Molfit FL Tablet is used for the treatment and prevention of nervous disorders, acute pain and other conditions.
On using this medication you may experience certain common as well as serious side effects such as dizziness, fatigue, trouble sleeping, liver impairment acute cholestatic hepatitis and increase in blood bilirubin. Should you experience any side effect have a word with your physician as soon as possible.
Avoid using this medication if you are using it with other medicines that may lead to liver injury and if you are allergic to any ingredient contained within Molfit FL Tablet. Before using this medication notify your doctor if: you are allergic to any food or medicine or substance, you are taking any prescription or non-prescription drugs, you have risk of liver damage/liver failure/hepatitis, the patient is over 65 years of age, you are pregnant or are planning to become pregnant or are nursing a baby. Discontinue usage if you notice any sign of liver damage.
The dosage for this medication should be determined by the doctor based on your medical history and current condition. The usual dose is either 100 or 200 mg per day depending on the severity of the condition.
Information given here is based on the salt and content of the medicine. Effect and uses of medicine may vary from person to person. It is advicable to consult a Internal Medicine Specialist before using this medicine.
How to start:
If you have been practising yoga already, you can continue during your pregnancy. However, if you are planning to start yoga as a form of exercise during pregnancy, it is ideal to do so in the second trimester. Yoga can be performed once a week or every day. The duration can range from 5 to 60 minutes per session. Follow these guidelines while practising yoga:
✓ Listen to your body carefully. If you feel any discomfort, stop. You will probably need to modify each pose as your body changes.
✓ Avoid lying on your back after the first trimester; it can reduce blood circulation to the uterus.
✓ Avoid poses that stretch the muscles too much. You are more at risk for strains, pulls and other injuries right now because of the pregnancy hormone relaxin, which softens and relaxes joints and connective tissue.
✓ From the second trimester – when your centre of gravity starts to shift – do all standing poses with your heel against the wall or use a chair for support, to avoid losing your balance and risking injury to yourself or your baby. Here is the most comprehensive second trimester dos and don’ts for you to follow.
✓ While twisting, move from the shoulders and back, rather than the waist, to avoid putting pressure on your abdomen. Twist only as far as it feels comfortable – deep twists are not advisable in pregnancy. Here are three simple exercises that can boost blood circulation during pregnancy.
1. Palm tree
Imagine you are a palm tree swaying in the wind.
Benefit: This pose stretches and strengthens the torso
Stand upright, raise your arms overhead and interlock your fingers.
Now stretch slowly and gently to the right and then the left, imitating the swaying movement of a palm tree.
2. Modified triangle pose
Can you position your body in such a way that it forms three triangles?
Benefit: This pose regulates the digestive system and massages internal organs like the liver.
Stand with your feet wide apart and arms extended at shoulder level parallel to the floor.
Stretch your left hand overhead and bend down to the right side and touch your knee. Look up at your left hand.
Return to starting position and switch sides.
3. Modified forward bend
Reach forward with your hands, with a chair for support.
Benefit: This pose stretches the back and legs.
Stand tall in front of a chair.
Lift your arms and reach towards the chair; press your palms on the chair. Keep your back straight and bend from your hips. Hold.
Return to standing position.
4. Seated twist
Twist to the right and then to the left, to improve the mobility of the spine.
Benefit: This pose stretches the spine, improves digestion and relieves constipation.
Sit with your legs stretched out in front of you. Bend your right knee and take the right foot over the left knee.
Bring the left arm and elbow over the right knee. Keep your right hand behind you on the fl oor for support. Now twist your torso to the right and turn your head back.
Return to starting position and switch sides.
5. Cat-camel pose
Imitate a cat and then a camel. Arch your spine like a cat and then lift it up like the hump of a camel.
Benefit: releases spinal stress
Get down on all fours on your mat. Place your hands directly below your shoulders. Now lift your tailbone up towards the ceiling so that your lower back is concave. As you do this your head will lift up naturally towards the ceiling.
Now round your back like the hump of a camel and roll your head towards your chest. Make the movements as fluid as possible.
6. Butterfly pose
Imitate a butterfly.
Benefit: Increases mobility of the hip joints and stretches the inner thigh.
Sit with your legs outstretched on the mat. Bend your knees and bring your feet in as close as possible, towards you. Bring the soles of your feet together.
Keep your spine straight and gently move your legs down and up, resembling the movement of a butterfly as it flaps its wings.
7. The modified corpse
You need to relax in order to feel rejuvenated.
Lie on your left side; place a pillow between your legs and below your head for support.
Close your eyes and relax your mind.
To make the poses more comfortable, use blankets, pillows, cushions and chairs for support if you need them. For instance, you can perform seated positions on a folded blanket. If maintaining an erect spine is difficult, lean against a wall for support. Also, breathing the correct way during pregnancy is vital, here are a few breathing exercises you can practise for better oxygen intake.
Follow these tips while performing the yoga asanas:
• Yoga can be practised anywhere – indoors or outdoors. Just make sure it is a calm and quiet environment with adequate ventilation.
• Yoga gear should be comfortable, convenient and simple. All you need is loose, comfortable clothing and a yoga mat, rug, blanket or carpet.
• Hold each yoga pose for 10 to 60 seconds.
• Set aside a fixed time for yoga.
• If you have never tried yoga before, first learn the different poses under supervision. Start slowly and relax for 2 to 3 minutes after every asana if required.
• Yoga can be performed once a week or every day. The duration can range from 5 minutes to 60 minutes per session.
• Never force your body into a stretch or pose. Regular practice will make seemingly impossible poses more accessible.
Sinusitis: Management and Prevention
Sinusitis is infl ammation of the mucous membranes lining one or more of the paranasal sinuses. The various presentations are as folllows:
● acute sinusitis: infection lasting less than 30 days, with complete resolution of symptoms
● subacute infection: lasts from 30 to 90 days, with complete resolution of symptoms
● recurrent acute infection: episodes of acute infection lasting less than 30 days, with resolution of symptoms, which
Recur at intervals of at least 10 days apart
● chronic sinusitis: infl ammation lasting more than 90 days, with persistent upper respiratory symptoms
● acute bacterial sinusitis superimposed on chronic sinusitis:
New symptoms that occur in patients with residual symptoms from prior infection (s). With treatment, the new symptoms resolve but the residual ones do not.
Physical findings and clinical presentation
● patients often give a history of a recent upper respiratory illness with some improvement, then a relapse.
● mucopurulent secretions in the nasal passage
● purulent nasal and postnasal discharge lasting more than 7 to 10 days
● facial tightness, pressure, or pain
● nasal obstruction
● decreased sense of smell
● purulent pharyngeal secretions, brought up with cough, often worse at night
● erythema, swelling, and tenderness over the infected sinus in a small proportion of patients
● diagnosis cannot be excluded by the absence of such findings.
● these fi ndings are not common, and do not correlate with number of positive sinus aspirates.
● intermittent low-grade fever in about one half of adults with acute bacterial sinusitis
● toothache is a common complaint when the maxillary sinus is involved.
● periorbital cellulitis and excessive tearing with ethmoid sinusitis
● orbital extension of infection: chemosis, proptosis, impaired extraocular movements.
Characteristics of acute sinusitis in children with upper respiratory tract infections:
● persistence of symptoms
● bad breath
● symptoms of chronic sinusitis (may or may not be present)
● nasal or postnasal discharge
● facial pain or pressure
● nosocomial sinusitis is typically seen in patients with nasogastric tubes or nasotracheal intubation.
● each of the four paranasal sinuses is connected to the nasal cavity by narrow tubes (ostia), 1 to 3 mm in diameter; these drain directly into the nose through the turbinates. The sinuses are lined with a ciliated mucous membrane (mucoperiosteum).
● acute viral infection
● infection with the common cold or infl uenza
● mucosal edema and sinus infl ammation
● decreased drainage of thick secretions, obstruction of the sinus ostia
● subsequent entrapment of bacteria
A. Multiplication of bacteria
B. Secondary bacterial infection
Other predisposing factors
● foreign bodies
● congenital choanal atresia
● other entities that cause obstruction of sinus drainage
● dental infections lead to maxillary sinusitis.
● viruses recovered alone or in combination with bacteria (in 16% of cases):
● parainfluenza virus
● respiratory syncytial virus
● the principal bacterial pathogens in sinusitis are streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable haemophilus influenzae, and moraxella catarrhalis.
● in the remainder of cases, fi ndings include streptococcus pyogenes, staphylococcus aureus, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, and mixed anaerobic infections (peptostreptococcus, fusobacterium, bacteroides, prevotella).
Infection is polymicrobial in about one third of cases.
● anaerobic infections seen more often in cases of chronic sinusitis and in cases associated with dental infection; anaerobes are unlikely pathogens in sinusitis in children.
● fungal pathogens are isolated with increasing frequency in immunocompromised patients but remain uncommon
Pathogens in the paranasal sinuses. Fungal pathogens include aspergillus, pseudallescheria, sporothrix, phaeohyphomycoses, zygomycetes.
● nosocomial infections occur in patients with nasogastric tubes, nasotracheal intubation, cystic fi brosis, or those who are immunocompromised.
● s. Aureus
● pseudomonas aeruginosa
● klebsiella pneumoniae
● enterobacter spp.
● proteus mirabilis
Organisms typically isolated in chronic sinusitis:
● s. Aureus
● s. Pneumoniae
● h. Infl uenzae
● p. Aeruginosa
● water’s projection: sinus radiograph
● ct scan
● much more sensitive than plain radiographs in detecting acute changes and disease in the sinuses
● recommended for patients requiring surgical intervention, including sinus aspiration; it is a useful adjunct to
● used for diagnosis of frontal and maxillary sinusitis
● place transilluminator in the mouth or against cheek to assess maxillary sinuses, and under the medial aspect of the supraorbital ridge to assess frontal sinuses.
● absence of light transmission indicates that sinus is filled with fluid.
● dullness (decreased light transmission) is less helpful in diagnosing infection.
● used to visualize secretions coming from the ostia of infected sinuses
● culture collection via endoscopy often contaminated by nasal flora; not nearly as good as sinus puncture
● sinus puncture
● gold standard for collecting sinus cultures
● generally reserved for treatment failures, suspected intracranial extension, nosocomial sinusitis.
Treatment Nonpharmacologic therapy
● sinus drainage
● nasal vasoconstrictors, such as phenylephrine nose drops, 0.25% or 0.5%
● topical decongestants should not be used for more than a few days because of the risk of rebound congestion.
● systemic decongestants
● nasal or systemic corticosteroids, such as nasal beclomethasone, short-course oral prednisone
● nasal irrigation, with hypertonic or normal saline (saline may act as a mild vasoconstrictor of nasal blood fl ow)
● use of antihistamines has no proved benefi t, and the drying effect on the mucous membranes may cause crusting,
Which blocks the ostia, thus interfering with sinus drainage.
● analgesics, antipyretics.
● most cases of acute sinusitis have a viral cause and will resolve within 2 weeks without antibiotics.
● current treatment recommendations favor symptomatic treatment for those with mild symptoms.
● antibiotics should be reserved for those with moderate to severe symptoms who meet the criteria for diagnosis of
● antibiotic therapy is usually empirical, targeting the common pathogens.
● first-line antibiotics include amoxicillin, tmp-smz.
● second-line antibiotics include clarithromycin, azithromycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime axetil, loracarbef, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin.
● for patients with uncomplicated acute sinusitis, the less expensive first-line agents appear to be as effective as the
Costlier second-line agents.
● surgical drainage indicated
● if intracranial or orbital complications suspected
● for many cases of frontal and sphenoid sinusitis
● for chronic sinusitis recalcitrant to medical therapy
● surgical débridement imperative for treatment of fungal sinusitis
Vitamin and trace element deficiencies
Fat soluble vitamins
Vitamin a (retinol)
• Found in dairy produce, eggs, fish oils, and liver.
Vitamin d (cholecalciferol)
• Found in fish liver oils, dairy produce, and undergoes metabolism at the kidneys and the skin using uv light.
Vitamin e (alpha-tocopherol)
• Widely distributed, green vegetables, and vegetable oils.
• Deficiency causes hemolytic anemia (premature infants) and gross ataxia.
Vitamin k (k 1 = phylloquinine k 2 = menaquinone)
• Widely distributed but particularly in green vegetables. Synthesized by intestinal bacteria.
• Found in cereals, peas, beans, yeast, and whole-wheat fl our. It is an essential factor in carbohydrate metabolism and transketolation reactions.
Vitamin b 2 (ribofl avin)
• Deficiency gives angular stomatitis (fissuring and inflammation at the corners of the mouth), inflamed oral mucous membranes, seborrhoeic dermatitis, and peripheral neuropatmhy. Drugs (e. G, isoniazid, hydralazine, penicillamine) and is also seen in alcoholism and pregnancy.
Vitamin b 12 (cyanocobalamin)
• Causes of a deficiency are numerous and include partial or total gastrectomy, crohn’s disease, ileal resection, jejunal diverticulae, blind loop syndrome, and tapeworm.
Vitamin b 9 (folic acid)
• Deficiency can be caused by poor diet, malabsorption states, coeliac disease, crohn’s disease, gastrectomy, drugs (e. G, methotrexate, phenytoin), excessive utilization (E.G, leukemia, malignancy, inflammatory disease).
• Consequences of deficiency include megaloblastic anemia, and glossitis.
• Deficiency results in hypochromic and microcytic anemia, wilson’s disease, impaired bone mineralization, menks’ kinky hair syndrome (growth failure, mental defi ciency, bone lesions, brittle hair, anemia).
• Usually caused by copper malabsorption.
Zinc deficiency causes achondromatosis enterpathica (infants develop growth retardation, hair loss, severe diarrhea, candida and bacterial infections), impaired wound healing, skin ulcers, alopecia, night blindness, confusion, apathy, and depression.
Vitamin b 3 (niacin)
• Found in fish, liver, nuts, and whole-wheat flour.
• Deficiency causes pellagra): dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia.
Vitamin b 6 (pyridoxine)
• Widespread distribution, also synthesized from tryptophan.
• Deficiency causes peripheral neuropathy, convulsions, and sideroblastic anemia. Deficiency may be provoked by a number of commonly used.
Be mindful about choosing heart healthy foods; for example:
- plant-based diets low in fat, salt and added sugars
- high fiber and whole grains
- lean protein
- foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids (flaxseed, salmon and other fish, certain oils and nuts)
2. Read food labels
The labels on the side of food and beverage packaging provide a lot of useful information about the nutritional content, including calories, sodium, cholesterol, fat, sugars and key vitamins per serving.
3. Mind your portions
Many of us overeat without really knowing it. Portions at restaurants even the size of bagels, baked goods and other prepared items have steadily gotten bigger over the years. Know how much is too much, and which foods are better to load up on. Some people find it helpful to visually divide their plate and pre-portioning healthy foods for the week.
4. Learn how to cook healthy
How you prep your food is important; try to avoid frying food and substitute unhealthy fats when possible. It's also best to make snacks and meals from scratch and limit processed foods, which often contain hidden sodium and added sugars.
When you do eat out try to reduce your calories, fat and salt by asking for:
- no added butter or salt
- half of the portion to be boxed up before they plate it for you
- the dressing on the side
5. Limit alcohol
Experts advise limiting it to one drink a day for women and two for men.
12 fl oz of
8-9 fl oz of
Malt liquor (shown in a 12-oz glass)
5 fl oz of
3-4 fl oz of
(such as sherry or port; 3.5 oz shown)
2-3 fl oz of
Cordial, liqueur, or aperitif (2.5 oz shown)
1.5 fl oz of brandy or cognac
(a single jigger or shot)
1.5 fl oz shot of 80-proof distilled spirits
6. Don't shop hungry
If you go to the grocery store hungry, you are more likely to make unhealthy impulse buys.
7. Keep a food diary
This is one of the best ways to look critically at your patterns of eating over time. Based on this information, you can make healthy changes. There are also nutritional and food tracking apps that can help.
8. Ask for help
Don't go it alone or attempt to cut out major foods groups or make too many changes at once; your efforts can backfire. Talk with your health care provider or nutritionist about how many calories you should be consuming each day and come up with an eating plan that is realistic and fits your life. Ask your partner or family to help you stick to a healthy diet.
A healthy diet can help you maintain a healthy body weight and control your blood cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar.
As per a study conducted by the Copenhagen University Hospital, it was revealed that consuming paracetamol during pregnancy can be detrimental for your baby, as it can weaken the development of the reproductive system of female offspring. The research was published in Endocrine Connections journal.
Although, paracetamol is an over-the-counter treatment for pain relief that is commonly taken by pregnant women worldwide. The study was conducted on three individual rodents and the results indicated that the rodents, who were given paracetamol during pregnancy at doses equivalent to those that of a pregnant woman may take for pain relief, produced female offspring with fewer eggs.
Further, Dr. Kristensen said, "Although this may not be a severe impairment to fertility, it is still of real concern since data from three different labs all independently found that paracetamol may disrupt female reproductive development in this way, which indicates further investigation is needed to establish how this affects human fertility."