Hip arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which doctors view the joint problem without making any cuts through the skin and other soft tissues. Hip Arthroscopy is performed to treat several hip problems.
In Hip Arthroscopy, the doctors insert an arthroscope (a small camera) into the hip joint. The pictures are displayed on a video monitor with the help of an arthroscope. The surgeons will use these images to guide the surgical instrument.
As the surgical instrument and arthroscope are very thin, the surgeons make a very small incision compared to the one that is done in open surgery. As a result, patients feel less pain and stiffness in joints. This type of surgery also takes less time to recover and one can return to their normal life within a short period of time.
The hip is a socket and ball joint. The socket is formed by a part of a large pelvis bone called acetabulum. The ball joint is on the upper end of the femur (thighbone). Articular cartilage is a slippery tissue that covers the surface of the socket and ball. It creates a frictionless and smooth surface that helps the bones to glide across each other easily. Strong fibrocartilage is ringed on the acetabulum called labrum. It creates a gasket around the socket.
The joint is surrounded by a ligament, which creates a capsule to hold the joint together. The inner surface of the capsule is lined by a membrane called synovium. It produces a synovial fluid that helps in lubricating the joints.
When to Recommend Hip Arthroscopy?
If a person is suffering from chronic pain and does not respond to any other nonsurgical treatment, including physical therapy and medication, doctors may recommend a person opt for hip arthroscopy.
Hip arthroscopy helps a person to get relief from many problems that cause painful symptoms including damaged articular cartilage, labrum, or other soft tissues. The damage can be the result of any form of injury. However, there are other orthopedic conditions that can also lead to damage. The orthopedic conditions include:
Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI):
In this type of disorder, an extra bone is developed on the femoral head (cam impingement) or along the acetabulum (pincer impingement). The overgrowth of the bone is known as spurs that damage the soft tissues surrounding the hip joint. In most cases, the bone spurs develop in either part. However, there are cases in which the bone spurs develop in both femoral head and acetabulum.
In this condition, the hip socket is abnormally shallow. Due to this problem, more stress is put on the labrum in order to keep the femoral head within the socket. This may raise the condition of the labral tear.
Snapping Hip Syndrome:
In this condition, the tendon rubs across the hip joint repeatedly. This type of popping or snapping is generally harmless and can be repaired without any treatment. However, the tendon may be fully damaged due to continuous rubbing in some cases.
Other conditions where hip arthroscopy is recommended include synovitis, hip joint infection, and labral tear.
Arthroscopic Femoroacetabular Surgery:
If the diagnosis results show that damage is caused by femoroacetabular impingement and a patient is not getting relieved from pain by any nonsurgical method, doctors recommend going for Arthroscopic Femoroacetabular Surgery.
In this type of surgery, the doctor repair and clear out the damage of the articular cartilage and labrum. He may also trim the rim of the acetabulum bone and shave the bump of the femoral head.
Arthroscopic Labral Repair:
If patients are not getting relief from conservative treatment, doctors recommend Arthroscopic Labral Repair. In this type of surgery, surgeons cut out and remove the damaged or torn part of the labrum. He further repairs the torn part by sewing it.
Both treatment methods are minimal incision processes and require fewer hospital stays. However, it is always advisable to consult a doctor before opting for any treatment.