acute fissure heals of its own. In chronic cases one may require to undergo fissurectomy.
● The surgery decreases the anal pain and spasm, allowing the fissure to heal.
● If a sentinel pile is present, it is removed to heal the fissure.
It is important to note that any kind of treatment requires 6-10 weeks to recover. However, the pain may disappear just after 2-4 days after the surgery. One must consult a doctor before going for any treatment. This surgery can also be performed with LASER,where there is less trauma and early recovery is posssible.