Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) treatment is used to treat patients diagnosed with lacrimal sac or nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). This can be caused by chronic stenosis of the nasolacrimal duct and can be congenital or acquired. NLDO is common but is not a serious condition. Symptoms include excessive epiphora (tearing) and dacryocystitis (infection). Usually, cases have been refractory to conventional treatment such as warm compresses, massage and probing the nasal passage. If NLDO is left untreated, these symptoms will persist and may cause embarrassment for the patient. The external DCR is standard treatment. Endoscopic DCR surgery is a minimally invasive procedure performed by ophthalmologists and otorhinolaryngologists to unblock tear ducts and correct other causes of decreased patency of the nasal passages. A decongestant is administered to clear the nasal passage first and then gauze, soaked with anaesthesia that numbs the area and constricts blood vessels, is inserted. Blocked tear ducts happen most often in babies, though they may occur at any age. They affect about 6 out of 100 new-borns. Most of the times, blocked tear ducts in babies clear up on their own during the baby's first year. They usually have no effect on the baby's vision or cause any lasting eye problems. Tears normally drain from the eye through small tubes called tear ducts, which stretch from the eye into the nose. If a tear duct becomes blocked or fails to open, tears cannot drain from the eye properly. The duct may fill with fluid and become swollen, inflamed, and sometimes infected.
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