Radiation therapy, sometimes called radiotherapy, x-ray treatment, cobalt therapy, electron beam therapy, or irradiation uses high energy, penetrating waves or particles such as x-rays, gamma rays, proton rays, or neutron rays to destroy cancer cells or keep them from reproducing. Radiologists are medical doctors (MDs) or doctors of osteopathic medicine (DOs) who specialize in diagnosing and treating diseases and injuries using medical imaging techniques, such as x-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine, positron emission tomography (PET) and ultrasound. Radiologists graduate from accredited medical schools, pass a licensing examination, and then go on to complete a residency of at least four years of unique post-graduate medical education. Radiological procedures are medically prescribed and should only be conducted by appropriately trained and certified physicians under medically necessary circumstances. Radiologist physicians have four to six years of unique, specific, post–medical school training that includes radiation safety and ensure the optimal performance of radiological procedures and interpretation of medical images. An x-ray diagnosis is a non-invasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the insides of the body. Medical imaging or an x-ray medicine has led to improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous medical conditions in children and adults. There are many types or modalities of medical imaging procedures, each of which uses different technologies and techniques. Therefore all use ionizing radiation to generate images of the body. Ionizing radiation is a form of radiation that has enough energy to potentially cause damage to DNA and may elevate a person's lifetime risk of developing cancer.
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