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Male Infertility

Written and reviewed by
M.Sc, MD, MBBS
IVF Specialist, Delhi  •  34 years experience
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Hi,

I am Dr. Nalini Gupta. Today I will talk about male infertility. Male infertility means the factors which are responsible for causing the failure of conception. We all know the definition of infertility. We label it infertility when a couple is unable to conceive after 1 year of unprotected sex. 1/3 problem is because of both male and female. Male fertility is one of the least discussed problems. Aaj hum discuss karenge about diagnosis and several options available for treating factors responsible for male infertility. Let's understand the basic reproductive system of a man. A brief introduction about spermatogenesis. This is the process through which the sperms are formed. Sperms are formed in an organ called as testis. Testis humare body se thode se bahar ki taraf hote hain. Why is it so important? Nature has designed it so that the temperature of the testis is a little bit lesser than the body. So, wearing very tight under clothing, having very hot showers for a very long time may affect the sperm count. Till recent times, semen analysis was the only parameter with which we use to access male infertility.

defines the criteria of a semen analysis to define what is normal and what is not. According to that the normal semen analysis 15 million counts per ML with 32% of progressive modality and at least 4% normal with these criteria. Oligospermia shows that the count is less. Asthenospermia shows the modality is less and teratozoospermia shows that the normal forms are less. And in all 3 parameters can be little disturbed. And then the term generally people find the diagnosis oligospermia azoospermia which shows the number, as well as the mortality and normal forms, are less in that. Revotionalise approach has been taken in this for fertility. As we all know that the brief introduction to the history of blastocyst technique, IVF was discovered for the first time and the first baby was born in 1978. Till the time there was no much to help in reproductive technique to help male partner. Then ICSI and revolutionize the area of fertility. The first baby was born with ICSI in 1992. There is a lot of up-gradation which has happened in ICSI. It helps male patients with very less sperm count even then having their own biological child if possible.

In this, the sperms are selected and one selected sperm is injected. Because of ICSI even the people where the sperms were not present, will have the biological child. In this, we give the treatment surgically or minor surgical procedures. Sometimes, according to the case, the sperm can be retrieved from the testicular biopsy or by the extraction. In some cases, micro these can be done which is even more involved process and involves a microscope. It is done under high magnification under a microscope. As the time pass, we realize the ICSI was not the ultimate answer to everything because selecting the sperm was the most important thing. For a healthy pregnancy, the sperm in the male part has to be physiologically and morphologically normal. To select the physiologically normal sperm, the procedure is available is ICSI. It can be done in the patients who have low mortality sperm count but with normal morphology. In cases, where there is repeated IVF failure, here ICSI ca give us an edge to achieve pregnancy. These are a few cases, where ICSI can be helpful.

After that let's talk about which helps us in selecting sperm better morphologically which means it is more normal. Normal sperm is really important because sperm is a cell created by nature. The only thing is to transfer from a male partner to a female partner. It is the most sufficient cell in the body. Abnormality of the sperm can really play a role in infertility and early abortions In such cases, ICSI helps us. ICIS helps us in selecting normal sperm because it gives us magnification more than 2000 times. So, we can create a pool of better morphology and better sperm. It gives us positive and better results. Now where the ICSI plays the role. ICSI plays a major role in a little higher age group where the abnormal sperms are more where there are more recurrent failure or abortions. There ICSI gives the advantage of 70%. These help us in giving better advantages in infertility.

Other than this we also need to discuss the advantage of other lifestyle factors which can also affect fertility to some extent, in fact, a large extent. So, everyone should focus on their lifestyle. Avoid smoking. Smoking affects semen and DNA. It will give more DNA damage and will affect mortality. Drinking too much, drugs, steroid abuse, cause infertility. Lifestyle has to be healthy. Stress has to be in control. At least, have a balanced lifestyle. balanced food, balanced exercises and please try to be happy.

Thank You!

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