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Treponema Pallidium Antobody Tips

Syphilis - How To Avert It?

MBBS, MD - Community Medicine, CCIP
Sexologist, Dhanbad
Syphilis - How To Avert It?
Syphilis is a highly contagious bacterial infection that spreads mainly through sexual activities. It starts as a painless sore or rash on the skin, typically on the mouth, rectum, or the genitals, and results in long-term health complications, if left untreated. Keep reading to know more about the disease.

What are the symptoms and stages of syphilis?
The symptoms of the infection vary from person to person, depending on the stages of syphilis. Some people may also experience no symptoms at all. As the symptoms, if any, change depending on the stages of the disease, here s a quick look at the stages and the symptoms they are characterized with.

Primary stage: This is the first stage of syphilis where small, painless, round sores in the genitals and the mouth appear.
Secondary stage: In the second stage, the patient starts developing rashes, if he/she has not visited any medical expert and thus is not undergoing any treatment.
Latent stage: In the third stage, the infection may stay within the infected person; however, there will be no symptoms experienced for around 30 years.
Late stage: In this last stage, if left untreated, the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum starts affecting other body parts, resulting in damage to the nerves, brains, heart, or eyes.
How does one get infected?
The primary way of being infected with syphilis is through sexual activities. When one comes in contact with syphilis rash or sore during oral, vaginal, or anal sex, he or she can get syphilis. Women are not immune from syphilis, though it is the men, mainly those who are bisexual or gay, in whom the infection is prevalent. Syphilis can even spread from a mother to her baby; hence, one should be aware of its symptoms, prevention, and treatment.

What are the prevention/treatment options?
Syphilis is indeed a serious sexually transmitted disease; however, it can be prevented as well as cured. Abstaining from unprotected sex, not sharing sex toys, using condoms, avoiding drugs and alcohol, and using plastic square or dental dam during oral sex are some of the effective ways of preventing the risk of getting infected by syphilis. Once diagnosed, depending on the stage of the disease, the patient is treated with penicillin-based medications.

Remember, prevention is the best way of dealing with sexually transmitted diseases, which includes syphilis. However, it is advised to visit a sexologist immediately, if any of the symptoms are observed. If the infection spreads to other parts of the body, it may affect the vital organs, hence it is advised not to ignore the symptoms and undergo the treatment suggested by the sexologist, without delay.
1878 people found this helpful

Syphilis - How To Detect It?

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), Md Rasashastra
Sexologist, Delhi
Syphilis - How To Detect It?
Syphilis is a STD caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It has several stages, like primary, secondary, latent and tertiary and is common in homosexual men. It should be remembered that Syphilis is curable. It can be treated, if diagnosed in an early stage. It can be cured, if medical help is sought for. Sharing toilets, clothes, or utensils don t cause this disease. It will vanish forever, if treated at once. However, it can be reinfected if exposed to the bacteria through new syphilis sore. It can also spread, if transmitted by direct touch or contact with Syphilitic sore via anus, skin surface, vagina, mouth and lips. It is very rare though that syphilis can be spread during a kiss.

Syphilis can live within the body for months, even years or decades. Initially, it remains as a painless sore on the genitals like anus, vagina, mouth or skin surface. If present for many years, there is an increased risk of contracting HIV.

Causes
The major causes of syphilis are unsafe sex with homosexual partners and the practice of having unprotected sex like anal, vaginal and oral sex. Individuals who have multiple sexual partners and are especially sexually linked to HIV-infected persons have the highest risk of contracting Syphillis.

It can not only be spread through multiple sexual unsafe intercourses but also has its high risk in spreading from mother to baby during pregnancy; commonly unknown as congenital syphilis. In such cases, the baby has low birth weight and can develop cataract, deafness or seizures. In some cases, even newborn babies die from the disease.

Diagnosis
The doctor will first conduct a physical examination of the patient. Thereafter, blood and urine are collected for bacterial test. If a sore is found on the body, the doctor may collect a sample from the sore to examine the presence of syphilis bacteria. If there are nervous system disorders in the patient, a spinal tap or lumbar puncture is done to collect the spinal fluid. The fluid is then tested for syphilis bacteria.

Treatments for syphilis
Initially, syphilis is treated with penicillin. It has to be kept in mind that long-term exposure to the disease can have life-threatening consequences. Patients suffering from syphilis are either given a single dose or multiple doses of penicillin. The quantum of the dose depends on the nature of symptoms and the infection. Individuals must use condoms to reduce the risk of transmitting the disease while having sexual intercourse. In the case of penicillin allergy, the patient is recommended to have alternative medicines. Infants and newborns born with syphilis undergo antibiotic treatment.
5919 people found this helpful

Syphilis - How To Track It?

MBBS, Institute Of Complementary Medicines, Pune, Fellowship in Sexology and Psychosexual Medicine, Grants medical College and Sir J J Hospital Mumbai
Sexologist, Bangalore
Syphilis - How To Track It?
Syphilis is one of the most communicable sexually transmitted diseases. If left untreated, syphilis can be fatal. It can lead to heart disease, brain damage and blindness. A woman infected with syphilis can also pass it on unknowingly to her baby if she suffers from the disease when pregnant. Syphilis can be easily treated but if left too late, the antibiotics that treat it cannot reverse the damage caused by syphilis.

Syphilis can be tested by

- A blood test
In most cases, a simple blood test can confirm the presence of syphilis by showing signs of the antibodies used to fight it.

- Testing the fluid from the sores

This is usually done in the case of primary or secondary syphilis when sores are present on the patient's skin. Looking at a scraping of the sore under a microscope can be used to diagnose syphilis if it shows the presence of the syphilis bacteria.

- Testing cerebral spinal fluid

This is performed only in extreme cases of syphilis where the disease may have caused complications with your nervous system.

The earlier syphilis is diagnosed, the easier it is to treat. Syphilis is usually treated with antibiotics amongst which penicillin is the most preferred. If you've had syphilis for less than a year, a single injected dose of penicillin can stop the disease from progressing. You may need additional doses if you have been suffering from syphilis for longer than a year. Penicillin is also the only antibiotic that can cure syphilis and suits pregnant women. If you have been diagnosed with syphilis while pregnant, your baby should also be treated for it.

When undergoing treatment for syphilis here are a few other points to keep in mind

- Abstain from oral. Vaginal and anal sex until the sores have healed.
- Get blood tests at regular intervals for at least a year after treatment.
- Get tested for an HIV infection
- Fevers, nausea, headaches and chills are normal side effects associated with syphilis treatment.
- If you are allergic to penicillin, let your doctor know so that you can be given an alternative antibiotic.
- If you have a lesion around your mouth, syphilis can even spread through kissing another person.

The good news is that once you've been cured of syphilis, it does not recur. However, it recommended to always use protection while having intercourse and abstain from sexual activities if your partner suffers from syphilis.
5495 people found this helpful

Syphilis - How Can It Be Treated?

Sexologist
Sexologist, Delhi
Syphilis - How Can It Be Treated?
Certain diseases are fatal, thus, proper measures must be taken to ensure that once the symptoms have been confirmed, treatment must start immediately. Syphilis is one of the most communicable sexually transmitted diseases. If left untreated, Syphilis can be fatal.

It can lead to heart disease, brain damage and blindness. A woman infected with Syphilis can also pass it on unknowingly to her baby if she suffers from the disease during her pregnancy. Syphilis can be easily treated, but if left too late, the antibiotics that treat it cannot reverse the damage caused by Syphilis.

Syphilis can be tested by:

A blood test: In most cases, a simple blood test can confirm the presence of Syphilis by showing signs of the antibodies used to fight it.
Testing the fluid from the sores: This is usually done in the case of primary or secondary Syphilis when sores are present on the patient's skin. Looking at a scraping of the sore under a microscope can be used to diagnose Syphilis if it shows the presence of the Syphilis bacteria.
Testing cerebrospinal fluid: This is performed only in extreme cases of Syphilis where the disease may have caused complications with your nervous system. The earlier Syphilis is diagnosed, the easier it is to treat.
Syphilis is usually treated with antibiotics amongst which penicillin is the most preferred. If you've had Syphilis for less than a year, a single injected dose of penicillin can stop the disease from progressing. You may need additional doses if you have been suffering from Syphilis for more than a year. Penicillin is also the only antibiotic that can cure Syphilis and suits pregnant women as well. If you have been diagnosed with Syphilis during pregnancy, your baby should also be treated for it.

When undergoing treatment for Syphilis, here are a few other points to keep in mind:

Abstain from oral, vaginal and anal sex until the sores have healed
Get blood tests at regular intervals for at least a year after treatment
Get tested for an HIV infection
Fevers, nausea, headaches and chills are normal side effects associated with Syphilis treatment
If you are allergic to penicillin, let your doctor know so that you can be given an alternative antibiotic
If you have a lesion around your mouth, Syphilis can even spread through kissing another person
The good news is that once you've been cured of Syphilis, it does not recur. However, it is recommended to always use protection while having intercourse and abstain from sexual activities if your partner suffers from Syphilis.
6353 people found this helpful

सिफलिस के लक्षण - Syphilis Ke Lakshan!

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurvedic Doctor, Lakhimpur Kheri
सिफलिस के लक्षण - Syphilis Ke Lakshan!



सिफिलिस, एक ऐसी संक्रामक बीमारी है जो जीवाणु के माध्यम से फैलती है. सिफलिस जिस जीवाणु के माध्यम से फैलती है उसका नाम'टी.पैलिडम' बैक्टीरिया है. इस बीमारी में त्वचा पर होने वाले सिफिलिटिक छाले और श्लेष्मा झिल्ली में प्रत्यक्ष रूप से हस्तांतरित होता है. यह एक यौन संचारित संक्रमण (एसटीडी) है जो समय रहते इलाज न कराये जाने पर गंभीर रूप धारण करके आपका जीना दुश्वार कर सकता है. इसका संक्रमण सिफिलिटिक छालों से इन्फेक्टेड व्यक्ति के साथ सेक्सुअल काॅंटेक्ट के माध्यम से भी फैलता है. इन्फेक्टेड व्यक्ति द्वारा दरवाज़ों के हैंडल या मेज़ जैसी वस्तुओं को टच करने से यह इन्फेक्शन नहीं फैलता है. यह वैजाइना, गुदा, मलाशय, होंठ और मुँह में छाला के माध्यम से हो सकता है. ओरल, गुदा या योनि सम्बन्धित सेक्सुअल एक्टिविटी के दौरान इस बीमारी के फैलने की संभावना होती है. बहुत ही दुर्लभ मामलों में चुम्बन के माध्यम से फैलता है. आइए इस लेख के माध्यम से हम सफलिस के तमाम लक्षणों को जानें ताकि इस बीमारी का लोग समय रहते ही ट्रीटमेंट करा सकें.

सिफलिस के शुरुआती संकेत-
जननांगों, मलाशय, मुँह या त्वचा की सतह पर दर्दरहित छाला इस इन्फेक्शन का पहला संकेत है. कुछ लोगों का ध्यान इस छाले की तरफ जाता भी नहीं है क्योंकि यह पेनलेस होता है. कई बार ये छाले खुद ही ठीक हो जाते हैं, लेकिन यदि ट्रीटमेंट न किया जाए तो बैक्टीरिया बॉडी में ही रह जाते हैं. पेनिसिलिन के साथ प्राइमरी ट्रीटमेंट द्वारा इसे ठीक किया जा सकता है. ट्रीटमेंट के बाद सिफिलिस दोबारा वापस नहीं होता है, लेकिन इस बैक्टीरिया के ज्यादा कांटेक्ट में आने पर इस बीमारी की पुनरावृत्ति हो भी सकती है. एक बार सिफिलिस से इन्फेक्टेड होने के बाद किसी व्यक्ति को इस बीमारी से फिर से इन्फेक्टेड होने से नहीं बचाया जा सकता. प्रेगनेंसी के दौरान महिलाएं अपने अजन्मे बच्चे को सिफलिस प्रेषित कर सकती हैं, जिसके संभावित रूप के गंभीर परिणाम हो सकते हैं. सिफिलिस इन्फेक्शन अपनी तीसरी स्टेज में लौटने से पहले 30 साल तक डीएक्टिवेट भी रह सकता है. आइए अब इस बीमारी के लक्षणों को क्रमबद्ध तरीके से समझें.

सिफलिस के लक्षण
1. प्राइमरी सिफलिस


दर्दरहित
छाले पड़ना



2. सेकेंडरी सिफलिस


बिना खुजली वाले रैशेज जो बॉडी के ऊपरी हिस्से से शुरू होकर पूरे बॉडी में फैल जाते हैं, जिसमें हथेलियां और तलवे शामिल हैं. रैशेज खुरदरे, लाल या लाल भूरे रंग के हो सकते हैं.
मुँह, एनल और जेनाइटल में मस्से जैसे छाले
मसल्स पेन
फिवर
गले में खराश
सूजी हुई लसीका ग्रंथियां
हेयर फाॅल
सिरदर्द
वजन घटना
थकान



बिना ट्रीटमेंट किया हुआ माध्यमिक सिफलिस अविकसित और थर्ड स्टेज में वृद्धि कर सकता है.

3. लैटेंट सिफलिस - यह स्टेज कई वर्षों तक रह सकता है. इस अवस्था के दौरान बॉडी बिना लक्षणों वाले बिमारियों का घर बन जाता है.

4. थर्ड (फाइनल) सिफलिस


ब्लाइंडनेस
बहरापन
मानसिक बीमारी
स्मरण शक्ति की क्षति
सॉफ्ट टिश्यू और बोन लोस
नर्व डिसऑर्डर, जैसे स्ट्रोक या मेनिनजाइटिस
हार्ट डिजीज
न्यूरोसिफलिस, जो माइंड या रीढ़ की हड्डी में होने वाला संक्रमण है.



सिफलिस होने के कारण-
यौन गतिविधियों के दौरान टी. पैलिडम बैक्टीरिया एक व्यक्ति से दूसरे व्यक्ति तक स्थानांतरित होने के कारण सिफलिस होता है. बैक्टीरिया आपकी त्वचा में लगी मामूली चोट अथवा खरोंच या श्लेष्मा झिल्ली के माध्यम से शरीर में प्रवेश करते हैं. सिफलिस अपने प्राथमिक और माध्यमिक चरणों या कभी-कभी प्रारंभिक अवधि के दौरान संक्रामक का कारण बनता है. यह गर्भावस्था के दौरान मां से गर्भ तक या प्रसव के दौरान शिशु को भी हस्तांतरित हो सकता है. इस प्रकार के सिफलिस को'जन्मजात सिफलिस' कहा जाता है. सिफलिस दरवाजे के हैंडल को संक्रमित व्यक्ति द्वारा छूने और टॉयलेट सीट जैसी वस्तुओं के साझा उपयोग से नहीं फैलता है. एक बार ठीक हो जाने के बाद सिफलिस दुबारा अपने आप नहीं होता है. हालांकि, यदि आप सिफलिस से ग्रसित किसी व्यक्ति के संपर्क में आते हैं, तो आप फिर से संक्रमित हो सकते हैं.
4 people found this helpful

Syphilis - How To Test It?

BAMS
Sexologist, Nashik
Syphilis - How To Test It?
Syphilis is one of the most communicable sexually transmitted diseases. If left untreated, syphilis can be fatal. It can lead to heart disease, brain damage and blindness. A woman infected with syphilis can also pass it on unknowingly to her baby if she suffers from the disease when pregnant. Syphilis can be easily treated but if left too late, the antibiotics that treat it cannot reverse the damage caused by syphilis.

Syphilis can be tested by

- A blood test
In most cases, a simple blood test can confirm the presence of syphilis by showing signs of the antibodies used to fight it.

- Testing the fluid from the sores
This is usually done in the case of primary or secondary syphilis when sores are present on the patient's skin. Looking at a scraping of the sore under a microscope can be used to diagnose syphilis if it shows the presence of the syphilis bacteria.

- Testing cerebral spinal fluid

This is performed only in extreme cases of syphilis where the disease may have caused complications with your nervous system.
The earlier syphilis is diagnosed, the easier it is to treat. Syphilis is usually treated with antibiotics amongst which penicillin is the most preferred. If you've had syphilis for less than a year, a single injected dose of penicillin can stop the disease from progressing. You may need additional doses if you have been suffering from syphilis for longer than a year. Penicillin is also the only antibiotic that can cure syphilis and suits pregnant women. If you have been diagnosed with syphilis while pregnant, your baby should also be treated for it.


When undergoing treatment for syphilis here are a few other points to keep in mind

- Abstain from oral. Vaginal and anal sex until the sores have healed.
- Get blood tests at regular intervals for atleast a year after treatment.
- Get tested for an HIV infection
- Fevers, nausea, headaches and chills are normal side effects associated with syphilis treatment.
- If you are allergic to penicillin, let your doctor know so that you can be given an alternative antibiotic.
- If you have a lesion around your mouth, syphilis can even spread trough kissing another person.

The good news is that once you've been cured of syphilis, it does not recur. However, it recommended to always use protection while having intercourse and abstain from sexual activities if your partner suffers from syphilis.
3429 people found this helpful

6 Things To Keep In Mind While Undergoing Treatment For Syphilis!

Fellowship, Council of Sex Education & Parenthood, BAMS, B-Pharm
Sexologist, Jaipur
6 Things To Keep In Mind While Undergoing Treatment For Syphilis!
Syphilis is one of the most communicable sexually transmitted diseases. If left untreated, syphilis can be fatal. It can lead to heart disease, brain damage and blindness. A woman infected with syphilis can also pass it on unknowingly to her baby if she suffers from the disease when pregnant. Syphilis can be easily treated by

- A blood test
In most cases, a simple blood test can confirm the presence of syphilis by showing signs of the antibodies used to fight it.

- Testing the fluid from the sores
This is usually done in the case of primary or secondary syphilis when sores are present on the patient's skin. Looking at a scraping of the sore under a microscope can be used to diagnose syphilis if it shows the presence of the syphilis bacteria.

- Testing cerebral spinal fluid
This is performed only in extreme cases of syphilis where the disease may have caused complications with your nervous system.

The earlier syphilis is diagnosed, the easier it is to treat. You may need additional doses if you have been suffering from syphilis for longer than a year.


When undergoing treatment for syphilis here are a few other points to keep in mind-

- Abstain from oral. Vaginal and anal sex until the sores have healed.
- Get blood tests at regular intervals for atleast a year after treatment.
- Get tested for an HIV infection
- Fevers, nausea, headaches and chills are normal side effects associated with syphilis treatment.
- If you have a lesion around your mouth, syphilis can even spread trough kissing another person.

The good news is that once you've been cured of syphilis, it does not recur. However, it is recommended to always use protection while having intercourse and abstain from sexual activities if your partner suffers from syphilis.
6015 people found this helpful

Sexually Transmitted Diseases - Know Forms Of Them!

MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Ahmedabad
Sexually Transmitted Diseases - Know Forms Of Them!
Sexually transmitted diseases can often be shortened to STDs. STDs often do not show any symptoms. It is possible that you may have had a disease such as chlamydia and not even known you had it. However, it is crucial that you get yourself tested as soon as possible so that the sexually transmitted disease can be treated in the best way possible. Since there are many sexually transmitted diseases and they all have different symptoms and treatment, here are the symptoms and treatment for the most common ones:

HPV
HPV stands for human pappilovirus and it may display no symptoms whatsoever that you have the disease. However, when you do get symptoms, you will get symptoms such as genital warts, infection of the throat and mouth as well as cervical cancer, penile cancer and various other cancers. The treatment for HPV is to take a vaccine; as if you have not been vaccinated, it is hard to cure.

Chlamydia
Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease, however only 25% of women and about 50% of men show any symptoms of it whatsoever. However, the most common symptoms when they do appear is a discharge from the vagina or penis which is not regular and it may even cause a painful or burning sensation. Since this is a bacterial disease, it can pretty easily be treated with antibiotics.

Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea is yet another common sexually transmitted disease. It usually occurs along with chlamydia. The symptoms and treatment for gonorrhea are also extremely similar to chlamydia.

Syphilis
Syphilis is another common sexually transmitted disease. However, it is a little hard to treat because the symptoms appear in stages. In the first stage, there is only one main bump on the body. This bump may look like a cut, a sore or even an ingrown hair. In the second stage, this bump becomes a rash which goes all over your body and it may develop sores in your mouth, vagina or anus. Symptoms usually completely disappear in the third stage. However, if there is a fourth stage then brain or organ damage may occur. Antibiotics are used to treat syphilis as well.
2321 people found this helpful

Syphilis - What Is It And Why Is It Important?

Sexologist Clinic
Sexologist, Faridabad
Syphilis - What Is It And Why Is It Important?
Syphilis is a highly contagious bacterial infection that spreads mainly through sexual activities. It starts as a painless sore or rash on the skin, typically on the mouth, rectum, or the genitals, and results in long-term health complications, if left untreated. Keep reading to know more about the disease.

What are the symptoms and stages of syphilis?
The symptoms of the infection vary from person to person, depending on the stages of syphilis. Some people may also experience no symptoms at all. As the symptoms, if any, change depending on the stages of the disease, here s a quick look at the stages and the symptoms they are characterized with.

Primary stage: This is the first stage of syphilis where small, painless, round sores in the genitals and the mouth appear.
Secondary stage: In the second stage, the patient starts developing rashes, if he/she has not visited any medical expert and thus is not undergoing any treatment.
Latent stage: In the third stage, the infection may stay within the infected person; however, there will be no symptoms experienced for around 30 years.
Late stage: In this last stage, if left untreated, the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum starts affecting other body parts, resulting in damage to the nerves, brains, heart, or eyes.
How does one get infected?
The primary way of being infected with syphilis is through sexual activities. When one comes in contact with syphilis rash or sore during oral, vaginal, or anal sex, he or she can get syphilis. Women are not immune from syphilis, though it is the men, mainly those who are bisexual or gay, in whom the infection is prevalent. Syphilis can even spread from a mother to her baby; hence, one should be aware of its symptoms, prevention, and treatment.

What are the prevention/treatment options?
Syphilis is indeed a serious sexually transmitted disease; however, it can be prevented as well as cured. Abstaining from unprotected sex, not sharing sex toys, using condoms, avoiding drugs and alcohol, and using plastic square or dental dam during oral sex are some of the effective ways of preventing the risk of getting infected by syphilis. Once diagnosed, depending on the stage of the disease, the patient is treated with penicillin-based medications.

Remember, prevention is the best way of dealing with sexually transmitted diseases, which includes syphilis. However, it is advised to visit a sexologist immediately, if any of the symptoms are observed. If the infection spreads to other parts of the body, it may affect the vital organs, hence it is advised not to ignore the symptoms and undergo the treatment suggested by the sexologist, without delay.
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4 Stages Associated To Syphilis

MD - Physician
Sexologist, Coimbatore
4 Stages Associated To Syphilis
Syphilis is one of the most common STD and can affect both men and women. This bacterial infection can be easily treated, but if left unattended it can cause serious problems. Syphilis can be caught by mere skin to skin contact with an infected person s genitals or mouth. Hence even if you do not have intercourse with an infected person, you can still get infected from them. If a woman who is pregnant gets infected with this disease, she could pass it on to her unborn child as well.

A person suffering from syphilis may not always exhibit symptoms of the disease. This disease goes through active as well as dormant phases with symptoms being present only in the former. Even its dormant phase, this disease can be transmitted from one person to another.

There are four stages of syphilis and each of them have their own symptoms.

Primary stage: In its first stage, syphilis is marked by the presence of open sores called chancres. This can occur in the mouth, genitals are or around the anus. It can also be seen in other parts of the body where bacteria may have entered the body. These chancres are painless and may be accompanied by a swelling of the lymph nodes around it. This is the most contagious stage of the disease. Without treatment, these sores will resolve themselves in 3-6 weeks but the syphilis bacteria itself will remain in the body.
Secondary stage: Anywhere between 2 weeks to 12 weeks after coming in contact with the bacteria, this infection may move into its second phase or secondary stage. At this point, you will notice a rash on your skin. This rash can be seen as a collection of small, flat or raised skin sores along with small, open sores on mucous membranes. These sores may contain pus. Dark-skinned people may notice that these sores are lighter than the surrounding skin. Along with this, the patient may also have fever, a sore throat, headaches, weakness, irritability and suffer from weight loss.
Latent stage: Once the rash clears, this disease moves into its dormant or latent phase. This is also known as the hidden stage and can last anywhere from 1 to 20 years. It is very difficult to diagnose syphilis in this stage as there are no visible symptoms.
Late (tertiary) stage: If the disease is not diagnosed and treated by the time it reaches this stage, it can cause a number of serious health problems. This includes blindness, cardiovascular problems, mental disorders and even death.
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