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Last Updated: Jan 10, 2023

Glaucoma - A Complete Guide on It!

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Dr. Satish PandeyOphthalmologist • 47 Years Exp.MS - Ophthalmology, MBBS
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Glaucoma is a serious eye condition in which the optic nerve gets damaged and the situation gets worse over time. If untreated, individuals may go permanently blind. Most individuals, with glaucoma, have no previous symptoms or warning signs of this disorder and this is the reason why it is important to have regular eye check-ups.

Causes of glaucoma
Eyes have a liquid called aqueous humor. This fluid flows out of the eyes through mesh like channels for proper lubrication of the eye. However, there can be situations in which these channels may get blocked. In such a case, there would be a build-up of this liquid, thereby causing an increase in fluid pressure. This is usually a major cause of glaucoma. Although there has been no elaborate evidence of what exactly causes this blockage, doctors have noticed that this can be inherited.

Other less common causes include:

  1. Any sort of blunt injury or chemical injury to the eye
  2. Blocking of blood vessels inside the eye
  3. Other inflammatory conditions
  4. Improper eye surgery

Types of glaucoma
There are mainly two kinds of glaucoma than can occur:

  1. Open-angle glaucoma: This is the most common kind of glaucoma and is also called wide-angled glaucoma. In this kind, the tubular meshwork through which the liquid flow occurs is normal. However, the fluid flow isn’t the way it should be.
  2. Angle-closure glaucoma: This is also known as acute glaucoma or chronic angle closure. In this case, the liquid is not able to drain properly because of the angle between the iris and the cornea being too narrow, thus causing the iris to be in the way. This can cause a sudden build-up of pressure, thereby leading to chronic glaucoma.

Facts about glaucoma

  1. This disorder usually has no previous signs or symptoms and occurs all of a sudden.
  2. This disorder mainly affects individuals above 40 years of age.
  3. Glaucoma can be inherited.
  4. People with diabetes have chances of suffering from glaucoma.
  5. If not treated early, it may lead to permanent blindness.

Symptoms of glaucoma
Usually there aren’t many symptoms to warn people about this disorder. However, one of the first signs is definitely losing peripheral or side vision. Other symptoms might include

  1. Chronic vision loss
  2. Visibility of halo around lights
  3. Narrowed vision

Glaucoma is treated by any of the three methods:

  1. Prescription eye drops in order to reduce eye fluid formation, thereby resulting in outflow increase
  2. Laser surgery
  3. Microsurgery

If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ophthalmologist.


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