Bariatric surgery is a procedure that involves modifications to the digestive system to restrict calorie intake or nutrient absorption by the body. These surgeries are usually recommended when lifestyle changes like exercise and diet may not cause the desired weight loss. In most such patients bariatric surgery can help lose 60% -100% excess weight within 1 year.
The various types of surgeries that come under this category are -
1. Gastric bypass – A common bariatric surgery, gastric bypass works through alteration of stomach size and re-routing of small intestine in a way that it leads to reduced consumption of calories. This procedure also causes alterations in the behavior of the gut hormones resulting in appetite reduction.
2. Sleeve gastrectomy – Commonest bariatric surgery, in this procedure almost 80% of the stomach area is removed surgically, which cause an overall reduction in the amount of calories consumed. This results in modification of gut hormones and altered gut bacteria linked with reduced appetite.
4. Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch - This procedure involves surgical removal of a large area of the stomach along with bypassing a major portion of the smaller intestine. This procedure may reduce fat absorption of up to 70%. The behavior of the gut hormones change resulting in a decrease in appetite and improved satiety.