The presence of blood in urine is known as Hematuria. It is categorized under 2 types:
- Macroscopic haematuria, which means the patient has seen blood.
- Microscopic dipstick haematuria, which means blood is identified by urine microscopy or by dipstick testing either in association with other urological symptoms (symptomatic microscopic haematuria) or during a routine medical examination. It has been variably defined as 3 or more , 5 or more or 10 or more Red Blood Cells (RBCs) per high - power field.
Urological and other Causes of Haematuria
- Cancer: Bladder, Kidney and Prostate Cancer
- Stones: Kidney, Ureteric
- Bladder Infections: Bacterial tuberculosis, infective urethritis Inflammation
- Interstitial Cystitis Trauma : Kidney, bladder, urethra, pelvic fracture causing urethral rupture
- Renal cystic disease: (e.g. medullary sponge kidney)
- Other urological causes: Benign prostatic hyperplasia, vascular malformations
- Other medical causes of haematuria: anticoagulation therapy (e.g. asprin, antiplatelet therapy) Nephrological Causes: more likely in children and young adults, proteinuria; red blood cell casts.
- Urological investigations: Urine culture, urine cytology, cystoscopy, renal ultrasonography and intravenous Urography and CT Urography.
Management of haematuria depends on the cause as determined by the urologist.