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Tagamet 4000 Mg/500 Mg Injection

Manufacturer: Curagen Biological Pharmaceuticals
Medicine composition: Piperacillin, Tazobactum
Prescription vs.OTC: Prescription by Doctor required

Tagamet 4000 Mg/500 Mg Injection, being an anti-bacterial agent, is used for treating several serious bacterial infections. It may also be used to prevent infections during surgery. It works by blocking the growth of the bacterial cell wall, which eventually kills the bacteria.

This medicine is not recommended for you if you are allergic towards any penicillin or cephalosporin drug. Avoid using it if you are taking a tetracycline antibiotic. Some medications may interact with Tagamet 4000 Mg/500 Mg Injection so inform your doctor if you are taking any other medicines. Consult your doctor before taking the medicine if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding, or have cystic fibrosis, bleeding problems, bowel inflammation, congestive heart failure or any kidney problems.

Diarrhoea, dizziness, tiredness, headache, pain, swelling, loose stools or redness at the injection site, nausea and vomiting are some possible side effects of this medicine which you may experience.

Tagamet 4000 Mg/500 Mg Injection is not absorbed orally, and must therefore be given by intramuscular or intravenous injection which is administered into the body by a health care professional.

Information given here is based on the salt and content of the medicine. Effect and uses of medicine may vary from person to person. It is advicable to consult a Internal Medicine Specialist before using this medicine.

bacterial infections

In addition to its intended effect, Tagamet 4000 Mg/500 Mg Injection may cause some unwanted effects too. In such cases, you must seek medical attention immediately. This is not an exhaustive list of side effects. Please inform your doctor if you experience any adverse reaction to the medication.

Increased liver enzymes

Bleeding

Altered taste

Flatulence

Headache

Insomnia (difficulty in sleeping)

Stomach upset

Is It safe with alcohol?

Interaction with alcohol is unknown. Please consult your doctor.

Are there any pregnancy warnings?

Ptbact 4000 mg/500 mg injection is probably safe to use during pregnancy.
Animal studies have shown low or no adverse effect on the foetus, however, there are limited human studies. Please consult your doctor.

Are there any breast-feeding warnings?

Unknown. Human and animal studies are not available. Please consult your doctor.

Is it safe to drive while on this medicine?

No data available

Does this affect kidney function?

Caution should be used in patients with renal impairment.
Caution to be advised in patients with impaired renal function.

Does this affect liver function?

There is no data available. Please consult doctor before consuming the drug.
Below is the list of medicines, which have the same composition, strength and form as Tagamet 4000 Mg/500 Mg Injection , and hence can be used as its substitute.
Nitin Lifesciences Ltd
Macleods Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd
Aristo Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd
Themis Medicare Ltd
Vhb Life Sciences Inc
Triglobal Bioscience Pvt Ltd
Macleods Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd
Lincoln Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Neon Laboratories Ltd
Mapra Laboratories Pvt Ltd
Alkem Laboratories Ltd
Troikaa Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Biochem Pharmaceutical Industries
Signova Pharma Pvt Ltd
Lincoln Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Celon Laboratories Ltd
Shasun Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Unichem Laboratories Ltd
United Biotech Pvt Ltd
Venus Remedies Ltd
Sympar Life Sciences
Corona Remedies Pvt Ltd
Parenteral Drugs India Ltd
Elder Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Cachet Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd
Ipca Laboratories Ltd
Intas Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Cachet Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd
Marc Laboratories Pvt Ltd
Profic Organic Ltd
Ind Swift Laboratories Ltd
Torrent Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Marc Laboratories Pvt Ltd
Pollen Healthcure Pvt. Ltd.
Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Varenyam Healthcare Pvt Ltd
Samarth Life Sciences Pvt Ltd
Mark Remedies Pvt Ltd
Maan Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Sanjivani Parenteral Ltd
Aurz Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd
Mac Remedies Pvt Ltd
Karnataka Antibiotics & Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Salud Care India Pvt Ltd
Maneesh Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Shrinivas Gujarat Laboratories Pvt Ltd
S R Pharmaceuticals
Ratchet Biotech Pvt Ltd
Gujarat Terce Laboratories Ltd
Punjab Formulations Ltd
Ravenbhel Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd
Staunch Health Care Pvt Ltd
Proventis Pharmaceuticals P Lt
Orchid Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Ancalima Lifesciences Ltd
Dr. Johns Laboratories Pvt Ltd
Veritaz Healthcare Ltd
Excella Life Sciences Pvt Ltd
Claris Lifesciences Ltd
Dr. Johns Laboratories Pvt Ltd
Scott Edil Pharmacia Ltd
Morepen Laboratories Ltd
Avinash Health Products Pvt Ltd
Alkem Laboratories Ltd
Leo Pharmaceuticals
Xieon Life Sciences Pvt Ltd
Molekule India Pvt Ltd
Mepro Pharmaceuticals
Health Biotech Limited
Nippon Seiyaku Pvt Ltd
Strides shasun Ltd
Axyzen Life Sciences
M D C Pharmaceuticals P Ltd
Winsome Laboratories Pvt Ltd
Brawn Laboratories Ltd
Radicura Pharma pvt ltd
Pollen Healthcure Pvt. Ltd.
Overseas Healthcare Pvt Ltd
Bio Warriors Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd
Kinedex Healthcare Pvt Ltd
Asclepius Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd
Wiscon Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd
RPG Life Sciences Ltd
Octane Biotech Pvt Ltd
Overseas Healthcare Pvt Ltd
Estrellas Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd.
Phoenix Pharmaceuticals
Techyon Biotech Pvt Ltd
Globus Remedies Ltd
Drukst Biotech Private Limited
Biochemix Health Care Pvt. Ltd.
Innovative Pharmaceuticals
Zee Laboratories
Ikon Pharmachem Pvt Ltd
Zee Laboratories
Azilliane Healthcare
Adley Formulations
Veritaz Healthcare Ltd
United Biotech Pvt Ltd
Maneesh Pharmaceuticals Ltd
GRAF Laboratories Pvt Ltd
Symbiosis Lab
Genetic Pharma
Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Flamingo Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Sego Lily Healthcare Pvt Ltd
Aaltramed Healthcare Ltd
Samarth Life Sciences Pvt Ltd
Bharat Serums & Vaccines Ltd
Harson Laboratories
Sanat Products Ltd
Dr Reddy s Laboratories Ltd
United Biotech Pvt Ltd
Shreya Life Sciences Pvt Ltd
Ind Swift Laboratories Ltd
Intas Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd
Intas Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Tagamet 4000 Mg/500 Mg Injection is an anti bacterial drug that is injected intravenously or intramuscularly to prevent bacterial infection. It kills the bacteria by preventing them from forming their cell walls by binding with certain penicillin binding proteins present in the bacterial cells.
Disclaimer: The information produced here is best of our knowledge and experience and we have tried our best to make it as accurate and up-to-date as possible, but we would like to request that it should not be treated as a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Lybrate is a medium to provide our audience with the common information on medicines and does not guarantee its accuracy or exhaustiveness. Even if there is no mention of a warning for any drug or combination, it never means that we are claiming that the drug or combination is safe for consumption without any proper consultation with an expert.

Lybrate does not take responsibility for any aspect of medicines or treatments. If you have any doubts about your medication, we strongly recommend you to see a doctor immediately.

Popular Questions & Answers

My PSA level is 10.47 and USG report says that the size of my Prostrate is 73cc. On going through the report The doctor advised me to go for Prostrate biopsy. Though the biopsy report which was done on 09.01. 2016 reveals negative results but immediately after the test was done I suffered UTI infection with blockage of urine. Accordingly I had to be admitted in hospital during the period from 12.01. 2016 to 18.01. 2016. During my stay at hospital I was treated with i. V. Antibiotic (piperacillin and tazobactam) and has been discharged on 19.01. 2016 with Catheter in situ and advised to go for MRI –Prostate. Accordingly, On 30.01. 2016 I have been undergone with MRI and the report is as under I)Prostatomegaly with benign prostatic hyperplasia Ii)Ill-defined T2W hypointense mildly enhancing areas in peripheral zone of prostate right side towards base-PIRADS 3/5. Kindly explain me if there is any possibility of malignancy in the report.

DNB, MBBS
Oncologist, Faridabad
My PSA level is 10.47 and USG report says that the size of my Prostrate is 73cc.
On going through the report The doct...
See, psa report is high, not too high, but ofcourse more than the expected value upto 4ng/ml. This value is of total psa, you can also check free psa and the ratio of free and total. Since you have recently undergone biopsy, psa levels may be high because of procedure and you can wait for a fortnight before you repeat psa. Right now there is no conclusive proof that you have malignancy, but your elevated PSA levels and some peripheral enhancement is little uncomfortable, so please repeat all the tests after one month and be under close follow up.
1 person found this helpful

I am having urinary infection. Urine routine report and urine culture is as follows urine examination test report urine r/m & flowcytometry investigation result units urine image 68 years / m physical examination 40 ml volume yellow color sl. Cloudy transparency nil deposit 1.020 specific gravity 8 reaction/ph chemical examination negative albumin norm sugar 10 blood /ul negative ketone bodies negative bilirubin negative nitrite 500 leucocytes /ul norm urobilinogen microscopic examination 639.6 wbc (/ul) /ul 0 - 40 100-120/hpf pus cells 10.0 rbc (/ul) /ul 0 - 20 2-3/hpf r. B. C. 2.0 epithelial cells (/ul) /ul 0 - 28 0-1/hpf epithelial cells 1.65 casts (/ul) /ul 0 - 2 microbiology urine culture/ sensitivity & mic urine image 68 years / m specimen urine organism isolated escherichia coli colony count 1, 00, 000 /ml esbl positive + ampicillin resistant (>=32) piperacillin + tazobactam sensitive (<=4) ceftriaxone resistant (16) cefepime sensitive (<=1) ertapenem sensitive (<=0.5) imipenem sensitive (<=0.25) meropenem sensitive (<=0.25) amikacin sensitive (<=2) gentamicin sensitive (<=1) ciprofloxacin sensitive (0.5) tigecycline sensitive (<=0.5) nitrofurantoin sensitive (<=16) trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistant (>=320) cefoperazone/sulbactam sensitive (<=8) colistin sensitive (<=0.5) cefuroxime axetil resistant>=64 cefuroxime resistant (>=64) augmentin sensitive 4 nalidixic acid resistant>=32 what medicine should I take. I am taking cipro 500mg1bd+augmentin 1000mg1bd. I want a second opinion from an expert since medicine prescribed is by general physician.

Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS), MS - Urology, MBBS
Urologist, Ahmedabad
I am having urinary infection. Urine routine report and urine culture is as follows
urine examination test report
uri...
Dear , if you are taking ciprofloxacin 500 mg then take 1 hour before meals or 2 hours after meals with only water and not with milk for 15 days and check urine again to see pus cells have come down to 5 or less. Medications fine.

I am 28 years old female and am suffering from Thyroid (normal level of thyroid should be between 0.25 mg-5.50mg, but mine is 8.50mg. Can you please me the foods to be avoided and foods to be taken. I mean the diet.

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
you are very right about normal range of tsh levels. At 8.5 milli units/ml, with normal t4, the condition is classified as sub- clinical hypothyroidism. This normally is not treated with any drugs. Treatment is advised only once the levels cross 10 milli units or there are troublesome symptoms with lower tsh levels. As regards food intake you have to have a balanced diet, but avoid certain foods like - soy beans, soy containing products, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, peanuts, radish, mustard and coffee. Consume good deal of green leafy vegetables, salads and fruits. Use whole grain flour for making chapati or roti. Do not use refined flour like maida. If you are taking non- vegetarian diet then take lean meat, skinned chicken and fish. Exercise regularly, that is important. Further, if one is desirous of having conception, then before conception tsh levels have to be brought down to around 2 mill units/ml. Keep that in mind. Thanks for the question.
24 people found this helpful

I am 46 years male a diabetic patient taking medicines from last 10 years with insulin at morning 44mg & evening 30mg but I tested yesterday to check the blood sugar level but report shows my sugar level almost doubled despite taking insulin & medicines. So kindly guide me how to control it. The medicines which I took daily includes zomelis Met 50mg/1000mg & panto tak DSR. The report attached herewith.

MBBS
General Physician, Cuttack
I am 46 years male a diabetic patient taking medicines from last 10 years with insulin at morning 44mg & evening 30mg...
You have to adjust insulin doses after consulting diabetologist and switch over to other oral drugs since it is not working 1. Do regular aerobic exercise for 1 hour daily (brisk walking, jogging, running, swimming, cycling etc) 2. Reduce weight if overweight 3control diet a) avoid sweets, sugar/honey, milk, milk product excess calorie and carbohydrate rich diet like white bread, cereal, rice, pasta b) avoid all refined food like maida, pasta, starchy food like rice, potato, bakery item, processed food, c) include more fiber like pulse, green leafy vegetable, cucumber, carrot, tomato, j legume. D) avoid sweetened fruit like banana, mango, litchi, chickoo, sapota, seethaphal jack fruit, grape etc. Can have fruits like guava, pineapple, papaya, orange, mousambi, strawberry, watermelon, pomegranate, jack fruit, sweet potato, a handful of walnut daily (akhrot) e) avoid white/polished rice, take unpolished rice like brown rice/wheat/jowar/ragi, moong and chana dal. F) avoid ghee/ butter./coconut oil/excess salt intake like papad/pickle. G) avoid red meat. Take fish/chicken. H) avoid alcohol and carbonated drinks like soft drink 4. Adhere to a strict diabetic diet by consulting dietitian 5. Monitor your fasting, pp blood sugar 3 monthly and hba1c six monthly 6. Consult diabetologist for advice and treatment.
3 people found this helpful

Newcold-ML 5mg+10mg this tablet is used for which purpose as I had asked to pharmacist for allergy of Chinese food because I was facing problem of allergy. However no effect after taking this tablet. Please suggest.

AUTLS, CCEDM, MD - Internal Medicine, MBBS
General Physician, Faridabad
if u r allergic to some food etc.. the remedy is...simply avoid that food u can take lezyncet for some time
3 people found this helpful

Popular Health Tips

Homeopathy For Forgetfulness / Memory Loss

BHMS
Homeopath, Navi Mumbai
Homeopathy For Forgetfulness / Memory Loss

Memory slips are aggravating, frustrating, and sometimes worrisome. When they happen more than they should, they can trigger fears of looming dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. there are many mundane—and treatable—causes of forgetfulness. Here are seven common ones and how can homeopathic treatment can help you.To know more about homeopathy and homeopathic treatment read more.....

Lack of sleep.

Not getting enough sleep is perhaps the greatest unappreciated cause of memory slips. Too little restful sleep can also lead to mood changes and anxiety, which in turn contribute to problems with memory.

Medications.

Tranquilizers, antidepressants, some blood pressure drugs, and other medications can affect memory, usually by causing sedation or confusion. That can make it difficult to pay close attention to new things. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if you suspect that a new medication is taking the edge off your memory. As shown in the table below, alternatives are usually available.

*Medications* that may affect memory and possible substitutes
If you take these drug, ask about switching to one of these drugs:
1.paroxetine (Paxil) another antidepressant such as fluoxetine (Prozac) or sertraline (Zoloft), or a different type of antidepressant such as duloxetine (Cymbalta) or venlafaxine (Effexor)
2.cimetidine (Tagamet) a different type of heartburn drug, such as lansoprazole (Prevacid), omeprazole (Prilosec), or esomeprazole (Nexium)
3.oxybutynin (Ditropan) or tolterodine (Detrol, Detrusitol) other medications for an overactive bladder, such as trospium (Sanctura), solifenacin (Vesicare), or darifenacin (Enablex)
4.amitriptyline (Elavil), desipramine (Norpramin), or nortriptyline (Aventyl, Pamelor) another type of medication, depending on why your doctor has prescribed a tricyclic antidepressant (neuropathic pain, depression, etc.)

5.*captopril (Capoten)* a different type of ACE inhibitor, such as enalapril, lisinopril, or ramipril
cold or allergy medication containing brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, or diphenhydramine loratadine (Claritin) or other non-sedating antihistamine
(Adapted from Improving Memory: Understanding age-related memory loss, a Harvard Medical School Special Health Report)

 

Underactive thyroid

A faltering thyroid can affect memory (as well as disturb sleep and cause depression, both of which contribute to memory slips). A simple blood test can tell if your thyroid is doing its job properly.

Alcohol.

Drinking too much alcohol can interfere with short-term memory, even after the effects of alcohol have worn off. Although “too much” varies from person to person, it’s best to stick with the recommendation of no more than two drinks per day for men and no more than one a day for women. One drink is generally defined as 1.5 ounces (1 shot glass) of 80-proof spirits, 5 ounces of wine, or 12 ounces of beer.

Stress and anxiety.

Anything that makes it harder to concentrate and lock in new information and skills can lead to memory problems. Stress and anxiety fill the bill. Both can interfere with attention and block the formation of new memories or the retrieval of old ones.

 

Depression.

Common signs of depression include a stifling sadness, lack of drive, and lessening of pleasure in things you ordinarily enjoy. Forgetfulness can also be a sign of depression—or a consequence of it.

If memory lapses are bugging you, it’s worth a conversation with your doctor to see if any reversible causes are at the root of the problem. Something like getting more sleep, switching a medication, or a stress reduction program could get your memory back on track.

TREATMENT PROTOCOLS FOR POOR MEMORY

Spleen Kidney and heart are the 3 organs which provides memory

●Following are the three patterns of poor memory :

1) spleen deficiency causes poor memory, inability to concentrate and study.

2) deficiency of kidney essence causes poor everyday memory.

3) heart deficiency causes poor memory of past events , forgetting names.

1) Spleen deficiency causes
poor memory inability to concentrate
and study:
Main symptoms :
1) poor memory
2) tiredness
3) poor appetite
4) *pale tongue*
5) *weak pulse*

Treatment principle :
1) tone the spleen
2) strengthen intellect. Spleen houses intellect , which controls memorisation, study and concentration.

2) Kidney essence deficiency
causes poor memory everyday.
Main symptoms :
1) poor everyday memory
2) can not remember names , faces, roads etc.
3) dizziness
4) tinnitus
5) weakness
6) if kidney yang is deficient , tongue will be
pale
7) if kidney yin is deficient the tongue will be
red

Treatment principles :
1) tone the kidney
2) nourish essence and marrow

3) Heart deficiency causes

  • Poor memory of past events 
  • Forgetting names 

Main symptoms :

1) poor memory of past events
2) forgetting names
3) absent mindedness
4) tiredness
5) slight breathlessness
6) if there is heart yang deficiency the tongue will be pale with heart cracking
7) if there is heart yin deficiency the tongue will be red with heart crack

Treatment principle :
1) *tone the heart*
2) strengthen the mind and memory

Homeopathic treatment

There are many remedies in homeopathy to treat this condition. It requires a detailed study of the patient to know his/her lifestyle and life circumstances to be able to diagnose at the correct cause/causes so as to administer the right remedy. Since homeopathic medicines do not have sideeffects this is a very great advantage.

18 people found this helpful

Tips On Preconception Health For Men

MBBS, DGO, MD, Fellowship in Gynae Oncology
IVF Specialist, Delhi
Tips On Preconception Health For Men

As couples prepare for pregnancy, it is easy to focus only on the woman's health. However, there are several habits men need to be forming during these critical months of preparation too. Issues of fertility do not rest solely on the female.

'agents that may cause birth defects do not reach the developing fetus through the father as they do from the pregnant mother,' but we do know that male exposure to certain substances can lead to some preliminary problems with fertility and also slightly elevate the risk of certain birth defects.

Male infertility alone accounts for approximately 1/3 of all infertility cases. Should fertility issues arise, you should plan ahead to be in the best physical condition to conceive.

Clean out the medicine cabinet

Eliminate as many medications from your routine as possible. Talk with your physician about your prescription medications. You may need to discontinue use or try something new.

The following medications have been known to impact male fertility:
 

  • Tagamet (cimetidine), sulfasalazine, and nitrofurantoin are used to treat ulcers, gastrointestinal problems, and urinary tract infections. These medications may impact sperm production and sperm count.
  • Steroids, such as prednisone and cortisone, which are used to treat asthma, arthritis and skin conditions, impact male fertility.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation could cause sterility or a significant change in sperm quality and quantity.



Take a good look at your work environment

Your work environment may be a contributing factor to your fertility. Ongoing exposure to certain agents such as pesticides, chemical fertilizers, lead, nickel, mercury, chromium, ethylene glycol ethers, petrochemicals, benzene, perchloroethylene, and radiation can lower sperm quality, quantity and possibly lead to infertility or miscarriage.


Eat and sleep

What you eat can make a difference. Find out what your proper weight range should be and make the necessary dietary and exercise changes to get there. Studies suggest that some men with low sperm count also have a zinc deficiency.

The following foods are high in zinc and could increase your fertility:
 



Adding more vitamin e may also help the process along. There are male fertility supplements available containing vitamins, minerals and other ingredients designed to help improve overall reproductive health.

Also, keep in mind getting plenty of rest is good for everything that ails you, even low sperm count and sperm quality.

Avoid alcohol and other substances

Eliminate alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and any illicit drugs. Too much alcohol may reduce zinc levels, and drugs decrease sperm quality. There is some research that may link smoking and certain rare heart defects, but further studies must be done to make an accurate conclusion. Marijuana has been proven to affect sperm quality and sperm count, but there is no evidence that shows that marijuana causes birth defects.

Keep your testicles cool

Heat from hot tubs, saunas, long showers (more than 30 minutes), heating pads, electric blankets, and tight clothing like briefs and spandex could cause your testicles to become too hot, which decreases sperm quantity.

Stay away from cycling

Cycling can cause a lot of friction and jostling, which increases the temperature of your testicles. The rise in temperature and possibility of injury may cause a low sperm count.

 

7 people found this helpful

Erectile dysfunction

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Mohali
Erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction

Alternative names
Impotence; ed
Erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ed), formerly called impotence, can affect men of all ages although it is much more common among older men. It is normal for healthy men of all ages to occasionally experience erectile dysfunction. However, if the problem becomes chronic, it can have adverse effects on relationships, emotional health, and self-esteem. Erectile dysfunction may also be a symptom of an underlying health condition. If erectile dysfunction becomes an on-going problem, it is important to talk to your doctor.

Causes of erectile dysfunction

Physical causes are the main reasons for erectile dysfunction. They include heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, neurological disease, medication side effects, and other health conditions.
Psychological causes of erectile dysfunction include anxiety, depression, stress, and problems in relationships.
Lifestyle factors that increase the risk for erectile dysfunction include smoking, alcohol use, and other substance abuse.
Introduction

Erectile dysfunction (formerly called impotence) is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficiently rigid for sexual intercourse. Sexual drive and the ability to have an orgasm are not necessarily affected. Because all men have erection problems from time to time, doctors diagnose erectile dysfunction if a man fails to maintain an erection satisfactory for intercourse on at least 25% of attempts.

Erectile dysfunction is not new in either medicine or human experience, but it is not easily or openly discussed. Cultural expectations of male sexuality inhibit many men from seeking help for a disorder that can usually benefit from medical treatment.

The penis and erectile function

The structure of the penis. The penis is composed of the following structures:

Two parallel columns of spongy tissue called the corpus cavernosa, or erectile bodies.
A central spongy chamber called the corpus spongiosum, which contains the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder through the penis.
These structures are made up of erectile tissue. Erectile tissue is rich in tiny pools of blood vessels called cavernous sinuses. Each of these vessels is surrounded by smooth muscles and supported by elastic fibrous tissue composed of a protein called collagen.

Erectile function and nitric oxide. The penis is either flaccid or erect depending on the state of arousal. In the flaccid, or unerect, penis, the following normally occurs:

Small arteries leading to the cavernous sinuses contract, reducing the inflow of blood.
The smooth muscles regulating the many tiny blood vessels also stay contracted, limiting the amount of blood that can collect in the penis.
During arousal, the following occurs:

The man's central nervous system stimulates the release of a number of chemicals, including nitric oxide, which is essential for producing and maintaining an erection.
Nitric oxide stimulates the production of cyclic GMP, a chemical that relaxes the smooth muscles in the penis. This allows blood to flow into the tiny pool-like cavernous sinuses, flooding the penis.
This increased blood flow nearly doubles the diameter of the spongy chambers.
The veins surrounding the chambers are squeezed almost completely shut by this pressure.
The veins are unable to drain blood out of the penis and so the penis becomes rigid and erect.
After ejaculation or climax, cyclic GMP is broken down by an enzyme called phosphodiesterase-5 (pde5), causing the penis to become flaccid (unerect) again.
Important substances for erectile health

A proper balance of certain chemicals, gases, and other substances is critical for erectile health.

Collagen. The protein collagen is the major component in structural tissue in the body, including in the penis. Excessive amounts, however, form scar tissue, which can impair erectile function.

Oxygen. Oxygen-rich blood is one of the most important components for erectile health. Oxygen levels vary widely from reduced levels in the flaccid state to very high in the erect state. During sleep, a man can normally have three to five erections per night, bringing oxygen-rich blood to the penis. The primary cause of oxygen deprivation is ischemia -- the blockage of blood vessels. The same blood flow-reducing conditions that lead to heart disease, such as atherosclerosis, may also contribute to erectile dysfunction.

Testosterone and other hormones. Normal levels of hormones, especially testosterone, are essential for erectile function, though their exact role is not clear.

Causes

Over the past decades, the medical perspective on the causes of erectile dysfunction has shifted. Common belief used to attribute almost all cases of ed to psychological factors. Now doctors believe that up to 85% of ed cases are caused by medical or physical problems. Only 15% are completely psychologically based. Sometimes, erectile dysfunction is due to a combination of physical and psychological causes.

A number of medical conditions share a common problem with erectile dysfunction -- the impaired ability of blood vessels to open and allow normal blood flow.

Heart disease, atherosclerosis, and high blood pressure

Heart disease, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol levels are major risk factors for erectile dysfunction. In fact, erectile problems may be a warning sign of these conditions in men at risk for atherosclerosis. Men who experience ed have a greater risk for angina, heart attack, or stroke.

Erectile dysfunction is a very common problem in men with high blood pressure. Many of the drugs used to treat hypertension (such as calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers) may also cause ed.

Diabetes

Diabetes is a major risk factor for erectile dysfunction. Blood vessel and nerve damage are both common complications of diabetes. When the blood vessels or nerves of the penis are involved, erectile dysfunction can result. Diabetes is also associated with heart disease and chronic kidney disease, other risk factors for ed.

Obesity

Obesity increases the risk for diabetes, heart disease, and erectile dysfunction.

Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome -- a cluster of conditions that includes obesity and abdominal fat, unhealthy cholesterol and triglyceride levels, high blood pressure, and insulin resistance -- is also a risk factor for erectile dysfunction in men older than 50 years.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Although benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH or 'enlarged prostate') does not cause erectile dysfunction, surgical and drug treatments for the condition can increase the risk for erectile dysfunction.

Neurologic conditions

Diseases that affect the central nervous system can cause erectile dysfunction. These conditions include Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke.

Endocrinologic and hormonal conditions


Low levels of the male hormone testosterone can be a contributing factor to erectile dysfunction in men who have other risk factors. (low testosterone as the sole cause of erectile dysfunction affects only about 5% of men. In general, low testosterone levels are more likely to reduce sexual desire than to cause ed.) abnormalities of the pituitary gland that cause high levels of the hormone prolactin are also associated with erectile dysfunction. Other hormonal and endocrinologic causes of erectile dysfunction include thyroid and adrenal gland problems.

Physical trauma and injury

Spinal cord injury and pelvic trauma, such as a pelvic fracture, can cause nerve damage that results in ed. Other conditions that can injure the spine and cause erectile dysfunction include spinal cord tumors, spina bifida, and a history of polio.

Surgery

Surgery for prostate diseases. Radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer often causes loss of sexual function but nerve-sparing surgical procedures reduce the risk of ed. (radiation treatments for prostate cancer also cause erectile dysfunction.) surgical treatments for BPH can also cause ed, but this complication is relatively uncommon.

Surgery for colon and rectal cancers. Surgical and radiation treatments for colorectal cancers can cause ed in some patients. In general, colostomy does not usually affect sexual function. However, wide rectal surgery can cause short-term or long-term sexual dysfunction.

Fistula surgery. Surgery to repair anal fistulas can affect the muscles that control the rectum (external anal sphincter muscles), sometimes causing ed. (repair of these muscles may restore erectile function.)

Orthopedic surgery. Erectile dysfunction can sometimes result from orthopedic surgery that affects pelvic nerves.

Note: vasectomy does not cause erectile dysfunction.

Medications

Many medications increase the risk for erectile dysfunction. They include:

High blood pressure medications, particularly diuretics, beta-blockers, and calcium channel blockers.
Heart or cholesterol medications such as digoxin, gemfibrozil, or clofibrate.
Finasteride (Proscar, generic) and dutasteride (Avodart), which are used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A lower-dose form of finasteride (Propecia), which is used to treat male pattern baldness, may also cause ed. Erectile dysfunction may persist even after these medications are stopped.
Psychotropic medication used to treat depression and bipolar disorder such as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and lithium. Certain types of antipsychotic medication, such as phenothiazines (like Compazine) and butyrophenones (like haloperidol), can also cause erectile dysfunction.
Gastroesophagelal reflux disorder (gerd) medications, used to reduce stomach acids, such as rantidine (Zantac) and cimetidine (Tagamet).
Hormone drugs such as estrogens, corticosteroids, and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors.
Chemotherapy drugs such as methotrexate.
Psychological causes

Anxiety. Anxiety has both emotional and physical consequences that can affect erectile function. It is among the most frequently cited contributors to psychological ed.

Stress. Even simple stress can affect sexual dysfunction.

Depression. Depression can reduce sexual desire and is associated with erectile dysfunction.

Relationship problems. Troubles in relationships often have a direct impact on sexual functioning.

Risk factors

Age

For most men, erectile dysfunction is primarily associated with older age. Nevertheless, ed is not inevitable with age. Severe erectile dysfunction often has more to do with age-related disease than age itself. In particular, older men are more likely to have heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure than younger men. Such conditions and some of their treatments are causes of erectile dysfunction.

Lifestyle factors

Smoking. Smoking contributes to the development of erectile dysfunction, mainly because it increases the effects of other blood vessel disorders, including high blood pressure and atherosclerosis.

Alcohol use. Heavy drinking can cause erectile dysfunction. Alcohol depresses the central nervous system and impairs sexual function.

Drug abuse. Illicit drugs such as heroin, cocaine, methamphetamines, and marijuana can affect sexual function.

Weight and sedentary lifestyle. Obesity is a risk factor for erectile dysfunction. Lack of exercise and a sedentary lifestyle can lead to obesity and other health problems associated with erectile dysfunction.

Diagnosis

The doctor typically interviews the patient about various physical and psychological factors and performs a physical exam.

Medical history

The doctor will ask about:

Past and present medical conditions, surgeries, and medications
Any history of psychological problems, including stress, anxiety, or depression
Lifestyle factors such as alcohol, drug, and dietary supplement use
In addition, the doctor will ask about your sexual history, which may include:

When problems with sexual function began
The frequency, quality, and duration of any erections, including erections that occur during sleep or on awakening in the morning
The specific circumstances when erectile dysfunction occurs
Details of sexual technique
Whether problems exist in the current relationship
If appropriate, the doctor may also interview the sexual partner.

Physical examination

The doctor will perform a physical exam, including examination of the genital area and a digital rectal examination (the doctor inserts a gloved and lubricated finger into the patient's rectum) to check for prostate abnormalities. It is important to check blood pressure and to evaluate circulation by checking pulses in the legs.

Laboratory tests

Because erectile dysfunction and atherosclerosis are often linked, it is important to check cholesterol levels. Similarly, the doctor may order tests for blood sugar (glucose) levels to check if diabetes is a factor. In some cases, blood tests may be used to measure testosterone levels to determine if there are hormone problems. The doctor may also screen for thyroid and adrenal gland dysfunction. For more sophisticated tests, the doctor may refer the patient to a urologist.

Treatment

Many physical and psychological situations can cause erectile dysfunction, and brief periods of ed are normal. Every man experiences erectile dysfunction from time to time. Nevertheless, if the problem is persistent, men should seek professional help, particularly since erectile dysfunction is usually treatable and may also be a symptom of an underlying health problem. It is important to treat any medical condition that may be causing erectile dysfunction.

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