In our bodies, the vascular system is composed of vessels. This system is comprised of a complex network of veins and arteries. The arteries transport oxygenated blood away from the heart and spread it throughout our bodies and veins brings the deoxygenated blood (oxygen-poor) back to the heart for purification. Whenever this complicated process gets disturbed, pain, dysfunction of the system, and other complications may occur.
Most common complications among all are:
1. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: This condition is when there is a “bulge” formed in the weak area of the largest artery in the abdomen and keeps on increasing with each pressure flow of blood from that artery. This condition weakens the artery further and massive internal bleeding may occur.
2. Carotid Artery Disease - Stroke: This condition arises when the main blood vessels flowing blood to the brain develops a plague caused due to hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). The continuous increase of plague can cause a stroke.
3. Peripheral Arterial Disease: This condition occurs when the flow of oxygen-rich blood is insufficient to the lower limbs of the body due to hardening of the arteries in that area. This can cause difficulty in walking, foot ulcers, infections and can even lead to amputation.
The complication of these types are corrected by the vascular surgeon with the process is commonly known as vascular surgery. However, this condition is sometimes medically managed by an innovative, less invasive procedure called Endovascular surgery.
Vascular surgery is generally the traditional surgery that corrects the diseases outside of the heart and the brain. This procedure is more invasive as it involves incisions that are surgical in nature. Vascular surgery comprises of the surgery of the aorta, carotid arteries, and other small diametric arteries. This surgery also involves surgery of veins for treating various conditions such as varicose veins and May-Thurner syndrome.
However, this type of surgery is an innovative way to treat medical conditions related to the vascular system. For instance, during the procedure of treating the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, it involves making a small cut near the hip area and inserting the endovascular graft through the arteries and is positioned inside the aorta, in a catheter, which is a flexible, long, and narrow tube. The endovascular graft is a tube device made up of special fiber and is framed within stainless steel self-expanding stents. The grafts expand and seal off the aneurysm. This stops the internal bleeding the system and the graft remain in the aorta permanently.
This method has a short recovery time, smaller incisions, less discomfort, less stress on the heart and has fewer risks. This surgery is appropriate for the patient who is at high
risk of complications.
Diseases related to artery and veins are now being treated with various methods such as angiography, stenting, sclerotherapy in various countries. These days vascular surgeons have become proficient with the endovascular surgical methods. Endovascular surgery is durable and less painful and stressful when viewed with the context of vascular surgery. However, the cost of staying longer at the hospitals is somewhat got balanced by the high cost of imaging equipment and other high financial expenses in the endovascular surgery.