Causes and Treatment for Hematuria
Written and reviewed by
Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS), MS, MBBS
The presence of blood in urine is known as Hematuria. It is categorized under 2 types:
- Macroscopic haematuria, which means the patient has seen blood.
- Microscopic dipstick haematuria, which means blood is identified by urine microscopy or by dipstick testing either in association with other urological symptoms (symptomatic microscopic haematuria) or during a routine medical examination. It has been variably defined as 3 or more , 5 or more or 10 or more Red Blood Cells (RBCs) per high - power field.
Urological and other Causes of Haematuria
- Cancer: Bladder, Kidney and Prostate Cancer
- Stones: Kidney, Ureteric
- Bladder Infections: Bacterial tuberculosis, infective urethritis Inflammation
- Interstitial Cystitis Trauma : Kidney, bladder, urethra, pelvic fracture causing urethral rupture
- Renal cystic disease: (e.g. medullary sponge kidney)
- Other urological causes: Benign prostatic hyperplasia, vascular malformations
- Other medical causes of haematuria: anticoagulation therapy (e.g. asprin, antiplatelet therapy) Nephrological Causes: more likely in children and young adults, proteinuria; red blood cell casts.
- Urological investigations: Urine culture, urine cytology, cystoscopy, renal ultrasonography and intravenous Urography and CT Urography.
Management of haematuria depends on the cause as determined by the urologist.
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