1. Upper GI bleeding: Vomiting of blood, coffee-coloured vomitus, or the passing of black stools is called Hematemesis. It is a medical emergency and requires urgent admission to hospital and evaluation by a gastroenterologist. Medical stabilisation by medicines to stop bleeding and blood transfusion are required initially. Gastroscopy is required for finding the cause of bleeding as well as treatment. Gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer requires injection adrenaline or hemoclips. Esophageal varices require Banding (Endoscopic variceal ligation EVL) and bleeding from Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) require Argon plasma coagulation. Severe variceal bleeding requires Metal stenting (Covered SEMS Dennis Ella stent). Occasional If the endoscopy is not able to control the bleeding the patient requires Surgery or Interventional Radiologist for further management. New clips such as OVESCO are very effective for ulcer bleeding. Gastric Varices require GLUE injection or Endosonography guided coil embolisation.
2. Lower GI bleeding: Bleeding through motions is called lower GI bleeding and can be due to Ulcers, cancers, Angioectasia, Polyps, Diverticulitis, Varices, Piles, Fissures, etc. Urgent colonoscopy is required to find the cause of bleeding. Depending on the cause, specific treatment is given by gastroenterologists.