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Overview

Mazetol 100 MG Tablet

Manufacturer: Abbott Healthcare Pvt. Ltd
Medicine composition: Carbamazepine
Prescription vs.OTC: Prescription by Doctor required

Mazetol 100 MG Tabletfunctions as an anticonvulsant, and decreases the occurrence of abnormal nerve impulses in the brain which can lead to severe reactions like seizures and acute pain. The drug essentially treats nerve pains like trigeminal neuralgia as well as diabetic neuropathy. Moreover, the drug also effectively treats bipolar disorder.

The medicine should be taken as prescribed, and directions of the doctor should be adhered to strictly. Available in a capsule or tablet form, the drug is meant to be consumed whole.Mazetol 100 MG Tabletis also available in liquid as well. The effect of the medicine is quite slow and does lead to some side effects; it may take about a couple of weeks or more for your condition to improve. A few common side effects ofMazetol 100 MG Tabletare-

In case you suffer from the following less common side effects call the doctor as soon as possible-

Before starting the drug make sure to give your doctor detailed information about any existing health issues and allergies. For instance, patients with bone marrow suppression are advised not to consume ofMazetol 100 MG Tablet. Also inform the doctor if you suffer from heart problems, thyroid issues, porphyria, lupus, mental illness or a kidney problem. If you are on the drug during your pregnancy make sure to clearly follow the doctor’s instructions on dosage and consumption. Do not stop the drug or increase dosage without the doctor’s advice as it can cause severe complications for the baby.

Information given here is based on the salt and content of the medicine. Effect and uses of medicine may vary from person to person. It is advicable to consult a Neurologist before using this medicine.

Mazetol 100 MG Tablet is used in the treatment of Epilepsy which is a brain disorder that causes repeated seizures. Uncontrolled jerking movements and loss of consciousness are some of the symptoms of Epilepsy.
Trigeminal Neuralgia
Mazetol 100 MG Tablet is used in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia which is a condition that affects the nerve that carries sensations from face to the brain characterized by chronic pain
Avoid if you have a known history of allergy to Mazetol 100 MG Tablet.
Bone marrow suppression
Do not use this medicine if you have a history of bone marrow suppression or any blood disorder.
In addition to its intended effect, Mazetol 100 MG Tablet may cause some unwanted effects too. In such cases, you must seek medical attention immediately. This is not an exhaustive list of side effects. Please inform your doctor if you experience any adverse reaction to the medication.
Blurred vision Major Common
Diarrhea Major Less Common
Nausea or Vomiting Major Less Common
stiffness of limbs Major Less Common
Headache Major Less Common
Drowsiness Major Less Common
Frequent urination Major Rare
Weight gain Major Rare
Yellow colored eyes or skin Major Rare
Dry mouth Minor Less Common
Increased sweating Minor Less Common
Skin Rash Minor Less Common
How long is the duration of effect?
The effect of this medicine lasts for an average duration of 2 to 3 days
What is the onset of action?
The peak effect of this medicine can be observed in 4.5 hours for immediate-release tablets, 3 to 12 hours for extended-release tablets and 1.5 hours for oral suspension.
Are there any pregnancy warnings?
This medicine is not recommended for pregnant women.
Is it habit forming?
No habit forming tendency has been reported.
Are there any breast-feeding warnings?
This medicine is recommended only if clearly needed when no safer alternative is available. Monitoring of undesired effects like discoloration of eyes and skin is necessary, drowsiness, and weight gain is necessary.
Below is the list of medicines, which have the same composition, strength and form as Mazetol 100 MG Tablet , and hence can be used as its substitute.
Intas Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Novartis India Ltd
Sun Pharma Laboratories Ltd
Torrent Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Missed Dose instructions
If you miss a dose of Mazetol 100 MG Tablet, take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it’s almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose. Do not double your dose to make up for the missed dose.
Overdose instructions
Seek emergency medical treatment or contact the doctor in case of an overdose.
India
Japan
Whenever you take more than one medicine, or mix it with certain foods or beverages, you"re at risk of a drug interaction.
Interaction with Disease
Depression Major
Mazetol 100 MG Tablet should be given with caution in the patients with depression and suicidal thoughts. Frequent monitoring of depression symptoms is necessary. Dose adjustments are to be made based on the outcomes in the patient.
Liver Disease Major
Mazetol 100 MG Tablet should be used with caution in the patients with the mild to moderate liver disease. Frequent monitoring of liver function tests is necessary. Suitable dose adjustments or an alternate medicine should be considered based on the clinical condition.
Interaction with Alcohol
Alcohol Moderate
Consumption of alcohol with this medicine is not recommended as it increases the risk of side effects like dizziness, difficulty in concentration. Do not perform activities that require mental alertness like driving or operating machinery.
Interaction with Lab Test
Lab
Information not available.
Interaction with Food
Food
Information not available.
Interaction with Medicine
Diltiazem Major
Diltiazem may increase the concentration of Mazetol 100 MG Tablet. Inform the doctor if you are receiving these medicines. Any symptoms of dizziness, confusion, headache should be reported to the doctor. Suitable dose adjustments or an alternate medicine should be considered based on the clinical condition.
Ethinyl Estradiol Major
The desired effect of contraceptive pills will not be achieved if these medicines are used together. Appropriate dose adjustments or replacement of the medicine should be made under the doctor's supervision.
Moderate
Mazetol 100 MG Tablet may decrease the concentration of ketoconazole and itraconazole. Inform the doctor if you are receiving these medicines. Any symptoms of nausea, visual disturbances should be reported to the doctor. Suitable dose adjustments or an alternate medicine should be considered based on the clinical condition.
Mazetol 100 MG Tablet belongs to the class anticonvulsant. It works by reducing the excitation of the brain cells by inhibiting the sodium channels thus inhibits the repetitive firing of brain cells.
What are you using Mazetol 100 MG Tablet for?
Other
Trigeminal Neuralgia
Headache
How much was the improvement?
Poor
Average
Excellent
How long did it take before seeing improvement?
More than 2 days
Within 2 hours
How frequently did you take this medicine?
Not taking on daily level
Once a day
How did you take this medicine?
With Food
With or without food
What were the side effects of this medicine?
Drowsiness
Weight gain
Disclaimer: The information produced here is best of our knowledge and experience and we have tried our best to make it as accurate and up-to-date as possible, but we would like to request that it should not be treated as a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Lybrate is a medium to provide our audience with the common information on medicines and does not guarantee its accuracy or exhaustiveness. Even if there is no mention of a warning for any drug or combination, it never means that we are claiming that the drug or combination is safe for consumption without any proper consultation with an expert.

Lybrate does not take responsibility for any aspect of medicines or treatments. If you have any doubts about your medication, we strongly recommend you to see a doctor immediately.

Popular Questions & Answers

I am patient of epilepsy ,I always taken ox mazetol300 tablets, kya me baby plan kar skti hoon, And pregnancy time me apni medicine continue leni hogi ya nahin Please suggest. Aur kyA baby pe risk ho skta h? Kya vo bhi mere Jess abnormal ho to dar lagta h pls help me.

MBBS, DGO
IVF Specialist, Mohali
I am patient of epilepsy ,I always taken ox mazetol300 tablets, kya me baby plan kar skti hoon, And pregnancy time me...
Hi, You can plan baby but we need to change your medicines from one group to another which would b safer for the baby at the time of conception and during pregnancy. Do not worry after doing some investigations we will b able to confirm that your baby will not have same problem as you are suffering from.

I am patient of epilepsy ,I always taken ox mazetol300 tablets, kya me baby plan kar skti hoon, And pregnancy time me apni medicine continue leni hogi ya nahi Please suggest.

MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Ox mazetol (oxcarbazepine) can be taken during Pregnancy, yes you can plan a baby but before that consult your doctor he may change your dose of medicine Anti epileptic drugs have to be taken during pregnancy.
1 person found this helpful

I was epileptic since 1988. I was diagnosed with eptoin to take and then after few years mazetol200. Since then I am taking this Medicine one in the night. But I don't have fits since 13 years. I am 47 year of age. Please advise.

Neurologist, Buldhana
Since last 13 years you are seizure free. So you do MRI brain and EEG. And If the reports are normal, then your anti seizure drugs should be tapered slowly and stopped.
1 person found this helpful

I'm seizure patient I always taken ox maxetol tablets ,I want 2 know dt .will my baby safe?

Diploma in Anesthesia, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
If you are asking about pregnancy, Pregnancy need to be avoided when you are on Mazetol so use some contraceptive method. if you are asking about the child feeding, breast feeding need to be avoided as long as you are on Mazetol. so discuss with your doctor regarding the same and follow the advise. good luck
1 person found this helpful

I hv seizure problem ,i always taken of mazetol tablets I want 2 b mother.in future my baby will b all ri8? Explain me pls in deep. Nd my proper diet Nd everything.

MD - General Medicine, DM - Neurology
Neurologist, Kochi
You can be a mother- nothing will happen very slight chance of tertaogenicity - deformity of baby. Baby will not have seizures.

Popular Health Tips

6 Ways To Deal With Pinched Nerve!

MD, FIPP
Pain Management Specialist, Kolkata
6 Ways To Deal With Pinched Nerve!

Our body is composed of many elements that carry out emotional and physical functions that are usually in sync with one another. It is important for these organs and other elements to be in sync for good health. All nerves are connected to the brain and are responsible for sending important signals throughout your body. Therefore, even one pressed nerve may send you warning signals such as pain to the body. It is advisable not to overlook these signals. Damage from a pressed nerve might be minor or extreme. It might bring about persistent and chronic issues. Therefore, the sooner you get a treatment for nerve compression, the more relieving experience you will have. In a few cases, you cannot reverse the damage caused by a pressed nerve. However, treatment does relieve you from the pain in most cases.

Nerves are the most vulnerable at spots in your body where they go through narrow spaces and have very less tissue to protect them. These are the places they are more likely to get pinched. A number of the causes may include:

  1. If the nerve is pressed between tissues, for example, your tendon, ligament or bone.
  2. Nerve compression in your neck or arm may likewise bring pain in zones, for example, your elbow, hand, wrist or fingers.
  3. Aggravation or weight on a nerve root leaving the spine may bring about neck or low back pain.
  4. In case a disc tears, it is known as a herniated circle that can put weight on a spinal nerve.

Some of the common symptoms of pinched nerves are:

  1. Pain in the region of pressure, for example, the neck or low back
  2. Transmitting pain, for example, sciatica or radicular pain
  3. Numbness
  4. Tingling
  5. Blazing sensation
  6. Weakness

To what extent you are affected depends on individual to individual. Treatment fluctuates, based upon the seriousness and reason for the pinched nerve. You may find that you benefit from just resting the affected area and by maintaining distance from any exercises that may cause you harm. If side effects endure or torment is serious, it is best to consult a specialist. You may require one or more types of treatment to contract swollen tissue around the nerve.

Treatment may include:

  1. NSAIDs - Non-steroidal inflammation mitigating drugs (NSAIDs, for example, headache medicine, ibuprofen, or naproxen) may diminish swelling & helps in certain situation' but it do not work in most of the time and must be avoided. 
  2. Oral corticosteroids - These are utilized to lessen swelling and agony, used in certain specific situations. 
  3. Opiates - These are utilized for brief periods to lessen extreme pain. 
  4. Co-analgesics - These are the main medicines for nerve pain. Carbamazepine, Pregabalin, Duloxetine etc medicines are best medicines for these situations. 
  5. Interventional Pain Procedures - They are the most cost effective and non invasive methods for pain relief as recommended by the WHO. Your pain will be taken care of by the interventional pain physician or the pain specialist. 
  6. Surgery - Surgery might be required for more serious issues that do not react to different sorts of treatment.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

8327 people found this helpful

Thyroid Disorders - Everything You Wanted To Know!

MD - General Medicine, DM - Endocrinology, MBBS
Endocrinologist, Delhi
Thyroid Disorders - Everything You Wanted To Know!

Thyroid gland is a butterfly shaped gland in the front of the neck. It encircles the windpipe or the trachea. It is about 4 cms in height and weighs about 18 gms. This gland is responsible for the secretion of thyroid hormones. Hormones are chemicals produced by special glands like thyroid, adrenals, ovaries etc. They act as messengers and are carried by the blood to the various target organs. Thyroid disorders are conditions that affect the thyroid glands. It plays an important role in regulating numerous metabolic processes throughout the body. The Thyroid gland is located below the adam’s apple wrapped around the trachea.

Thyroid disease is a common problem that can cause symptoms because of over- or under-function of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is an essential organ for producing thyroid hormones, which maintain our body metabolism. The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck below the Adam's apple. Thyroid disease can also sometimes lead to enlargement of the thyroid gland in the neck, which can cause symptoms that are directly related to the increase in the size of the organ (such as difficulty swallowing and discomfort in front of the neck).

Thyroxine T4 is the primary hormone developed by the Thyroid gland. A small portion of the T4 released from the gland is converted to Triiodothyronine (T3) which is the most active hormone.

Hyperthyroidism: Too much thyroid hormone results in a condition known as hyperthyroidism. Affects about 1 percent of women. It's less common in men.

Grave’s disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.

Symptoms:

Causes:

  1. Toxic adenomas: Nodules develop in the thyroid glands and begin to secrete thyroid hormones upsetting the body's chemical balance.
  2. Subacute thyroiditis: Inflammation of the thyroid that causes the gland to leak excess hormones, resulting in temporary hyperthyroidism that lasts a few weeks but may persist for months.
  3. Pituitary gland: Malfunctions or cancerous growths in the thyroid gland. Although rare, hyperthyroidism can also develop from these causes.

Treatments for hyperthyroidism: destroy the thyroid gland or block it from producing its hormones.

  1. Antithyroid drugs: such as methimazole (Tapazole) prevent the thyroid from producing its hormones.
  2. Radioactive iodine: a large dose of it damages the thyroid gland. A pill is given by mouth. As thyroid gland takes in iodine, it also pulls in the radioactive iodine, which damages the gland.
  3. Surgery: Surgery can be performed to remove your thyroid gland.

Hypothyroidism: Inadequate production of hormones by the thyroid gland is termed as hypothyroidism. This is also called Underactive thyroid state. Hypothyroidism can make the body’s development to slow down and reduces metabolism rates. Since the body needs some amount of thyroid for energy production and drop in hormone production leads to lower energy levels.

Symptoms:

What are the causes of Hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism can be caused by a number of factors:

  1. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: This is the commonest cause. This is an autoimmune disorder (normally body’s defence system fight against external infections. In autoimmune disorder the defence system attacks the healthy cells of the body by mistake). In Hashimoto’s thyroiditis the immune system/defence system produces antibodies that attack the thyroid gland and destroy it.
  2. Iodine deficiency in diet: For the production of thyroid hormones iodine is very important. The body does not produce iodine normally, so it needs to be supplemented from outside. Iodine is mainly present in the food we eat. It is mainly present in shellfish, salt-water fish, eggs, dairy products. If a person does not eat iodine rich foods, he may end up with iodine deficiency leading to hypothyroidism. Currently, this causative factor is on the decline due to government initiative of table salt with iodine.
  3. Surgery: Surgery to remove thyroid gland (for e.g. thyroid cancer treatment, overactive thyroid etc.)
  4. Radiation to the neck (to treat cancer in the neck area): The thyroid gland cells are damaged due to the radiation.
  5. Treatment with radioactive iodine: This treatment is used for managing hyperthyroidism/overactive thyroid, where the thyroid gland produces excessive thyroid hormones. One of the treatment modalities is by radioactive iodine. Sometimes this radiotherapy destroys normal functioning cells which lead to hypothyroidism.
  6. Certain medicines: Certain medicines used to treat heart conditions, cancer, psychiatric conditions etc. – for e.g. amiodarone, lithium, interleukin-2, interferon-alpha.
  7. Pregnancy: Pregnancy (the reason is unclear but it has been noticed that the thyroid may get inflamed after delivery – this is called Postpartum thyroiditis.
  8. Damage to the pituitary gland: Pituitary gland is a gland which is present in the brain. It produces a hormone called TSH (Thyroxine-Stimulating hormone).The TSH tells the thyroid gland how much thyroid hormone it should make. If the levels of thyroid hormone in the blood are low, then the TSH will stimulate the thyroid gland to produce more Thyroid hormone.
  9. Hypothalamus disorders: This is an organ in the brain. This produces a hormone called TRH (Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone) which acts on the Pituitary gland to secrete TSH. So any disorder of Pituitary gland will indirectly effect the production and secretion of Thyroid hormones. These are very rare disorders.
  10. Congenital thyroid defects: Some babies are born with thyroid problems. This is due to the thyroid not being developed normally during pregnancy. Sometimes the thyroid gland does not function normal. This can be identified by screening for thyroid disorders in the first week after delivery. This is usually by a blood test using a small drop of blood from the baby’s heel.

Who are at risk of developing Hypothyroidism?

  1. Women have a higher risk of suffering from hypothyroidism than men.
  2. Older people are at increased risk.
  3. People suffering from other autoimmune diseases like Coeliac disease, Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus, Vitiligo, Pernicious anemia, Multiple sclerosis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Addison’s disease etc.
  4. People with psychiatric conditions such as bipolar disorder
  5. People with Chromosomal abnormalities like Down syndrome, Turners syndrome also have a high risk of suffering from hypothyroidism.

How to diagnose hypothyroidism?

Blood tests:

  1. TSH: This hormone is made in the pituitary gland and it stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine. If the thyroxine levels are low in the blood, the pituitary gland produces and secretes more TSH into the blood to act on the thyroid gland to produce more thyroxine. A raised TSH level indicates hypothyroidism. Other tests are not usually necessary unless a rare cause of hypothyroidism.
  2. T4: A low level of thyroxine indicates hypothyroidism.
  3. T3: these levels are generally not needed to diagnose hypothyroidism
  4. Anti-Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO antibodies) or Anti- thyroglobulin antibodies are present in 90-95% of patient with autoimmune thyroiditis.
  5. Other blood tests include Creatinine Kinase, Serum Lipids, Complete blood picture etc.
  6. Ultrasound of the neck is done if the patient presents with a thyroid swelling.

What is the treatment of hypothyroidism?

Overt hypothyroidism is treated by synthetic Thyroxin hormone which should be taken every day on an empty stomach at least 30 – 45 minutes before breakfast. The treatment is continued for the rest of the patient’s life. Regular thyroid function tests are done once every 8 weeks-12 weeks to adjust the dose of the thyroxine in the initial period of diagnosis. Once the thyroxine dose is stabilised, the tests can be done even once a year. This treatment is quite effective.

Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is only treated if the patient is a woman and is contemplating pregnancy, in patients with symptoms or if the TSH is quite high.

What are the side-effects of thyroxine medication?

There are few side effects if any. Most people tolerate these medications quite well. An important consideration before starting medication is to check if the patient has chest pain/angina. These people are started on the least available dose. If these patients are started on a higher dose they notice a worsening of their angina pains.

Side effects mainly occur if the thyroxine dose is high which leads to hyperthyroidism. The symptoms of this could be palpitations 9increased heart beat), weight loss, profuse sweating, anxiety, irritability etc.

There are some tablets which increase with thyroxine tablets. These include carbamazepine, iron supplements, calcium supplements, rifampicin, phenytoin, warfarin etc.

What are the complications of hypothyroidism?

If untreated hypothyroidism can lead to:

  • heart problems like heart attack due to increased levels of bad cholesterol like LDL, or heart failure due to fluid retention
  • obesity
  • infertility
  • joint pains
  • depression
  • A pregnant woman with hypothyroidism is at increased risk of giving birth to a baby with congenital hypothyroidism, also known as cretinism. Further, the woman may have pregnancy related complications like pre-eclampsia, premature delivery, low birth weight baby, anemia, post-partum haemorrhage (bleeding after delivery) etc.
  • Myxoedema is another complication where the patient has extremely low levels of thyroid hormone. The body temperature drops drastically making the person lose consciousness or go into a coma. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Endocrinologist.
2955 people found this helpful

Hypothyroidism: What You Need to Know About an Underactive Thyroid

MBBS, MD - Paediatrics, FRACP - Pediatrc Endocrinology, SCE, Endocrinology
Endocrinologist, Kanpur
Hypothyroidism: What You Need to Know About an Underactive Thyroid

Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is not producing the thyroid hormones adequately. This is a fairly common condition.

What is thyroid gland?

The thyroid gland is a small butterfly-shaped gland located just below Adam’s apple. It encircles the windpipe or the trachea. It is about 4 cms in height and weighs about 18 gms. This gland is responsible for the secretion of thyroid hormones. Hormones are chemicals produced by special glands like thyroid, adrenals, ovaries etc. They act as messengers and are carried by the blood to the various target organs.

What are the hormones produced by thyroid gland and what do they do?

The thyroid hormones are of two types – T3 (Tri iodo thyronine) and T4 (Thyroxine). These hormones are mainly responsible for the body’s metabolism - a process in which food is converted into energy in the cells. They influence growth and development and regulate various bodily functions which are mentioned below:

  • Heartbeat
  • Body temperature
  • Breathing
  • Body weight
  • Metabolism of fat
  • Menstrual cycles in females
  • Functioning of Nervous system
  • Digestion
  • Burning calories etc.

What is Hypothyroidism?

Inadequate production of hormones by the thyroid gland is termed as hypothyroidism. This is also called Underactive thyroid state. Hypothyroidism can make the body’s development to slow down and reduces metabolism rates.

What are the causes of Hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism can be caused by a number of factors:

  1. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: This is the commonest cause. This is an autoimmune disorder (normally body’s defence system fight against external infections. In autoimmune disorder the defence system attacks the healthy cells of the body by mistake). In Hashimoto’s thyroiditis the immune system/defence system produces antibodies that attack the thyroid gland and destroy it.
  2. Iodine deficiency in diet. For the production of thyroid hormones iodine is very important. The body does not produce iodine normally, so it needs to be supplemented from outside. Iodine is mainly present in the food we eat. It is mainly present in shellfish, salt-water fish, eggs, dairy products. If a person does not eat iodine rich foods, he may end up with iodine deficiency leading to hypothyroidism. Currently, this causative factor is on the decline due to government initiative of table salt with iodine.
  3. Surgery: Surgery to remove thyroid gland (for e.g. thyroid cancer treatment, overactive thyroid etc.)
  4. Radiation to the neck (to treat cancer in the neck area): The thyroid gland cells are damaged due to the radiation.
  5. Treatment with radioactive iodine: This treatment is used for managing hyperthyroidism/overactive thyroid, where the thyroid gland produces excessive thyroid hormones. One of the treatment modalities is by radioactive iodine. Sometimes this radiotherapy destroys normal functioning cells which lead to hypothyroidism.
  6. Certain medicines: Certain medicines used to treat heart conditions, cancer, psychiatric conditions etc. – for e.g. amiodarone, lithium, interleukin-2, interferon-alpha.
  7. Pregnancy: Pregnancy (the reason is unclear but it has been noticed that the thyroid may get inflamed after delivery – this is called Postpartum thyroiditis.
  8. Damage to the pituitary gland: Pituitary gland is a gland which is present in the brain. It produces a hormone called TSH (Thyroxine-Stimulating hormone).The TSH tells the thyroid gland how much thyroid hormone it should make. If the levels of thyroid hormone in the blood are low, then the TSH will stimulate the thyroid gland to produce more Thyroid hormone.
  9. Hypothalamus disorders: This is an organ in the brain. This produces a hormone called TRH (Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone) which acts on the Pituitary gland to secrete TSH. So any disorder of Pituitary gland will indirectly effect the production and secretion of Thyroid hormones. These are very rare disorders.
  10. Congenital thyroid defects: Some babies are born with thyroid problems. This is due to the thyroid not being developed normally during pregnancy. Sometimes the thyroid gland does not function normal. This can be identified by screening for thyroid disorders in the first week after delivery. This is usually by a blood test using a small drop of blood from the baby’s heel.

What are the different types of hypothyroidism?

One classification is based on whether the defect is with the thyroid gland or not:

  1. Primary hypothyroidism: The problem is in the thyroid gland itself and thus there is reduced production /secretion of thyroid hormones.
  2. Secondary hypothyroidism: Here the problem is with the Pituitary gland or the Hypothalamus. This results in abnormal production of TSH or TRH, which indirectly leads to less production and secretion of thyroid hormones.

Another classification is based on the symptoms and levels of the thyroid hormones and TSH:

  1. Overt hypothyroidism: Here the patient is having the symptoms. Further the T3/T4 are low and TSH is high
  2. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Here patient may or may not have symptoms. The T3/T4 levels are normal but TSH is high. In this situation the patient is at an increased risk of developing overt hypothyroidism in the future especially if he has Thyroid peroxidase antibodies on testing.

Who are at risk of developing Hypothyroidism?

  1. Women have a higher risk of suffering from hypothyroidism than men.
  2. Older people are at increased risk.
  3. People suffering from other autoimmune diseases like Coeliac disease, Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus, Vitiligo, Pernicious anemia, Multiple sclerosis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Addison’s disease etc.
  4. People with psychiatric conditions such as bipolar disorder
  5. People with Chromosomal abnormalities like Down syndrome, Turners syndrome also have a high risk of suffering from hypothyroidism.

What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?

Symptoms vary from person to person. They may also mimic other conditions and hence be difficult to diagnose. Symptoms may also develop very slowly over a span of moths-years. Some of the characteristic symptoms of this disease are:

  1. Depression
  2. Constipation
  3. Hair loss
  4. Dry hair
  5. Dryness of the skin
  6. Tiredness
  7. Body pains
  8. Fluid retention in the body
  9. Irregular menstrual cycle
  10. Increased sensitivity to cold
  11. Reduced heart rate
  12. Increase in size of the thyroid gland – called Goitre. This is due to constant stimulation of the thyroid gland by TSH.
  13. Weight gain
  14. Carpal tunnel syndrome
  15. Hoarse voice
  16. Infertility
  17. Loss of libido/sex drive
  18. Confusion or memory problems especially in the elderly

What are the symptoms to look for in a baby if you suspect hypothyroidism?

Infants suffering from congenital hypothyroidism may show no symptoms or exhibit signs of excessive drowsiness, cold hands, cold feet, constipation, hoarse cry, poor growth or absent growth, poor appetite, bloating of abdomen, puffiness of face, swollen tongue, persistent jaundice.

How to diagnose hypothyroidism?

Blood tests:

  1. TSH: This hormone is made in the pituitary gland and it stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine. If the thyroxine levels are low in the blood, the pituitary gland produces and secretes more TSH into the blood to act on the thyroid gland to produce more thyroxine. A raised TSH level indicates hypothyroidism. Other tests are not usually necessary unless a rare cause of hypothyroidism.
  2. T4: A low level of thyroxine indicates hypothyroidism.
  3. T3: these levels are generally not needed to diagnose hypothyroidism
  4. Anti-Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO antibodies) or Anti- thyroglobulin antibodies are present in 90-95% of patient with autoimmune thyroiditis.
  5. Other blood tests include Creatinine Kinase, Serum Lipids, Complete blood picture etc.
  6. Ultrasound of the neck is done if the patient presents with a thyroid swelling.

What is the treatment of hypothyroidism?

Overt hypothyroidism is treated by synthetic Thyroxin hormone which should be taken every day on an empty stomach at least 30 – 45 minutes before breakfast. The treatment is continued for the rest of the patient’s life. Regular thyroid function tests are done once every 8 weeks-12 weeks to adjust the dose of the thyroxine in the initial period of diagnosis. Once the thyroxine dose is stabilised, the tests can be done even once a year. This treatment is quite effective.

Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is only treated if the patient is a woman and is contemplating pregnancy, in patients with symptoms or if the TSH is quite high.

What are the side-effects of thyroxine medication?

There are few side effects if any. Most people tolerate these medications quite well. An important consideration before starting medication is to check if the patient has chest pain/angina. These people are started on the least available dose. If these patients are started on a higher dose they notice a worsening of their angina pains.

Side effects mainly occur if the thyroxine dose is high which leads to hyperthyroidism. The symptoms of this could be palpitations 9increased heart beat), weight loss, profuse sweating, anxiety, irritability etc.

There are some tablets which increase with thyroxine tablets. These include carbamazepine, iron supplements, calcium supplements, rifampicin, phenytoin, warfarin etc.

What are the complications of hypothyroidism?

If untreated hypothyroidism can lead to:

  • heart problems like heart attack due to increased levels of bad cholesterol like LDL, or heart failure due to fluid retention
  • obesity
  • infertility
  • joint pains
  • depression
  • A pregnant woman with hypothyroidism is at increased risk of giving birth to a baby with congenital hypothyroidism, also known as cretinism. Further, the woman may have pregnancy related complications like pre-eclampsia, premature delivery, low birth weight baby, anemia, post-partum haemorrhage (bleeding after delivery) etc.
  • Myxoedema is another complication where the patient has extremely low levels of thyroid hormone. The body temperature drops drastically making the person lose consciousness or go into a coma. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Endocrinologist.
3387 people found this helpful

Bipolar Disorder - Symptoms And Diagnosis

MS - Counselling and Psychotherapy, Diploma in Psychological Medicine , MBBS
Psychiatrist, Bangalore
Bipolar Disorder - Symptoms And Diagnosis

Bipolar disorder is also known as manic depression. This usually sets in low and high moods in a person along with changes in energy and sleep.

People with bipolar disorder tend to have periodical changes; sometimes they are over happy and other times they might feel sad, depressed and hopeless. Between these changes they are normal. The highs and lows are considered as extreme poles of moods, thus the name bipolar disorder.

Manic term is used when a person with bipolar disorder is highly excited and feels confident. Also, feelings of irritability and recklessness along with irrationality might occur. Some people with mania might have a hallucinations that is they see and hear things that are not there, along with delusions.

The term hypomania is used to describe mild symptoms of mania, in which a person does not have hallucinations and delusions and the symptoms do not interfere with their daily life. Similarly, the term depressive is used to describe a person's time when they feel depressed or sad.

Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

  • The highs and lows in a bipolar disorder do not follow any set pattern. One might feel manic or depressed for hours or days or weeks, months and even years together, before they actually switch to a happy mood. The severity depends from person to person and also changes with time by becoming less or more severe.
  • Symptoms of mania or the high are extreme excitement, change from being happy to angry and irritable along with restlessness, speech is rapid with low concentration, less sleep and increased energy, grand plans, alcohol and drug abuse and impulsiveness.
  • Symptoms of low or depressive phase are lethargy, worthlessness, feeling of sadness and hopelessness, lowered concentration, irritability, loss of sleep or excessive sleeping, loss of appetite and suicidal tendencies.

Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder

  • In case someone exhibits symptoms of bipolar disorder, then talking to a psychiatrist or a doctor helps. Doctors ask questions related to the mental illness and the associated concerns. Diagnosis is basically recognizing the symptoms of the person, whether they are due to some underlying cause or mood swings because of excessive alcohol. The symptoms have to be noted and the duration, for which they last along with the severity should all be noted. The most obvious symptoms are that of lows and highs in mood and changes in behavior, energy, sleep and thoughts.
  • Consulting a doctor or talking to family and friends helps to differentiate the symptoms of bipolar disorder from unipolar disorder.

Treatment

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Treatment for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Sexologist, Surat
Treatment for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD is a mental health condition, which is usually triggered by an unfortunate event experienced or witnessed by the affected patient in the past. The symptoms of this condition are flashbacks, nightmares and extreme anxiety. The patient also thinks about the event in an uncontrolled manner.

PTSD is a serious mental health condition that can damage the affected person's personality to a great extent. Therefore, the person should be given proper treatment at the earliest. There are various treatment methods for PTSD that can help you in changing how you think about a traumatic event. The treatment options that can be used have been mentioned below:

Counselling:
There are different forms of counselling for treating PTSD which include:

  1. Cognitive therapy: It is a therapy where you learn how to change your thought patterns regarding the trauma and allow you to eliminate unnecessary fears.
  2. Exposure therapy: It involves talking about the trauma over and over again until the fear departs.
  3. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: It is a process where you are made to focus on several forms of distractions like sounds and hand movements while you think about the trauma. A good therapist is very important to bring positive changes in your life by means of counseling therapy. You require a therapist who will listen to whatever you have to say and guide you through everything to make you feel better.

SSRI medicine:
SSRI or Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor is a form of antidepressant medicine, which helps you with your sadness and tension. There are certain medicines that are really effective and can be prescribed by your doctor depending on the condition.

Other forms of treatment:
There are several other types of medicines and procedures that can be used for treating PTSD. They include the following:

  1. There are other counselling forms, which include group therapy, brief psychodynamic psychotherapy and family therapy.
  2. There are other medicines as well for the treatment of PTSD. They include tricyclic antidepressants and atypical antidepressants.
  3. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors like isocarboxazid can also be used for curing PTSD.
  4. Certain mood stabilizers can be taken along with the medicines such as carbamazepine and lithium.
  5. Several antipsychotics, which include risperidone can be used to tackle symptoms such as flashbacks and sleeplessness.
  6. Another medicine known as prazosin is also used for dealing with nightmares and sleep disorders caused by PTSD. All kinds of medicines for the treatment of PTSD should be taken only after being prescribed by a doctor.

Post-traumatic stress disorder is a serious mental health condition in which a patient suffers from continuous negative thoughts regarding a traumatic event which has happened in the past. This condition may give rise to other health problems, and immediate treatment is recommended. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a psychiatrist.

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