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Know More About HIV

Written and reviewed by
Dr. Ajay Kumar Pujala 91% (143 ratings)
FHM Fellowship In HIV Medicine, MD, MBBS
HIV Specialist, Hyderabad  •  20 years experience
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What are the causes, symptoms and treatment for HIV

HIV AIDS kaise spread hota hai, iske symptoms kya hai, iska treatment kaise karte hai, iske barey mein aaj hum baat karengey. HIV ek retrovirus hai jo usually sexual mode se transmit hota hai. Sexual mode ke ilawa yeh infected needles se bhi spread ho sakta hai yah infected blood transfusion se bhi spread ho sakta hai, aur lastly mother agar infected hai toh mother se child ko bhi aa sakta hai. Toh hum isko kaise diagnosis karte hai?  Basically blood test se yeh pata chal jata hai, iske do tarah ke blood test available hai, ek se aap directly antigens ko detect kar sakte hai jaise p24 antigens yah aap directly antibodies ko detect kar sakte hai jaise ki ELISA aur western blot. Yeh test se malum ho jata hai ki patient HIV infected hai yah nahin. Agar HIV hai confirm honey ke baad patient ko hum stage kya hai pata karne ke liye further test karte hai jaise ki CD4 Count aur viral load keh ke do test rehte hai iske liye toh iske hisaab se patient ko hum 4 stage mein divide kar sakte hai stage 1, stage 2, stage 3, stage 4.

Agar stage 1 mein dekha jaye toh patient mein bilkul sympotoms nahin dikhte hai. 2nd stage mein patient ko khasi se chhotey motey bukhar aur skin infections jaise herpes infection jaise problems aa sakte hai. 3rd stage mein patient ko long term problems aatey hai jaise ki fever yah chronic lose motions jo ek mahine do mahine se zyada rehte hai aur jo dawa lene ke bawajud bhi kam nahin hota hai, yah patient ko agar tb ho jata hai, HIV patients mein 80% se zyada logo ko TB aa jata hai, toh yeh sab infections stage 3 mein aa sakte hai. Agar yeh stage mein bhi dawa nahin lete hai patient toh 4th stage yaani ki AIDS stage mein phuch jatey hai. Jismein ki patient ka CD4 count bohut kam hota hai, usually less than 100 rehta hai. Aur yeh stage mein patient ko opportunistic infections aa jaatey hai jaise ki TB, extrapulmonary TB, Lungs ke ilawa dusre jagah bhi aa sakta hai jo ki very common hai yeh stage mein.

Aur iske ilawa patient ko esophageal infections like fungal infections, oral candidiasis jaise problems aa sakte hai. Yah patient ko dusre malignancies aa sakte hai jaise lymphoma malignancies. Toh yeh stage pata karne ke baad humko kaunse treatment start karna hai iske liye hum anti retroviral treatment start karte hai jo ki HIV ko phailne se rok deta hai aur HIV ko khatam karne ke liye best treatment hai.

HIV treatment ko hum ART Treatment kehte hai. ART Treatment Government se bhi available hai aur private mein bhi available hai. ART treatment se kya hota hai, jo virus hai who kam ho jata hai. Iske wajah se hum cd4 ko badha sakte hai. CD4 count normal person mein 500 se le kar 1500 tak rehta hai, jo HIV infected rehte hai unka CD4 count kam ho jata hai. Patient ko dawa start karne se pehle counseling karte hai. Counseling mein hum patient ko iske dawa ka important effects kya hai batate hai.

Main important cheez hai dawa ko regular lena hai, isko rok nahin sakte, aise important cheez hum patient ko batate hai, aur patient ko motivate karte hai ki jo regular aap dawa logey toh apko koi bhi symptoms nahin ayengey, aur dawa lene se cd4 improve hoga aur immunity improve hoga, appetite badhega aur apka swasth thik rahega. Hum advice karte hai patient ko hamesha condom use karey aur agar aap ART treatment lete ho iske affect se HIV dusro mein phailne se rukk jata hai, to hiss tarah se humlog HIV ko prevent bhi kar sakte hai.
Aaj ke liye bus itna hi HIV ke barey mein. Agaar aap ko koi doubts hai yah apko treatment ke barey mein baat karna hai toh aap mujhe Lybrate se contact kar skte hai. Agar aap Hyderabad mein ho toh aap mujhe Srinivasa Hospital mein morning yah evening time mil sakte hai. Dhanyabaad.

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