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Rosicon 1Mg Tablet

Manufacturer: Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Medicine composition: Rosiglitazone
Prescription vs.OTC: Prescription by Doctor required

Rosicon 1Mg Tablet belongs to a group of drugs called thiazolidinediones and is used to treat type 2 diabetes. It is mostly prescribed along with other medications with a diet and exercise program. It works by making the body more sensitive to insulin which is responsible for controlling blood sugar levels in the body.

Tell your doctor if you have a diabetic eye disease or liver disease. Inform him if you are pregnant or breastfeeding or if you have experienced an allergic reaction to Rosicon 1Mg Tablet before.

Rosicon 1Mg Tablet comes as a tablet to take by mouth, once or twice daily with or without meals. Your doctor may increase your dose after 8-12 weeks, based on how you respond to the medication. It may take you about 2 weeks to lower your blood sugar levels and 2-3 months or longer to feel the long-term benefit of this medicine.

Some of its side effects include severe allergic reactions, vision changes, fast heartbeat, numbness of an arm or leg, light-headedness, skin problems, severe headache, stomach pain, symptoms of low blood sugar, vomiting, symptoms of heart or liver failure, unusual bone pain, unusual weakness.

type diabetes

Information given here is based on the salt and content of the medicine. Effect and uses of medicine may vary from person to person. It is advicable to consult a Diabetologist before using this medicine.

type 2 diabetes

In addition to its intended effect, Rosicon 1Mg Tablet may cause some unwanted effects too. In such cases, you must seek medical attention immediately. This is not an exhaustive list of side effects. Please inform your doctor if you experience any adverse reaction to the medication.

Blurred vision

Respiratory tract infection

Is It safe with alcohol?

Taking rosiglitazone with alcohol may affect blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes.

Are there any pregnancy warnings?

Rosicon 4mg tablet may be unsafe to use during pregnancy.
Animal studies have shown adverse effects on the foetus, however, there are limited human studies. The benefits from use in pregnant women may be acceptable despite the risk. Please consult your doctor.

Are there any breast-feeding warnings?

Unknown. Human and animal studies are not available. Please consult your doctor.

Is it safe to drive while on this medicine?

There is no data available. Please consult doctor before consuming the drug.

Does this affect kidney function?

There is no interaction between renal impairment and consuming this drug. So dose alteration is not needed.

Does this affect liver function?

There is no data available. Please consult doctor before consuming the drug.
Below is the list of medicines, which have the same composition, strength and form as Rosicon 1Mg Tablet , and hence can be used as its substitute.
Aretaeus Pharmaceuticals

Are there any missed dose instructions?

If you miss a dose of Rosiglitazone, skip it and continue with your normal schedule. Do not double the dose.
Rosicon 1Mg Tablet belongs to the thiazolidinedione class of drugs used for treating diabetes. It activates the PPARs, mainly PPARγ, thereby improving insulin resistance. The drug leads to the reduction of kappa-B nuclear factor and rise of inhibitor levels, which explains its anti-inflammatory properties.
Whenever you take more than one medicine, or mix it with certain foods or beverages, you"re at risk of a drug interaction.

Interaction with Medicine

Decmax 4Mg Tablet

Derinide 0.5Mg Respules 2Ml

Apidra 100Iu Cartridge 3Ml

Disclaimer: The information produced here is best of our knowledge and experience and we have tried our best to make it as accurate and up-to-date as possible, but we would like to request that it should not be treated as a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Lybrate is a medium to provide our audience with the common information on medicines and does not guarantee its accuracy or exhaustiveness. Even if there is no mention of a warning for any drug or combination, it never means that we are claiming that the drug or combination is safe for consumption without any proper consultation with an expert.

Lybrate does not take responsibility for any aspect of medicines or treatments. If you have any doubts about your medication, we strongly recommend you to see a doctor immediately.

Popular Questions & Answers

I am 37 years of age - no alcohol - non smoker but bit addicted to COLA drinks - bit overweight My recent blood reports shows FBS 240 mcg And Hb1Ac: 8.6 Creatine n lipid profile within the range Appreciate if you can suggest some medication either allopathy or Ayurveda to control my sugar levels Afraid to visit any Doctor due their scary lectures/advise Please help.

MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Mumbai
I am 37 years of age - no alcohol - non smoker but bit addicted to COLA drinks - bit overweight
My recent blood repor...
You have diabetes and require medication. I cannot comment on homeopathy or ayurveda regarding the same. Your sugar is very high, and given the HbA1c report, it has been high for a while. Diabetic foot when untreated or when the sugar is uncontrolled, leads to sepsis, and eventually amputation (cutting off the infected toe or leg). I suggest you visit a physician who will advise appropriate medication, even if he does give you a scary lecture. Your situation is definitely scary. You will also require lifestyle modification, dietary changes and exercise.
1 person found this helpful

Popular Health Tips

Heart Diseases And Homeopathy!

MF Homeo (London), DHMS (Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery), Biochemistry M.D.(AM) PG (Kol)
Alternative Medicine Specialist, Kolkata
Heart Diseases And Homeopathy!

Heart failure can involve the left side (left ventricle), right side (right ventricle) or both sides of your heart. Generally, heart failure begins with the left side, specifically the left ventricle — your heart's main pumping chamber.

Type of heart failure - Description

Left-sided heart failure - Fluid may back up in your lungs, causing shortness of breath.
Right-sided heart failure - Fluid may back up into your abdomen, legs, and feet, causing swelling.
Systolic heart failure - The left ventricle can't contract vigorously, indicating a pumping problem.

Diastolic heart failure (also called heart failure with preserved ejection fraction) -  The left ventricle can't relax or fill fully, indicating a filling problem.

Any of the following conditions can damage or weaken your heart and can cause heart failure. Some of these can be present without your knowing it:

 

  • Coronary artery disease and heart attack - Coronary artery disease is the most common form of heart disease and the most common cause of heart failure. Over time, arteries that supply blood to your heart muscle narrow from a buildup of fatty deposits — a process called atherosclerosis. The buildup of plaques can cause reduced blood flow to your heart. A heart attack occurs if plaques formed by the fatty deposits in your arteries rupture. This causes a blood clot to form, which may block blood flow to an area of the heart muscle, weakening the heart's pumping ability and often leaving permanent damage. If the damage is significant, it can lead to a weakened heart muscle.
  • High blood pressure (hypertension) - Blood pressure is the force of blood pumped by your heart through your arteries. If your blood pressure is high, your heart has to work harder than it should to circulate blood throughout your body. Over time, the heart muscle may become thicker to compensate for the extra work it must perform. Eventually, your heart muscle may become either too stiff or too weak to effectively pump blood.
  • Faulty heart valves - The valves of your heart keep blood flowing in the proper direction through the heart. A damaged valve — due to a heart defect, coronary artery disease or heart infection — forces your heart to work harder to keep blood flowing as it should. Over time, this extra work can weaken your heart. Faulty heart valves, however, can be fixed or replaced if found in time.
  • Damage to the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) - Heart muscle damage (cardiomyopathy) can have many causes, including several diseases, infections, alcohol abuse and the toxic effect of drugs, such as cocaine or some drugs used for chemotherapy.
  • Myocarditis - Myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle. It's most commonly caused by a virus and can lead to left-sided heart failure.

 

  • Heart defects you're born with (congenital heart defects) - If your heart and its chambers or valves haven't formed correctly, the healthy parts of your heart have to work harder to pump blood through your heart, which, in turn, may lead to heart failure.

 

  • Abnormal heart rhythms (heart arrhythmias) - Abnormal heart rhythms may cause your heart to beat too fast, which creates extra work for your heart. Over time, your heart may weaken, leading to heart failure. A slow heartbeat may prevent your heart from getting enough blood out to the body and may also lead to heart failure.



Other diseases - Chronic diseases — such as diabetes, HIV, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or a buildup of iron (hemochromatosis) or protein (amyloidosis) —also may contribute to heart failure.

Causes of acute heart failure include viruses that attack the heart muscle, severe infections, allergic reactions, blood clots in the lungs, the use of certain medications or any illness that affects the whole body.

Symptoms -
Heart failure can be ongoing (chronic), or your condition may start suddenly (acute).
Heart failure signs and symptoms may include:

  • shortness of breath (dyspnea) when you exert yourself or when you lie down
  • fatigue and weakness
  • swelling (edema) in your legs, ankles, and feet
  • rapid or irregular heartbeat
  • reduced ability to exercise
  • a persistent cough or wheezing with white or pink blood-tinged phlegm
  • increased need to urinate at night
  • swelling of your abdomen (ascites)
  • sudden weight gain from fluid retention
  • lack of appetite and nausea
  • difficulty concentrating or decreased alertness
  • sudden, severe shortness of breath and coughing up pink, foamy mucus
  • chest pain if your heart failure is caused by a heart attack


Risk factors -  A single risk factor may be enough to cause heart failure, but a combination of factors also increases your risk.

Risk factors include:

  • High blood pressure - Your heart works harder than it has to if your blood pressure is high.
  • Coronary artery disease - Narrowed arteries may limit your heart's supply of oxygen-rich blood, resulting in weakened heart muscle.
  • Heart attack - Damage to your heart muscle from a heart attack may mean your heart can no longer pump as well as it should.
  • Diabetes - Having diabetes increases your risk of high blood pressure and coronary artery disease. Some diabetes medications. The diabetes drugs rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone (Actos) have been found to increase the risk of heart failure in some people. Don't stop taking these medications on your own, though. If you're taking them, discuss with your doctor whether you need to make any changes.
  • Certain medications - Some medications may lead to heart failure or heart problems. Medications that may increase the risk of heart problems include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); certain anesthesia medications; some antiarrhythmic medications; certain medications used to treat high blood pressure, cancer, blood conditions, neurological conditions, psychiatric conditions, lung conditions, urological conditions, inflammatory conditions and infections; and other prescription and over-the-counter medications. Don't stop taking any medications on your own. If you have questions about medications you're taking, discuss with your doctor whether he or she recommends any changes.

 

  • Sleep apnea - The inability to breathe properly while you sleep at night results in low blood oxygen levels and increased risk of abnormal heart rhythms. Both of these problems can weaken the heart.

 

  • Congenital heart defects - Some people who develop heart failure were born with structural heart defects.
  • Valvular heart disease - People with valvular heart disease have a higher risk of heart failure. 
  • Viruses - A viral infection may have damaged your heart muscle.
  • Alcohol use - Drinking too much alcohol can weaken the heart muscle and lead to heart failure.
  • Tobacco use - Using tobacco can increase your risk of heart failure.
  • ObesityPeople who are obese have a higher risk of developing heart failure.
  • Irregular heartbeats - These abnormal rhythms, especially if they are very frequent and fast, can weaken the heart muscle and cause heart failure.

Complications - If you have heart failure, your outlook depends on the cause and the severity, your overall health, and other factors such as your age. Complications can include:

 

  1. Kidney damage or failure - Heart failure can reduce the blood flow to your kidneys, which can eventually cause kidney failure if left untreated. Kidney damage from heart failure can require dialysis for treatment.
  2. Heart valve problems -The valves of your heart, which keep blood flowing in the proper direction through your heart, may not function properly if your heart is enlarged or if the pressure in your heart is very high due to heart failure.
  3. Heart rhythm problems - Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) can be a potential complication of heart failure.
  4. Liver damage - Heart failure can lead to a buildup of fluid that puts too much pressure on the liver. This fluid backup can lead to scarring, which makes it more difficult for your liver to function properly.


Homeopathic remedies:-
Homeopathy today is a rapidly growing system and is being practiced all over the world. Its strength lies in its evident effectiveness as it takes a holistic approach towards the sick individual through the promotion of inner balance at mental, emotional, spiritual and physical levels. When heart failure is concerned there are many effective medicines are available in homeopathy, but the selection depends upon the individuality of the patient, considering the mental and physical symptoms.

  • Aurum metallicum 30 - Heart failure after valvular lesions. Hear feels loose on walking. Sensations as if heart stopped beating for two or three seconds, immediately followed by tumultuous rebound with sinking at the epigastrium. Oppression at the heart. Pulse rapid, feeble and irregular. Blood pressure high.
  • Digitalis purpurea 3x - Digitalis is an excellent remedy for heart failure with the irregular heartbeat. Sensation as if heart would stop beating if moved, must hold the breath and keep still. Pulse full, irregular, very slow and weak, intermitting every third, fifth, or seventh beat. Weak heart. The least movement causes violent palpitations. Frequent stitches in the heart.
  • Strophanthus his. Q - Strophanthus is best for heart failure with edema of legs. Heart’s action weak, rapid, irregular, due to muscular debility and insufficiency. Pulse rapid, alternating with slow, weak, small irregular.
  • Laurocerasus 30 - Laurocerasus is best for heart failure with pain in the region of the heart. There is clutching at heart and palpitations. Pulse weak, variable, slow or irregular. Urine, retained, suppressed involuntary with palpitations and suffocations and fainting.
  • Crataegus oxy. Q - Crataegus is considered a heart tonic. Heart muscles seem flabby, worn out. Heart weakness with oppression, stitches, and insomnia. Extreme dyspnea on least exertion without much increase of pulse. Heart dilated, first sound weak. Incompetent valves, valvular murmurs.
  • Cardus marianus q - Cardus marianus is effective for heart failure with liver complaints. Pain pressure and stitches in the region of the heart, oppression of deep breathing.
  • Naja tripudians 30 - Naja is best for heart failure with weakness and valvular disorders. Visible palpitations. Damaged heart after infectious diseases.
  • Nux vomica 30 - Nux vomica is an excellent remedy for heart failure seen in alcoholics. Hear feels tired, palpitation on lying down. Usually constipated with ineffectual desire.
  •  
1 person found this helpful

How Homeopathy Helps Manage Heart Disorders?

BHMS, OCRT KOLKATA
Homeopath, Asansol
How Homeopathy Helps Manage Heart Disorders?

 Heart failure, sometimes known as congestive heart failure, occurs when your heart muscle doesn't pump blood as well as it should. Certain conditions, such as narrowed arteries in your heart (coronary artery disease) or high blood pressure, gradually leave your heart too weak or stiff to fill and pump efficiently.

Not all conditions that lead to heart failure can be reversed, but treatments can improve the signs and symptoms of heart failure and help you live longer. Lifestyle changes — such as exercising, reducing salt in your diet, managing stress and losing weight — can improve your quality of life.

One way to prevent heart failure is to control conditions that cause heart failure, such as coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, diabetes or obesity

Causes-- heart failure often develops after other conditions have damaged or weakened your heart. However, the heart doesn't need to be weakened to cause heart failure. It can also occur if the heart becomes too stiff.

  • In heart failure, the main pumping chambers of your heart (the ventricles) may become stiff and not fill properly between beats. In some cases of heart failure, your heart muscle may become damaged and weakened, and the ventricles stretch (dilate) to the point that the heart can't pump blood efficiently throughout your body. Over time, the heart can no longer keep up with the normal demands placed on it to pump blood to the rest of your body
  • An ejection fraction is an important measurement of how well your heart is pumping and is used to help classify heart failure and guide treatment. In a healthy heart, the ejection fraction is 50 percent or higher — meaning that more than half of the blood that fills the ventricle is pumped out with each beat. But heart failure can occur even with a normal ejection fraction. This happens if the heart muscle becomes stiff from conditions such as high blood pressure.
  • The term" congestive heart failure" comes from blood backing up into — or congesting — the liver, abdomen, lower extremities and lungs. However, not all heart failure is congestive. You might have shortness of breath or weakness due to heart failure and not have any fluid building up.
  • Heart failure can involve the left side (left ventricle), right side (right ventricle) or both sides of your heart. Generally, heart failure begins with the left side, specifically the left ventricle — your heart's main pumping chamber.

Type of heart failure

1. Left-sided heart failure

Fluid may back up in your lungs, causing shortness of breath.

2. Right-sided heart failure

Fluid may back up into your abdomen, legs and feet, causing swelling.

3. Systolic heart failure

The left ventricle can't contract vigorously, indicating a pumping problem.

4. nbDiastolic heart failure

(also called heart failure with preserved ejection fraction)

The left ventricle can't relax or fill fully, indicating a filling problem.

Any of the following conditions can damage or weaken your heart and can cause heart failure. Some of these can be present without your knowing it:

  • Coronary artery disease and heart attack. Coronary artery disease is the most common form of heart disease and the most common cause of heart failure. Over time, arteries that supply blood to your heart muscle narrow from a buildup of fatty deposits — a process called atherosclerosis. The buildup of plaques can cause reduced blood flow to your heart.
  • A heart attack occurs if plaques formed by the fatty deposits in your arteries rupture. This causes a blood clot to form, which may block blood flow to an area of the heart muscle, weakening the heart's pumping ability and often leaving permanent damage. If the damage is significant, it can lead to a weakened heart muscle.
  • High blood pressure (hypertension). Blood pressure is the force of blood pumped by your heart through your arteries. If your blood pressure is high, your heart has to work harder than it should to circulate blood throughout your body.
  • Over time, the heart muscle may become thicker to compensate for the extra work it must perform. Eventually, your heart muscle may become either too stiff or too weak to effectively pump blood.
  • Faulty heart valves. The valves of your heart keep blood flowing in the proper direction through the heart. A damaged valve — due to a heart defect, coronary artery disease or heart infection — forces your heart to work harder to keep blood flowing as it should.
  • Over time, this extra work can weaken your heart. Faulty heart valves, however, can be fixed or replaced if found in time.
  • Damage to the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy). Heart muscle damage (cardiomyopathy) can have many causes, including several diseases, infections, alcohol abuse and the toxic effect of drugs, such as cocaine or some drugs used for chemotherapy.
  • Myocarditis. Myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle. It's most commonly caused by a virus and can lead to left-sided heart failure.
  • Heart defects you're born with (congenital heart defects. If your heart and its chambers or valves haven't formed correctly, the healthy parts of your heart have to work harder to pump blood through your heart, which, in turn, may lead to heart failure.
  • Abnormal heart rhythms (heart arrhythmias). Abnormal heart rhythms may cause your heart to beat too fast, which creates extra work for your heart. Over time, your heart may weaken, leading to heart failure. A slow heartbeat may prevent your heart from getting enough blood out to the body and may also lead to heart failure.
  • Other diseases. Chronic diseases — such as diabetes, hiv, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or a buildup of iron (hemochromatosis) or protein (amyloidosis) —also may contribute to heart failure.

Causes of acute heart failure include viruses that attack the heart muscle, severe infections, allergic reactions, blood clots in the lungs, the use of certain medications or any illness that affects the whole body.

Symptoms

Heart failure can be ongoing (chronic), or your condition may start suddenly (acute).

Heart failure signs and symptoms may include:

  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea) when you exert yourself or when you lie down
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Swelling (edema) in your legs, ankles and feet
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat
  • Reduced ability to exercise
  • Persistent cough or wheezing with white or pink blood-tinged phlegm
  • Increased need to urinate at night
  • Swelling of your abdomen (ascites)
  • Sudden weight gain from fluid retention
  • Lack of appetite and nausea
  • Difficulty concentrating or decreased alertness
  • Sudden, severe shortness of breath and coughing up pink, foamy mucus
  • Chest pain if your heart failure is caused by a heart attack


Risk factors--- a single risk factor may be enough to cause heart failure, but a combination of factors also increases your risk.

Risk factors include:

  • High blood pressure. Your heart works harder than it has to if your blood pressure is high.
  • Coronary artery disease. Narrowed arteries may limit your heart's supply of oxygen-rich blood, resulting in weakened heart muscle.
  • Heart attack. Damage to your heart muscle from a heart attack may mean your heart can no longer pump as well as it should.
  • Diabetes. Having diabetes increases your risk of high blood pressure and coronary artery disease.
  • Some diabetes medications. The diabetes drugs rosiglitazone (avandia) and pioglitazone (actos) have been found to increase the risk of heart failure in some people. Don't stop taking these medications on your own, though. If you're taking them, discuss with your doctor whether you need to make any changes
  • Certain medications. Some medications may lead to heart failure or heart problems. Medications that may increase the risk of heart problems include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids); certain anesthesia medications; some antiarrhythmic medications; certain medications used to treat high blood pressure, cancer, blood conditions, neurological conditions, psychiatric conditions, lung conditions, urological conditions, inflammatory conditions and infections; and other prescription and over-the-counter medications.
  • Don't stop taking any medications on your own. If you have questions about medications you're taking, discuss with your doctor whether he or she recommends any changes.
  • Sleep apnea. The inability to breathe properly while you sleep at night results in low blood oxygen levels and increased risk of abnormal heart rhythms. Both of these problems can weaken the heart.
  • Congenital heart defects. Some people who develop heart failure were born with structural heart defects.
  • Valvular heart disease. People with valvular heart disease have a higher risk of heart failure.
  • Viruses. A viral infection may have damaged your heart muscle.
  • Alcohol use. Drinking too much alcohol can weaken heart muscle and lead to heart failure.
  • Tobacco use. Using tobacco can increase your risk of heart failure.
  • Obesity. People who are obese have a higher risk of developing heart failure.
  • Irregular heartbeats. These abnormal rhythms, especially if they are very frequent and fast, can weaken the heart muscle and cause heart failure.


Complications-- if you have heart failure, your outlook depends on the cause and the severity, your overall health, and other factors such as your age. Complications can include:

  • Kidney damage or failure. Heart failure can reduce the blood flow to your kidneys, which can eventually cause kidney failure if left untreated. Kidney damage from heart failure can require dialysis for treatment.
  • Heart valve problems. The valves of your heart, which keep blood flowing in the proper direction through your heart, may not function properly if your heart is enlarged or if the pressure in your heart is very high due to heart failure.
  • Heart rhythm problems. Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) can be a potential complication of heart failure.
  • Liver damage. Heart failure can lead to a buildup of fluid that puts too much pressure on the liver. This fluid backup can lead to scarring, which makes it more difficult for your liver to function properly.

Homoeopathic remedies

Homoeopathy today is a rapidly growing system and is being practiced all over the world. Its strength lies in its evident effectiveness as it takes a holistic approach towards the sick individual through promotion of inner balance at mental, emotional, spiritual and physical levels. When heart failure is concerned there are many effective medicines are available in homoeopathy, but the selection depends upon the individuality of the patient, considering the mental and physical symptoms.

  • Aurum metallicum 30---heart failure after valvular lesions. Hear feels loose on walking. Sensations as if heart stopped beating for two or three seconds, immediately followed by tumultuous rebound with sinking at the epigastrium. Oppression at the heart. Pulse rapid, feeble and irregular. Blood pressure high.
  • Digitalis purpurea 3x—digitalis is an excellent remedy for heart failure with irregular heart beat. Sensation as if heart would stop beating if moved, must hold the breath and keep still. Pulse full, irregular, very slow and weak, intermitting every third, fifth, or seventh beat. Weak heart. The least movement causes violent palpitations. Frequent stitches in heart.
  • Strophanthus his. Q----strophanthus is best for heart failure with edema of legs. Heart’s action weak, rapid, irregular, due to muscular debility and insufficiency. Pulse rapid, alternating with slow, weak, small irregular.
  • Laurocerasus 30—laurocerasus is best for heart failure with pain in the region of heart. There is clutching at heart and palpitations. Pulse weak, variable, slow or irregular. Urine, retained, suppressed involuntary with palpitations and suffocations and fainting.
  • Crataegus oxy. Q---crataegus is considered a heart tonic. Heart muscles seem flabby, worn out. Heart weakness with oppression, stitches and insomnia. Extreme dyspnea on least exertion without much increase of pulse. Heart dilated, first sound weak. Incompetent valves, valvular murmurs.
  • Cardus marianus q---cardus marianus is effective for heart failure with liver complaints. Pain pressure and stitches in the region of the heart, oppression on deep breathing.
  • Naja tripudians 30—naja is best for heart failure with weakness and valvular disorders. Visible palpitations. Damaged heart after infectious diseases.
  • Nux vomica 30—nux vomica is an excellent remedy for heart failure seen in alcoholics. Hear feels tired, palpitation on lying down. Usually constipated with ineffectual desire. 
12 people found this helpful

Diabetes - Types,Symptoms, Causes And more!

MBBS
Internal Medicine Specialist, Delhi
Diabetes - Types,Symptoms, Causes And more!

Diabetes:

Scientifically called diabetes mellitus, Diabetes is referred to describe the group of diseases in which a patient has high blood sugar (glucose) because of low insulin production or body cells not responding to insulin, or in some cases both. Those with high blood glucose level experience frequent urination (polyuria), and constant thirst ((polydipsia) and hunger (polyphagia).

Types of Diabetes:

There are three main types of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.

1. Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is the medical condition where body’s immune system destroys beta cells in the pancreas. This leads to the lack of insulin production in pancreas. Insulin is the hormone that regulates body’s blood glucose level. Typically, there are no signs or symptoms till a majority of these beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed resulting in insufficient insulin production.

Symptoms:

Symptoms of Type 1 diabetes include:

- Constant hunger and thirst

- Frequent urination

- Arid mouth

- Vomiting and Nausea

- Stomach pain

- Weight loss

- Exhaustion and Fatigue

- Blurry eyesight

- Breathing difficulty

- Frequent skin infections

Symptoms of Type 1 diabetes complications include:

- Mental confusion

- Hasty breathing

- Constant stomach ache

- Fainting or unconsciousness (in rare cases)

Diagnosis:

Type 1 diabetes diagnosis includes:

- Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test

- Random blood sugar test

- Fasting blood sugar test

Causes:

Scientific community has not yet been able to find out the exact causes of type 1 diabetes. Typically, in type 1 diabetes, immune system destroys the beta cells in the pancreas. This beta cells produce insulin to keep blood glucose level in control. Some other possible causes include:

- Genetics

- Viruses

- Environmental factors

Treatment:

Treatment for type 1 diabetes includes:

- Insulin

- Monitoring of blood sugar regularly

- Healthy diet rich in carbohydrates, and protein

- Regular exercise

Types of insulin

There are several different types of insulin. Here are just some of the many types of insulin:

- Long-acting insulin

- Short-acting (regular) insulin

- Intermediate-acting (NPH) insulin

- Rapid-acting insulin

Insulin is not taken orally. This is to make sure that the stomach enzymes do not break down the insulin and prevent its intended effect. Insulin is generally administered through injections or insulin pump.

Other Medications

Additional medications for treatment of type 1 diabetes may include:

- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

- Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)

- Aspirin (baby or regular)

- Cholesterol-lowering drugs

Risk Factors

Some of the many risk factors for type 1 diabetes include:

- Family history

- Genetics

- Geography (chances of type 1 diabetes increase as one moves away from equator)

- Age (age group - 4 to 7 years, and 10 to 14 years

Complications

Type-1 diabetes can cause several life-threatening complications affecting major body organs such as blood vessels, heart, eyes, kidney and nervous system. Listed below are just some of the many complications of type-1 diabetes.

- Diseases pertaining to heart and blood vessels.

- Damage of nerves.

- Damage to gastrointestinal tract nerves.

- Damage to Kidneys.

- Vision impairment.

- Cataract.

- Glaucoma.

- Damage to the feet. In some cases, this may even lead to leg amputation.

- Skin infections.

- Mouth infections.

- Miscarriage, stillbirth or birth defects in case of pregnancy.

Prevention

Medical fraternity has not been able to find a way to completely prevent type-1 diabetes. But scientists and researchers are working on ways to prevent the disease.

2. Type 2 Diabetes

Scientifically referred to as noninsulin-dependent diabetes, Type-2 diabetes is a chronic medical condition that impacts the metabolism of glucose (sugar) in the body. In type-2 diabetes, human body isn’t able to produce enough insulin to regulate body sugar and/or starts resisting the positive effects of insulin.

Type-2 diabetes is commonly found in adults. However, several cases of children being affected by the same have been reported over the years too. Scientists and medicine experts have not found a cure for type-2 diabetes yet. However, it is easy to control and manage the disease by regular exercise, healthy diet and balanced lifestyle.

Symptoms:

Listed below are the signs and symptoms of type-2 diabetes:

- Heavy thirst 

- Frequent urination

- Intense hunger

- Unexplained Weight loss

- Regular exhaustion and fatigue

- Blurry eyesight

- Slow-healing sores 

- Skin infections

- Mouth infections

Diagnosis:

Diagnosis of type-2 diabetes is done by conducting the following tests:

- Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test

- Random blood sugar test

- Fasting blood sugar test

- Oral glucose tolerance test

Causes:

The major cause of type-2 diabetes is body’s resistance to insulin or lack of adequate insulin production by pancreas. Though scientists and medical experts have not yet found the reason of the same, some factors such as obesity and physical inactivity are considered to be the major drivers of the disease.

Treatment:

Treatment of type-2 diabetes can be done by:

- Ensuring healthy diet

- Partaking in regular work-out

- Taking diabetes control medicines

- Insulin therapy

- Monitoring blood glucose level

Treatment:

Medication for type-2 diabetes may include medicines such as:

- Metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza).

- Sulfonylureas (DiaBeta, Glynase)

- Meglitinides (repaglinide, nateglinide)

- Thiazolidinediones (Rosiglitazone, pioglitazone)

- DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin)

- GLP-1 receptor agonists (Exenatide, liraglutide)

- SGLT2 inhibitors (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin)

Insulin Therapy

Some type-2 diabetes patients may require insulin therapy. As discussed above, insulin cannot be taken orally as insulin gets disintegrated in stomach. Insulin is administered through injections or insulin pumps.

Here is a list of different types of insulin that are used to treat type-2 diabetes:

- Insulin aspart (Novolog)

- Insulin glulisine (Apidra)

- Insulin lispro (Humalog)

- Insulin isophane (Humulin N, Novolin N)

- Insulin glargine (Lantus)

- Insulin detemir (Levemir)

Risk Factors

Listed below are the risk factors of type-2 diabetes:

- Obesity or excessive body weight

- Physical inactivity

- Family history of type-2 diabetes

- Age (after 45 years of age)

- Prediabetes (glucose level higher than usual)

- Gestational diabetes

- Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Complications:

Often type-2 diabetes is ignored. However, untreated type-2 diabetes may affect many vital body organs including heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Controlling blood glucose in the body can prevent these complications.

Here is a list of just some of the many life-threatening complications of type-2 diabetes:

- Heart and blood vessel disease (severe chest pain, heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis).

- Damage of nerves. 

- Nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, constipation and erectile dysfunction.

- Damage of kidney (kidney failure).

- Eyesight issues (partial or complete blindness, vision impairment, damage to retina cells).

- Damage to feet (in some cases it may lead to leg amputation).

- Hearing impairment.

- Skin allergies.

- Alzheimer's disease.

Prevention

While there are no scientific evidences proving that type-2 diabetes can be prevented. However, healthy lifestyle, regular exercise and balanced diet can help you prevent the disease. Even those diagnosed with the disease may prevent complications by healthy lifestyle, regular exercise and balanced diet. Here’s what you must do to prevent type-2 diabetes.

- Ensure balanced diet. Include fruits, vegetables and whole grains in your diet. Eat food rich in fibre.

- Ensure physical activity. Avoid sitting idle for long hours. Partake in regular exercise.

- Lose excess weight. Remember, obesity or excess body weightincreases the risk of diabetes. Focus on healthy eating and regular exercise to lose weight and stay fit.

3. Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is the type of diabetes that happens only during the period of pregnancy. This means that the otherwise normal blood glucose level in the body increases during the time of pregnancy.

Symptoms

There are no symptoms or signs for gestational diabetes. In most cases, it is found only during the routine pregnancy screening tests.

In some rare cases, pregnant women, suffering from gestational diabetes, may experience:

- Heavy thirst

- Intense hunger

- Frequent urination

Causes

During the term of the pregnancy, the placenta secretes hormones that may lead to excess glucose in the blood. In most cases, pancreas creates enough insulin to counter the excess glucose build during pregnancy. However, if blood glucose level increases, it leads to gestational diabetes.

Diagnosis

To diagnose gestational diabetes, blood test is done. An hour before the test, the patient is supposed to take a sugary drink. If the blood glucose is found to be 130 mg/dL [milligrams per deciliter or higher, then a fasting blood tests is conducted. Thereafter, one more blood test is done after approximately 3-hours. Follow up tests may be required if everything is found to be normal but the patient experiences gestational diabetes symptoms. 

Treatment

Treatment of gestational diabetes involves:

- Checking blood glucose 4 or more times within a day.

- Urine tests. If ketones are found in the test, the diabetes is considered to be uncontrolled.

- Ensuring healthy diet as per a certified medical professional’s advice.

- Ensuring daily exercise

In addition, it is important to keep a track of the weight that you have gained during the duration of pregnancy.

Risk Factors

Gestational diabetes affects between 2% and 10% of pregnant women every year. Common risk factors of gestational diabetes are:

- Excessive weight gain before pregnancy

- High blood sugar levels

- Family history of diabetes

- History of gestational diabetes

- High blood pressure

- Medical complications

- Have given birth to a large baby before (greater than 9 pounds)

- Have experienced stillbirth or the new born has experienced some birth defects

Diabetes Myths

Myth 1: People with Diabetes can’t Eat Sugar

Reality : This is perhaps the most common of all diabetes myths. A large number of people believe that those with diabetes can’t eat sugar or sugar products. However, people suffering from this disease can eat sugar in moderation.

Myth 2: Type 2 Diabetes is nothing to Worry About

Reality : Many believe that type-2 diabetes is nothing to worry about. But it is far from truth. Diabetes in form should be considered mild. Untreated type-2 diabetes may lead to several life-threatening complications.

Myth 3: Type 2 Diabetes Concerns Only Fat People

Reality: A large number of people believe that type-2 diabetes only concerns overweight and obese people. However, the reality is that it can even affect people with normal weight, and in some cases underweight people too.

Myth 4: People with Diabetes become Blind and Face Leg Amputation

Reality: While diabetes remains a leading cause of partial or complete blindness and a large number of patients are also required to face leg amputations, those who are able to control their blood glucose level and weight face no complications whatsoever.

Myth 5: Diabetes is a Contagious Disease

Reality: This is one of the most common myths around diabetes. A large number of people believe that diabetes is a contagious disease. However, it is a non-communicable disease and cannot be passed on from one person to another. But it is important to know that diabetes can be passed genetically. This means it can be passed on from parents to children.

Diabetes FAQs

Question 1: What to do if I have been recently diagnosed with diabetes?

Answer: If you have been diagnosed with diabetes recently, it is important to ensure a healthy lifestyle and ensure healthy diet. In addition, try to ensure physical activity. Don’t forget to take your medication (if prescribed) on timely basis.

Question 2: What should be Ideal Blood Glucose (Sugar) Level if I have Diabetes?

Answer: Keeping your blood glucose level under control is important if you have diabetes to prevent any complications. The target blood glucose level varies from patient to patient and only a certified medical professional can help you determine your blood glucose level target.

Question 3: Does Eating Sugar and Sugary Items Cause Diabetes?

Answer: Eating sugar or sugary products do not cause diabetes directly. However, it may lead to weight gain and even obesity. And obesity or weight gain can cause type-2 diabetes.

Question 4: Can I Use Artificial Sweeteners?

Answer: Most artificial sweeteners feature acceptable daily intake (ADI) level of sugar. It is safer to drink or eat artificial sweeteners in quantity lower than the ADI level. However, pregnant women must avoid intake of artificial sweeteners.

Question 5: How Much Physical Activity Should I do if I have Diabetes?

Answer: Being physically active can help you prevent complications of diabetes. Start with brisk walking for five to ten minutes per day and increase it over the period of time. But be advised to consult a certified medical professional to understand how much exercise you should do.

Question 6: If I have Diabetes, Do I need to Take Care of My Foot?

Answer: Diabetes may lead to decreased blood flow or nerve damage in feet affecting it different ways. It is imperative to check your feet every day to avoid any complications.

Question 7: What Insulin Do I Take?

Answer: Many diabetic patients require insulin therapy. However, there are different types of insulin and it is important to consult a certified medical professional to understand what type of insulin you require.

Question 8: Is Diabetes Fully Curable?

Answer : Unfortunately, there is no complete cure for diabetes and those diagnosed with it will have it for the rest of their life. However, as discussed earlier, with healthy diet and healthy lifestyle, one can prevent complications related to diabetes.

Question 9: What is Prediabetes?

Answer: Prediabetes is the medical condition in which the blood sugar level of a patient is higher than what’s normal, but is not high enough for diagnosis of diabetes. A large number of people across the globe suffer from prediabetes. It is vital to get tested for prediabetes.

Question 10: Can Diabetes Lead to Serious Medical Emergencies?

Answer: Yes! Diabetes can lead to serious and life-threatening medical emergencies. Such emergencies happen when the blood glucose in the body becomes higher or lower than normal. It is sensible to contact a certified medical professional in the event of diabetic emergencies.

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