Thyroplasty is a procedure performed to correct vocal cord paralysis. These patients generally have weak voices and use considerable effort in speaking. In these patients, vocal folds do not close completely during swallowing resulting in coughing and choking during eating or drinking. The most common reason for vocal cord weakness or paresis is a partial injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which controls the intrinsic muscles of the larynx. This can be caused by trauma, surgery, viral infection, or other causes. During thyroplasty treatment, ENT specialist cuts a small piece of the thyroid cartilage to replace with a small block of plastic (medical grade plastic) which is carved into the cartilage. This improves the vocal cord closure by pushing the vocal fold to the midline. This procedure is quick and causes no pain. The Fiberoptic scope is used to insert through the patient's nose to observe the placement of the block. Post vocal cord surgery, the patients are asked to speak to observe the betterment. In approximately one–third of patients, an implant is suggested to help strengthen the good side as well. This process takes 1-2 hours. There are 2 types are of thyroplasty, Type 1 thyroplasty (medialization thyroplasty) and Type 2 thyroplasty (lateralization thyroplasty). In type 1 thyroplasty surgery, there are four procedures which include Montgomery thyroplasty implant system, room system (vocal fold medialization), TVFMI system, and Gore-Tex implant system. There are few complications that include airway obstruction, implant migration or extrusion in cases where proper stitches are not taken, or infection, penetration of the endolaryngeal mucosa, or incomplete glottal closure in 10–15% of patients.
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