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Haloperidol 5 MG Injection

Manufacturer: Sun Pharma Laboratories Ltd
Medicine composition: Haloperidol
Prescription vs.OTC: Prescription by Doctor required

Haloperidol 5 MG Injection is a medication that is used in the treatment of mental disorders such as mood behavior disorders, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders and hallucinations. It has also shown to reduce aggression and the desire to commit suicide or bring harm to others.

On using Haloperidol 5 MG Injection some side effects may occur which are; diarrhea, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, decrease in appetite, headache, stomach upset, restlessness and nausea. Seek help from your health care provider if the following severe side effects manifests and continues; allergic skin reactions, fuzzy vision, difficulty in speech, uncontrolled sweating, rapid heartbeat, trouble breathing, darkening of your urine, fever, stiffening of muscles, decreased libido, reduced sperm production and enlargement of breasts .

Take precaution by informing your physician if:

  • You are pregnant or thinking about becoming pregnant.
  • You are breastfeeding a baby.
  • You are under any kind of medication, prescriptive, over the counter, herbal, vitamins or dietary supplements.
  • You are allergic to any medicine or food.
  • You have a history of heart diseases.
  • You have porphyria or low blood pressure.
  • You have a history of dementia, Alzheimer disease or seizures.
  • You are alcoholic.

Haloperidol 5 MG Injection needs to be injected into your body. It should be done by trained hands. Do not buy the medication if it is discolored or slightly cloudy. If you miss one of your doses try to take it as soon as possible. But do not overdose by clubbing the two at the same time. When you are on Haloperidol 5 MG Injection do not drink alcohol. Avoid exposure to the sun or extreme heat. Keep this medication stored between 15 to 30 degrees C. It should be kept away from the reach of children.

Information given here is based on the salt and content of the medicine. Effect and uses of medicine may vary from person to person. It is advicable to consult a Neurologist before using this medicine.

Haloperidol 5 MG Injection is used in the treatment of Schizophrenia which is a brain disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, reduced speaking.

Tourette Syndrome

Haloperidol 5 MG Injection is used in the treatment of Tourette Syndrome which is a nervous system disorder characterized by unwanted sudden movements and sounds.
Not recommended in patients with known allergy to Haloperidol 5 MG Injection

Severe central nervous system depression

Not recommended in patients with depression, coma, and uncontrolled seizures disorder.
In addition to its intended effect, Haloperidol 5 MG Injection may cause some unwanted effects too. In such cases, you must seek medical attention immediately. This is not an exhaustive list of side effects. Please inform your doctor if you experience any adverse reaction to the medication.

Difficulty in swallowing

Major Common

Loss of balance control

Major Common

Muscle spasm

Major Common

Twisting of body parts

Major Common

Shaking of hands or feet

Major Common

Skin rash

Major Less Common

Dizziness

Major Less Common

Convulsions (seizures)

Major Rare

Fast heartbeat

Major Rare

Blurred vision

Minor Common

Constipation

Minor Common

Weight gain

Minor Common

How long is the duration of effect?

The effect of this medicine lasts for an average duration of 2 to 4 weeks

What is the onset of action?

The effect of this medicine can be observed in 30 to 60 minutes after an intravenous or intramuscular dose

Are there any pregnancy warnings?

This medicine is not recommended for pregnant women. Use only if clearly needed when no safer alternative is available.

Is it habit forming?

No habit forming tendency has been reported

Are there any breast-feeding warnings?

This medicine is known to be excreted in human breast milk. It is not recommended for breastfeeding women. Use only if clearly needed when no safer alternative is available.
Below is the list of medicines, which have the same composition, strength and form as Haloperidol 5 MG Injection , and hence can be used as its substitute.
Mankind Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Sun Pharma Laboratories Ltd
Rpg Life Sciences Ltd
Intas Pharmaceuticals Ltd

Missed Dose instructions

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it’s almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose. Do not double your dose to make up for the missed dose.

Overdose instructions

Seek emergency medical treatment or contact the doctor in case of an overdose.

India

United States

Japan

Haloperidol 5 MG Injection belongs to the class antipsychotics. It works by binding to the dopamine D2 receptors and inhibits the release of chemical substances thus helps in reducing the symptoms.
Whenever you take more than one medicine, or mix it with certain foods or beverages, you"re at risk of a drug interaction.

Interaction with Disease

Dementia

Major
This medicine is not recommended in the patients with dementia-related psychosis as it increases the risk of heart diseases like heart failure and infectious diseases like pneumonia. An alternate medicine should be considered based on the clinical condition.

Parkinson's disease

Major
This medicine is not recommended in patients with Parkinson's disease as it may worsen the disease. Inform your doctor if you experience any symptoms of slow body movements, tremors, and rigidity. An alternate class of medicine should be considered based on the clinical condition.

Interaction with Alcohol

Alcohol

Moderate
Consumption of alcohol with this medicine is not recommended as it can result in dizziness and difficulty in concentration. Avoid activities that need mental alertness like driving and operating machinery.

Interaction with Lab Test

Lab

Information not available.

Interaction with Food

Food

Information not available.

Interaction with Medicine

Clozapine

Major
Haloperidol 5 MG Injection is not recommended with clozapine due to increase risk of low blood pressure, dizziness, and irregular heart beat. Inform the doctor if you develop any undesired effects during the treatment. An alternate medicine should be considered based on the clinical condition.

Tramadol

Major
Tramadol may increase the risk of seizures when taken with Haloperidol 5 MG Injection. This interaction is more likely to happen in the elderly population, and in the patients with head injury. Inform the doctor if you are on either of the medicines. An alternate medicine should be considered based on the clinical condition.

Antihypertensives

Moderate
You may experience hypotensive effects like dizziness, lightheadedness if these medicines are used together. Regular monitoring of blood pressure is necessary. Appropriate dose adjustments or replacement of the medicine should be made under the doctor's supervision.

Levodopa

Moderate
Haloperidol 5 MG Injection may reduce the effect of levodopa. If coadministration is recommended monitoring of side effects like drowsiness, low blood pressure is necessary. Avoid operating heavy machinery and driving vehicle. Dose adjustments or an alternate medicine should be considered based on the clinical condition.
Disclaimer: The information produced here is best of our knowledge and experience and we have tried our best to make it as accurate and up-to-date as possible, but we would like to request that it should not be treated as a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Lybrate is a medium to provide our audience with the common information on medicines and does not guarantee its accuracy or exhaustiveness. Even if there is no mention of a warning for any drug or combination, it never means that we are claiming that the drug or combination is safe for consumption without any proper consultation with an expert.

Lybrate does not take responsibility for any aspect of medicines or treatments. If you have any doubts about your medication, we strongly recommend you to see a doctor immediately.

Popular Questions & Answers

I visited to a psychiatrist for my problem of depression, masturbation addiction and homosexual behaviour, he said that this is because of low serotonin levels in the brain. He prescribed me fluoxetine, haloperidol, etizolam, tablets. I want to know why my serotonin levels deplete after masturbation and I want to treat my homosexual behaviour completely although I have improved a lot.

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Sexologist, Delhi
I visited to a psychiatrist for my problem of depression, masturbation addiction and homosexual behaviour, he said th...
Don't worry, its very common problem in this age. First of all you have to make you busy in some work or studies or else you can join gym also and avoid watching porn video .Do meditation for mental strength daily to increase your focus and willpower to quit masturbation. Whenever thoughts of masturbation comes to your mind, replace these thoughts by good thoughts by saying or teaching your mind that these thoughts are not good for health and sex. Slowly and steadily, you will definitely win over masturbation. For more suggestion you can consult with us on Lybrate personally.
1 person found this helpful

Depression due to study. 10th class students. Last study at FIIT Jee, Delhi Now at Home, north east Bihar. From last 4-5 days there was completely no sleep. Haloperidol Injection I.P. 1 ml + Promethazine Hydrochloride Injection IP 2 ml = 2 times have been taken yet lorazepam = 1 time have been taken 20 hrs before (16-17 hrs he has slept continuously)

Masters In Clinical Psychology
Psychologist, Lucknow
Depression due to study.
10th class students.
Last study at FIIT Jee, Delhi
Now at Home, north east Bihar.
From last ...
Why is there depression. Tell him to talk about this with a mental health professional Consult with me or any psychologist for therapy and counseling Connect with me through text or audio on Lybrate app All the best.
1 person found this helpful

Popular Health Tips

Tourette's Syndrome - Best Treatment Options For It!

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Neurology
Neurologist, Chennai
Tourette's Syndrome - Best Treatment Options For It!

A problem in the nervous system which causes individuals to make sudden sounds or movements called tic is Tourette’s syndrome. These movements cannot be controlled by the patient. This syndrome usually starts in childhood and often stays in milder form for many even after they have reached adulthood. Many people can live without taking any kind of treatment for these tics, unless it really bothers them. Patients are often observed to start coughing or blinking their eyes uncontrollably when affected by this syndrome. They may be associated with obsessive compulsive disorder.

Symptoms of Tourette’s syndrome
Tourette’s syndrome often affects children but get better as they grow up. The symptoms of this syndrome are usually so mild that often they go unnoticed. Some of the common symptoms which are observed in patients are stress, excitement and getting tired and sick which can make the problem worse. The motor tics can make the patient blink continuously, twitch their mouth, shrug their shoulder or jerk their head and arm continuously. The symptoms of vocal tics often include yelping and barking, coughing, grunting or repeating something someone else has said, continuously. Shouting, swearing, and sniffing are also some of the vocal tics which may be caused by the Tourette’s syndrome.

What Causes the Problem?
This syndrome usually affects certain parts of the brain like the basal ganglia which control every other movement of the body. A trouble in the brain network is often suggested as the reason behind Tourette’s syndrome. A definite answer to why the problem occurs has not been established by experts yet, however, genes are believed to play a vital role in causing Tourette’s syndrome. People who have family members suffering from this problem are often at risk of being affected by the syndrome. However, the symptoms may vary from one person to another.

Treatment for Tourette’s syndrome
If you suspect your child of having Tourette’s syndrome, then a neurologist should be seen immediately. No special tests are held for the condition; however, imaging tests of your brain may be carried out by your doctor. CT scan and MRI are often suggested. Doctors may often recommend medications like Haloperidol, fluphenazine and pimozide among others to control these tics. However, very often the tics are very mild and do not need any medication at all.

A talk therapy along with ongoing medications might also be required for some patients as the psychologist may help your child in dealing with social issues which can be caused by these uncontrollable tics. Along with that, behavior therapy may also come in use for many.

 

4097 people found this helpful

Schizophrenia - Know The Different Types & Ways Of Treatment!

Schizophrenia - Know The Different Types & Ways Of Treatment!

Schizophrenia affects over 1% of the world’s population and affects the way a person thinks, feels and behaves. In most cases, it is diagnosed when a person is between the ages of 16 to 25. This condition can be hereditary and is said to affect men more often than women. Schizophrenia is characterized by an inability to distinguish between real and imaginary which can lead to delusions, social withdrawal, hallucinations and other forms of social and occupational dysfunction.

Schizophrenia affects different people in different ways. On the basis of the type of symptoms exhibited, this disease has been categorized into 5 sub types. These are:

  1. PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA: This type of schizophrenia is characterized by delusions and hallucinations that may make the person exhibit paranoid behaviour. These people often feel like they are being watched or followed and may have delusions of grandeur. They may also get angry quickly on minor issues and show signs of anxiety and hostility.
  2. DISORGANIZED SCHIZOPHRENIA: In such cases, the person may behave in ways that are difficult to understand or speak in broken sentences and have difficulty structuring a sentence. They may also display inappropriate behaviour and react in ways not suitable to the occasion. People suffering from disorganized schizophrenia may also neglect their personal hygiene.
  3. CATATONIC SCHIZOPHRENIA: People suffering from catatonic schizophrenia may swing between immobility and periods of rapid movement. They may stay quiet for hours or talk rapidly repeating everything they hear. These people have a high risk of harming themselves as they are usually unable to look after themselves and complete daily activities.
  4. UNDIFFERENTIATED SCHIZOPHRENIA: People suffering from this type of schizophrenia exhibit behaviour that fits into more than one type of schizophrenia. From time to time they may have hallucinations, suffer from delusions or display catatonic behaviour and disorganized behaviour or speech.
  5. RESIDUAL SCHIZOPHRENIA: Even though a person may not be currently showcasing any signs of schizophrenia, they are said to have residual schizophrenia. Such people need to have had at least one schizophrenic episode. These people may exhibit symptoms later or be in complete remission.

With schizophrenia, an early diagnosis can make treatment easier and hence if you notice anyone exhibiting signs of schizophrenia, you must advise them to seek medical help immediately.

Typical and Atypical Antipsychotic Agents

Commonly prescribed typical antipsychotics include:

Commonly prescribed atypical antipsychotics include:

Most psychotropic medications produce the best results when paired with some type of psychotherapy. Medication can be of great service in helping a person treat and overcome debilitating symptoms, but pills by themselves cannot address behaviors, emotions, and root causes of mental health issues. If you are prescribed an antipsychotic medication, please consider finding a therapist you trust to help you learn more about what you are experiencing and to help you develop coping strategies to improve the quality of your life.

Schizophrenia cannot be cured but it can be managed with a combination of typical or atypical medication and cognitive therapy. The latter can be in the form of self-help groups, housing and employment programs, counselling and therapy.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4171 people found this helpful

Erectile dysfunction

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Mohali
Erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction

Alternative names
Impotence; ed
Erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ed), formerly called impotence, can affect men of all ages although it is much more common among older men. It is normal for healthy men of all ages to occasionally experience erectile dysfunction. However, if the problem becomes chronic, it can have adverse effects on relationships, emotional health, and self-esteem. Erectile dysfunction may also be a symptom of an underlying health condition. If erectile dysfunction becomes an on-going problem, it is important to talk to your doctor.

Causes of erectile dysfunction

Physical causes are the main reasons for erectile dysfunction. They include heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, neurological disease, medication side effects, and other health conditions.
Psychological causes of erectile dysfunction include anxiety, depression, stress, and problems in relationships.
Lifestyle factors that increase the risk for erectile dysfunction include smoking, alcohol use, and other substance abuse.
Introduction

Erectile dysfunction (formerly called impotence) is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficiently rigid for sexual intercourse. Sexual drive and the ability to have an orgasm are not necessarily affected. Because all men have erection problems from time to time, doctors diagnose erectile dysfunction if a man fails to maintain an erection satisfactory for intercourse on at least 25% of attempts.

Erectile dysfunction is not new in either medicine or human experience, but it is not easily or openly discussed. Cultural expectations of male sexuality inhibit many men from seeking help for a disorder that can usually benefit from medical treatment.

The penis and erectile function

The structure of the penis. The penis is composed of the following structures:

Two parallel columns of spongy tissue called the corpus cavernosa, or erectile bodies.
A central spongy chamber called the corpus spongiosum, which contains the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder through the penis.
These structures are made up of erectile tissue. Erectile tissue is rich in tiny pools of blood vessels called cavernous sinuses. Each of these vessels is surrounded by smooth muscles and supported by elastic fibrous tissue composed of a protein called collagen.

Erectile function and nitric oxide. The penis is either flaccid or erect depending on the state of arousal. In the flaccid, or unerect, penis, the following normally occurs:

Small arteries leading to the cavernous sinuses contract, reducing the inflow of blood.
The smooth muscles regulating the many tiny blood vessels also stay contracted, limiting the amount of blood that can collect in the penis.
During arousal, the following occurs:

The man's central nervous system stimulates the release of a number of chemicals, including nitric oxide, which is essential for producing and maintaining an erection.
Nitric oxide stimulates the production of cyclic GMP, a chemical that relaxes the smooth muscles in the penis. This allows blood to flow into the tiny pool-like cavernous sinuses, flooding the penis.
This increased blood flow nearly doubles the diameter of the spongy chambers.
The veins surrounding the chambers are squeezed almost completely shut by this pressure.
The veins are unable to drain blood out of the penis and so the penis becomes rigid and erect.
After ejaculation or climax, cyclic GMP is broken down by an enzyme called phosphodiesterase-5 (pde5), causing the penis to become flaccid (unerect) again.
Important substances for erectile health

A proper balance of certain chemicals, gases, and other substances is critical for erectile health.

Collagen. The protein collagen is the major component in structural tissue in the body, including in the penis. Excessive amounts, however, form scar tissue, which can impair erectile function.

Oxygen. Oxygen-rich blood is one of the most important components for erectile health. Oxygen levels vary widely from reduced levels in the flaccid state to very high in the erect state. During sleep, a man can normally have three to five erections per night, bringing oxygen-rich blood to the penis. The primary cause of oxygen deprivation is ischemia -- the blockage of blood vessels. The same blood flow-reducing conditions that lead to heart disease, such as atherosclerosis, may also contribute to erectile dysfunction.

Testosterone and other hormones. Normal levels of hormones, especially testosterone, are essential for erectile function, though their exact role is not clear.

Causes

Over the past decades, the medical perspective on the causes of erectile dysfunction has shifted. Common belief used to attribute almost all cases of ed to psychological factors. Now doctors believe that up to 85% of ed cases are caused by medical or physical problems. Only 15% are completely psychologically based. Sometimes, erectile dysfunction is due to a combination of physical and psychological causes.

A number of medical conditions share a common problem with erectile dysfunction -- the impaired ability of blood vessels to open and allow normal blood flow.

Heart disease, atherosclerosis, and high blood pressure

Heart disease, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol levels are major risk factors for erectile dysfunction. In fact, erectile problems may be a warning sign of these conditions in men at risk for atherosclerosis. Men who experience ed have a greater risk for angina, heart attack, or stroke.

Erectile dysfunction is a very common problem in men with high blood pressure. Many of the drugs used to treat hypertension (such as calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers) may also cause ed.

Diabetes

Diabetes is a major risk factor for erectile dysfunction. Blood vessel and nerve damage are both common complications of diabetes. When the blood vessels or nerves of the penis are involved, erectile dysfunction can result. Diabetes is also associated with heart disease and chronic kidney disease, other risk factors for ed.

Obesity

Obesity increases the risk for diabetes, heart disease, and erectile dysfunction.

Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome -- a cluster of conditions that includes obesity and abdominal fat, unhealthy cholesterol and triglyceride levels, high blood pressure, and insulin resistance -- is also a risk factor for erectile dysfunction in men older than 50 years.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Although benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH or 'enlarged prostate') does not cause erectile dysfunction, surgical and drug treatments for the condition can increase the risk for erectile dysfunction.

Neurologic conditions

Diseases that affect the central nervous system can cause erectile dysfunction. These conditions include Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke.

Endocrinologic and hormonal conditions


Low levels of the male hormone testosterone can be a contributing factor to erectile dysfunction in men who have other risk factors. (low testosterone as the sole cause of erectile dysfunction affects only about 5% of men. In general, low testosterone levels are more likely to reduce sexual desire than to cause ed.) abnormalities of the pituitary gland that cause high levels of the hormone prolactin are also associated with erectile dysfunction. Other hormonal and endocrinologic causes of erectile dysfunction include thyroid and adrenal gland problems.

Physical trauma and injury

Spinal cord injury and pelvic trauma, such as a pelvic fracture, can cause nerve damage that results in ed. Other conditions that can injure the spine and cause erectile dysfunction include spinal cord tumors, spina bifida, and a history of polio.

Surgery

Surgery for prostate diseases. Radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer often causes loss of sexual function but nerve-sparing surgical procedures reduce the risk of ed. (radiation treatments for prostate cancer also cause erectile dysfunction.) surgical treatments for BPH can also cause ed, but this complication is relatively uncommon.

Surgery for colon and rectal cancers. Surgical and radiation treatments for colorectal cancers can cause ed in some patients. In general, colostomy does not usually affect sexual function. However, wide rectal surgery can cause short-term or long-term sexual dysfunction.

Fistula surgery. Surgery to repair anal fistulas can affect the muscles that control the rectum (external anal sphincter muscles), sometimes causing ed. (repair of these muscles may restore erectile function.)

Orthopedic surgery. Erectile dysfunction can sometimes result from orthopedic surgery that affects pelvic nerves.

Note: vasectomy does not cause erectile dysfunction.

Medications

Many medications increase the risk for erectile dysfunction. They include:

High blood pressure medications, particularly diuretics, beta-blockers, and calcium channel blockers.
Heart or cholesterol medications such as digoxin, gemfibrozil, or clofibrate.
Finasteride (Proscar, generic) and dutasteride (Avodart), which are used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A lower-dose form of finasteride (Propecia), which is used to treat male pattern baldness, may also cause ed. Erectile dysfunction may persist even after these medications are stopped.
Psychotropic medication used to treat depression and bipolar disorder such as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and lithium. Certain types of antipsychotic medication, such as phenothiazines (like Compazine) and butyrophenones (like haloperidol), can also cause erectile dysfunction.
Gastroesophagelal reflux disorder (gerd) medications, used to reduce stomach acids, such as rantidine (Zantac) and cimetidine (Tagamet).
Hormone drugs such as estrogens, corticosteroids, and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors.
Chemotherapy drugs such as methotrexate.
Psychological causes

Anxiety. Anxiety has both emotional and physical consequences that can affect erectile function. It is among the most frequently cited contributors to psychological ed.

Stress. Even simple stress can affect sexual dysfunction.

Depression. Depression can reduce sexual desire and is associated with erectile dysfunction.

Relationship problems. Troubles in relationships often have a direct impact on sexual functioning.

Risk factors

Age

For most men, erectile dysfunction is primarily associated with older age. Nevertheless, ed is not inevitable with age. Severe erectile dysfunction often has more to do with age-related disease than age itself. In particular, older men are more likely to have heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure than younger men. Such conditions and some of their treatments are causes of erectile dysfunction.

Lifestyle factors

Smoking. Smoking contributes to the development of erectile dysfunction, mainly because it increases the effects of other blood vessel disorders, including high blood pressure and atherosclerosis.

Alcohol use. Heavy drinking can cause erectile dysfunction. Alcohol depresses the central nervous system and impairs sexual function.

Drug abuse. Illicit drugs such as heroin, cocaine, methamphetamines, and marijuana can affect sexual function.

Weight and sedentary lifestyle. Obesity is a risk factor for erectile dysfunction. Lack of exercise and a sedentary lifestyle can lead to obesity and other health problems associated with erectile dysfunction.

Diagnosis

The doctor typically interviews the patient about various physical and psychological factors and performs a physical exam.

Medical history

The doctor will ask about:

Past and present medical conditions, surgeries, and medications
Any history of psychological problems, including stress, anxiety, or depression
Lifestyle factors such as alcohol, drug, and dietary supplement use
In addition, the doctor will ask about your sexual history, which may include:

When problems with sexual function began
The frequency, quality, and duration of any erections, including erections that occur during sleep or on awakening in the morning
The specific circumstances when erectile dysfunction occurs
Details of sexual technique
Whether problems exist in the current relationship
If appropriate, the doctor may also interview the sexual partner.

Physical examination

The doctor will perform a physical exam, including examination of the genital area and a digital rectal examination (the doctor inserts a gloved and lubricated finger into the patient's rectum) to check for prostate abnormalities. It is important to check blood pressure and to evaluate circulation by checking pulses in the legs.

Laboratory tests

Because erectile dysfunction and atherosclerosis are often linked, it is important to check cholesterol levels. Similarly, the doctor may order tests for blood sugar (glucose) levels to check if diabetes is a factor. In some cases, blood tests may be used to measure testosterone levels to determine if there are hormone problems. The doctor may also screen for thyroid and adrenal gland dysfunction. For more sophisticated tests, the doctor may refer the patient to a urologist.

Treatment

Many physical and psychological situations can cause erectile dysfunction, and brief periods of ed are normal. Every man experiences erectile dysfunction from time to time. Nevertheless, if the problem is persistent, men should seek professional help, particularly since erectile dysfunction is usually treatable and may also be a symptom of an underlying health problem. It is important to treat any medical condition that may be causing erectile dysfunction.

15 people found this helpful

Schizophrenia - Symptoms, Causes, Treatment And Prevention!

MBBS
Internal Medicine Specialist, Delhi

Schizophrenia:

Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that leads people to interpret reality in an abnormal way. People with Schizophrenia experience hallucinations, get false illusions, and display an unusually disordered behaviour, which negatively impacts their daily life .

Schizophrenia is a serious condition that requires treatment for a lifetime. Early diagnosis and treatment can keep symptoms under control and prevent any serious complications from building up.

Symptoms:

Schizophrenia is mainly associated with cognitive problems that is exhibited in a person's daily behavior or state of emotions. Though there may be difference in signs and symptoms across patients, but it majorly involves hallucinations, delusions, disordered speech, and impaired body  functionalities. Common symptoms are:


- Delusions. These are false conceptions and interpretations of reality. For instance, a person with schizophrenia can have various delusions. He might think that he is targeted or harassed; he has supernatural abilities or power; he remembers his past life; or a huge tragedy is going to happen.
- Hallucinations. People with schizophrenia  may see or hear things that do not exist. Such hallucinations have a powerful force and feel like a normal experience. Hallucinations can impact all the senses, but most commonly it is associated with hearing strange voices.
- Disordered thought (speech).Schizophrenia affects the cognitive abilities of a person. Often, it results in impaired speech ability and meaningless communication.  People experiencing this ask questions that are partially or totally unrelated. Their speech is broken and without any clear sense or meaning.
- Highly disoriented motor behavior. Schizophrenia might lead people to behave weirdly. Sometimes, they may show childlike absurdity to episodic aggressiveness. The behavior is erratic and without any intention. You may notice people suffering with schizophrenia showing resistance to instructions, improper or eccentric posture, irresponsible reactions , or silly and unnecessary movement.
- Negative/withdrawal symptoms. This happens when there a person shows lessened or resistance to function normally. For instance, the person may disregard personal hygiene or be immune to any kind of emotion; does not respond to eye contact, shows no facial expressions or talks in a monotone). The person may withdraw himself from the society and refuse to part take in daily activities. Such persons are incapable of finding happiness in any thing and remain negative towards life.
Symptoms differ in form and severity and may change over time, sometimes with worsening show of symptoms and sometimes showing reduced impact. However, they do not go completely.
Men with schizophrenia may show signs of the disorder in the early to mid-20s. Women start displaying the impact of the mental condition during their late 20s. The mental illness is rare in children and those who are aged 45 and above.

Symptoms in teenagers

Teenagers with Schizophrenia may have symptoms same as that of adults, though  it might be difficult to identify the condition in teenagers as in adults . This is because a few of the early signs of schizophrenia in teenagers are usually the same as seen during the typical growth in teen years and noticeable change in behavior, like:

- Withdrawal or secrecy from friends and family
- A low performance in studies
- Difficulty in sleeping
- Irritability or erratic mood
- loss of motivation
In comparison to adults with schizophrenia, teens may not have symptoms like delusions. But teens  might have visual hallucinations.

Causes

The real or exact cause of schizophrenia is not known. However, according to various researches and studies, a variety of factors like genetics, brain chemicals and external surroundings may lead to the  development of the mental disorder.

It is believed that difficulties associated with some naturally occurring brain chemicals, like neurotransmitters called dopamine and glutamate, may develop into schizophrenia. According to neuroimaging studies, there are visible differences in the chemical component and structure of brain and certain imbalances in the central nervous system of people diagnosed with schizophrenia. Though researchers are not sure whether these changes or differences are of any significance, yet they stress that schizophrenia is a brain disorder.

Risk factors

The exact cause of schizophrenia is unknown, but there are some factors that may increase the risk of developing or inhibiting this mental disorder called schizophrenia. They are as follows:

- A known family history of schizophrenia

- Heightened immune system activation, emanating from inflammation or autoimmune diseases

- very old age of the father

- Few pregnancy and birth related complications, like malnutrition or vulnerability to toxins or certain viruses that negatively affect brain development

- Certain cognitive (psychoactive or psychotropic) drugs taken during teenage and adolescence period

Complications

If not treated, schizophrenia can lead to serious problems that hamper the day to day life. Complications associated with schizophrenia may be as follows:

- Suicidal thoughts and attempts of suicide

- harming and injuring self

- Anxiety disorders

- Depressive nature

- Alcohol or harmful drug intake, excessive tobacco use

- obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

- low attention span at school and in studies

- problems understanding legal and financial issues

- Social withdrawal

- Health and medical issues

- homelessness

- Feeling victimized

- Sporadic bursts of aggressive or bizarre behavior

Diagnosis

A proper diagnosis of schizophrenia will involve looking out for and ruling out any other mental state illness and determining whether symptoms are  due to drug abuse, excessive alcohol intake, substance abuse or any other health condition. Determining a diagnosis of schizophrenia may include:

- Physical diagnosis. This is necessary to find and rule out any other issues behind the occurrence of the said symptoms and to determine any near complications.

- Clinical Tests and exams. All such tests and screenings may be done to aid ruling out similar symptoms for other medical conditions and checking for alcohol and drug abuse. The physician may call out for an MRI or a CT scan.

- Psychiatric evaluation. A person with symptoms of schizophrenia  may be checked upon by a psychiatric or mental health professional for determining the mental order of the patient. The doctor will check the physical behavior and emotional conduct and discuss  the patient's thoughts, mental state, experiences of delusions, hallucinations, drug abuse, and chances of for aggressive moments or suicidal attempts. This even involves finding out family and personal history of similar conditions .

Treatment

Schizophrenia is a severe mental condition that necessities lifelong treatment, even though symptoms may subside. Medical attention and treatment coupled with psycho-social therapy can help keep the condition under control. In few cases, hospitalization might be necessary.

Treatment involves regular consultation with a psychiatrist having experience in dealing with  patients of schizophrenia . Apart from that, the patient will require a social worker, a psychiatric nurse and often a case manager to manage the overall treatment and care. Treatment of schizophrenia involves a full-fledged team approach with expert clinical experience.

Medication

No patient diagnosed with schizophrenia can be treated without medications. Most commonly, antipsychotic medications are prescribed. They are meant to control common symptoms by impacting the brain neurotransmitter dopamine. Medications for schizophrenia are known to have various  side effects, so patients of schizophrenia often refuse to take them. Often, there is reluctance to such medications and long-term treatment.

First-generation antipsychotics: TSuch antipsychotics are known to have frequent and highly significant neurological side effects that sometimes may lead to a motor disorder (tardive dyskinesia). This condition is non-reversible and dangerous. The most commonly prescribed first-generation antipsychotics include:

- Perphenazine

- Chlorpromazine

- Haloperidol

- Fluphenazine

Second-generation antipsychotics: These are comparitively newer and safer medications that are usually preferred by many doctors. They have lower risks and possibilities of side effects as compared to  first-generation antipsychotics. The common second-generation antipsychotics are:

- Asenapine (Saphris)

- Cariprazine (Vraylar)

- Iloperidone (Fanapt)

- Lurasidone (Latuda)

- Olanzapine (Zyprexa)

- Brexpiprazole (Rexulti)

- Quetiapine (Seroquel)

- Aripiprazole (Abilify)

- Ziprasidone (Geodon)

- Paliperidone (Invega)

- Risperidone (Risperdal)

Prevention

There is no sure formula to prevent schizophrenia, but continuing with the treatment can help manage and control the disease from worsening or aggravating. Apart from this, one can try and know the risk factors for schizophrenia to call for early diagnosis and treatment.

Myths

Myth 1: People with schizophrenia are harmful and dangerous to be around.

Fact: There may be times when people with schizophrenia act erratically or behave weird, but  generally very few are violent. Moreover, people undergoing treatment are less likely to be violent. If people with this mental disorder turn violent, it is because of an underlying condition, such as childhood behavior issues or substance abuse.

Myth 2: Lack of good parenting causes schizophrenia.

Fact: Schizophrenia is a brain related illness. It has unknown causes. Various factors like genes, tragedy-aftereffect, and drug abuse can trigger the disease. Parenting has nothing to do with the development of the disorder.

Myth 3: People with schizophrenia should be admitted in a mental hospital.

Fact: It is not true completely. There are a few cases where patients need to stay at a meental health facility. Commonly, patients of schizophrenia stay with family or in supportive facilities within the society.

Myth 4: A person can never recover from Schizophrenia.

Fact: Schizophrenia is a long term illness, but nothing is impossible. With proper treatment,  medications and psychiatric therapy, it is possible that around 25% of people suffering from the disorder will recover . Again, about 50% cases show improvement in their symptoms. With managed care, people with Schizophrenia can live fully normal lives.

Myth 5: Schizophrenia is like having a split personality.

Fact: This is the most common myth about schizophrenia. A split personality is a condition medically termed as Dissociative Identity Disorder or a Multiple Personality Disorder.  There are rare cases of MPD or DID. But, Schizophrenia is a cognitive illness, relating to the thinking ability of a person and is vastly different from the split personality disorder.

FAQs

Question 1: What are the different types of Schizophrenia?

Answer: The following are the different forms or types of schizophrenia:

- Paranoid schizophrenia

- Schizoaffective disorder

- Residual schizophrenia

- Disorganized schizophrenia

FAQ:

Question 2: Is Schizophrenia curable?

Answer: Not exactly. There is no permanent cure for schizophrenia but one can get treated for the same.  With proper care and treatment, psychiatric therapy and social rehabilitation, people with Schizophrenia can lead a fully normal life.

Question 3: Can substance abuse  cause Schizophrenia ?

Answer: Not known. Schizophrenia is a mental condition that is still under research and studies. The causes of it are not yet fully deciphered. There are a variety of factors including genetics, environment and other substance and drug abuse factors that can lead to the disorder. Some people  are born with problems in the brain chemicals, which can get accentuated or triggered by substance abuse.

Question 4: What is the future of people with the disorder?

Answer: Though significant developments have been made in research and studies on schizophrenia but still it is not clear why some patients have worsening symptoms than others;  why some patients do not recover fast and why some people fail to respond to the given treatment and medication. However, there are also positive results in many cases where people have responded well and recovered with the right treatment, rehabilitation, and social support and care.

Question 5: Are Schizophrenia Patients Depressed?

Answer: Depression is common in patients  with schizophrenia. In fact, depression is a primary effect that is seen in schizophrenic patients. About 80% of people with this mental disorder get notable depressive attacks.

Question 6: Are there any chances of relapse?

Answer: Medication can help control symptoms to an extent; however, there is no guarantee that a relapse will not occur. Though majority of the medications are known to lessen the occurrences of relapse by up to 80%. TO counterfeit, doctors prescribe secondary medications that are particularly meant to control depression, anxiety, or psychological attacks.

Question 7: Is there any therapy apart from medicinal treatment?

Answer: Yes, additional therapy is necessary . Support and counseling from family and society  works like psychotherapy. Sessions of psychotherapy usually stress the emotive and functional effects of the illness, and how the family and near ones can help in managing the illness. The therapy involves discussion over the signs and symptoms of the disorder, the nature of relapse, the role of sticking to medicines and the possible side-effects, recognizing and living with the symptoms, behavior with family members or colleagues, or continuing with a job or school. There are many programs designed specifically to address rehabilitation and practical abilities.

Question 8: Is it possible for a person with schizophrenia to lead a "normal" life?

Answer: If appropriate treatment, social rehabilitation, psychotherapy and adequate family support is provided, it is easier to manage and control symptoms in schizophrenic patients. There are many examples of people leading an independent life with families,  routine jobs, and social involvement.

Question 9: How to manage depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients?

Answer: To help patients manage depressive symptoms of Schizophrenia, you can do the following:

- Mingle and involve with them rather than leaving them alone.

- Put them on an antidepressant drug after consulting with their doctor managing their disorder.

- Supplement their medication with proper nutritional diet.

- Help them engage in regular physical exercise.

- In cases of  severe depression, consult with their psychiatric for electroconvulsive therapy or transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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