Majority of bone tumours are benign, meaning they are localised and do not spread. Since benign tumours do not metastasize, they are not forms of cancer. Despite not being malignant, the severity of their presence should not be ignored as they may cause a lot of pain and lead to other problems such as damaged bones and fractures.
Benign Bone Tumours
- Osteochondromas: These form over 40 per cent of all benign bone tumours. They are mostly found in children and teenagers. Osteochondroma is a growth abnormality and they are found in the growing ends of long bones. An osteochondroma might grow separately or might be accompanied by other similar tumours.
- Osteoclastomas: They are also called giant cell tumours of the bone. They are common and are found in the epiphysis of long bones and around the knee.
- Osteoid Osteoma: These grow mostly in adolescents and very rarely in adults above 50. They primarily grow in the legs but they might also be found in other bones in the body.
- Enchondroma: It is a bone tumour that starts in the cartilage. It is mostly found in the cartilage of the inner lining of bones. Small long bones of the feet and the hands are affected the most. Teenagers get more affected than other age group.
- Osteoblastoma: These are slow growing tumours that take about two years to get diagnosed. An osteoblastoma makes the surrounding bones weaker as they dissolve them and make them more susceptible to fracture caused by small injuries. Men are twice as more likely to be affected by an osteoblastoma than women. Surgery is essential in all cases of osteoblastoma as they destroy healthy functional bone and grow in size with time.
In rare cases, these have also known to become malignant over time, despite their benign nature. It affects people under 30 mostly.
Malignant Bone Tumours
- Osteosarcoma: It affects the hip, knees and shoulders of mostly children and teenagers. It is also referred to as osteogenic sarcoma.
- Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumours: These generate from medullary cavities and can also grow in blood vessels and adipose tissues. It primarily affects children and teenagers.
- Chondrosarcoma: It usually affects the hips, pelvis and shoulders of middle aged people.
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