Diabetes is basically a lifestyle and metabolic disease that is caused when the pancreases are not able to deal with the glucose and insulin, leading to an increase in the blood sugar levels. It is usually of three types like Type 1, Type 2 and gestational. The most common symptoms include frequent urination, fatigue and dizzy spells.
HOW IS DIABETES DIAGNOSED?
A specialist from the endocrinology department will be able to carry out proper diagnosis of the condition. The AC1 test, the FPG or fasting test and the OGTT test or oral glucose tolerance test are usually carried out in order to effectively diagnose the condition and to find out the type of diabetes that the patient may be suffering from.
HOW IS DIABETES TREATED?
Type I diabetes has no cure. Type II diabetes can be medically managed, some people manage without medicines by making lifestyle changes and through exercises. Oral medication can help maintain blood sugar levels.
DID YOU KNOW?
Diabetes develops most often in middle-aged and older people who are also overweight or obese. The disease, once rare in youth, is becoming more common in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Scientists think genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are the most likely triggers of diabetes.
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) or diabetes is the impaired insulin secretion and variable degrees of peripheral insulin resistance leading to the hyperglycemia. The early symptoms related to the hyperglycemia include polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria and the blurred vision.
Later complications in diabetes mellitus include vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy and predisposition to infection. Serious & long term complications include heart disease, kidney failure, Ulcer in foot and eye damage.
Treatment is healthy & balanced diet, exercise, and drugs that reduce the glucose levels, include insulin.
Type 1 diabetes: Also called as juvenile onset diabetes, Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It is caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition. Type 1 diabetes treatment involves taking of insulin.
Having type 1 diabetes does require lifestyle changes which includes
• Frequent blood sugar level testing
• Healthy balanced diet
• Daily exercise
• Taking of insulin or other medication if prescribed.
Type 2 Diabetes: This type of diabetes was also called as non-insulin dependent diabetes and known as adult onset diabetes. Type 2 diabetes also augments your risk of stroke and heart diseases. With this type of diabetes mellitus, the pancreas generally produces some amount of insulin. But the amount is produced is not adequate for the body’s needs.
Type 2 diabetes can be kept under check with proper dietary and exercise regime.
Gestational Diabetes: Diabetes that’s triggered by the pregnancy is called as gestational diabetes. It is diagnosed in the middle or late pregnancy. Because of the high blood sugar levels in a mother are circulated through the placenta to the baby. This type of diabetes must be controlled to protect the baby’s growth and development.
Complications in Diabetes Mellitus:
There are 3 most common, devastating complications of diabetes mellitus:
• Diabetic Retinopathy- most common cause of adult blindness.
• Diabetic Nephropathy- leading cause of chronic kidney disease.
• Diabetic Neuropathy - this results in injury of nerves due to microvascular disease, direct effects of hyperglycemia on neurons, and intracellular metabolic changes that impair nerve functions.
How Diabetes Mellitus can be managed?
There is no cure for the diabetes mellitus, but it can be treated and controlled.
• Keep your blood glucose levels near to the normal blood sugar level as possible by balancing the food you intake with proper medications.
• Maintain your blood cholesterol level and
• Control your blood pressure
• Plan to always eat and following a balanced diet plan
• Exercise regularly
• Take medication, if prescribed
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