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Top Health Tips on Treating Typhoid (Adults)

Typhoid - Signs You Are Suffering From It!

MBBS, Diploma in Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases (DTCD), MD - General Medicine
General Physician, Delhi
Typhoid - Signs You Are Suffering From It!
Typhoid is as an acute illness commonly characterized by high fever and an impaired digestive system. This illness is caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi and generally spreads from one person to another by means of food or water.

Causes of typhoid

Salmonella Typhi, the bacterium responsible for typhoid, primarily spreads on consumption of unhygienic street food and water.
Typhoid can also occur as a result of a poor sanitation system. In these cases, the bacterium spreads through fecal matters and the contaminated urine of the infected person.
Typhoid can also spread if you share the same food and water consumed by the infected person.
Symptoms
The symptoms generally appear within 1-3 weeks, after coming in contact with the already infected individual. The ensuing fever and discomfort remains for about 3-4 weeks. The symptoms are:

Severe headache and loss of appetite
High fever
Severe discomfort in the whole body coupled with pain in the abdomen area
Drowsiness
Diarrhea or constipation
A dry cough and appearance of rashes
However, in most of the cases, the symptoms tend to improve from the third week itself.

Treatment
The following treatments can be implemented in order to cure typhoid fever:

Doctors generally recommend a prescribed dosage of antibiotics in order to deal with the disease.
Along with the prescribed dosage of antibiotics, the doctors recommend balanced consumption of various fluids such as natural fruit juices and water to restore hydration. A healthy diet packed with all the essential nutrients is another necessity that has to complement the dosage of antibiotics.
Choice of antibiotics should be Ceftriaxone, Cefixime, Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin.
Complications

The two most common complications are haemorrhage (including disseminated intravascular coagulation) and perforation of the bowel. Before antibiotics, perforation had a mortality of around 75%.
Jaundice may be due to hepatitis, cholangitis, cholecystitis, or haemolysis.
Pancreatitis with acute kidney injury and hepatitis with hepatomegaly are rare.
Toxic myocarditis occurs in 1-5% of patients (ECG changes may be present). It is a significant cause of death in endemic areas.
Toxic confusional states and other neurological and psychiatric disturbances have been reported.
Needs and Indications for Hospitalization-

Hospital admission is usually recommended if you have severe symptoms of typhoid fever, such as persistent vomiting, severe diarrhoea or a swollen stomach. As a precaution, young children who develop typhoid fever may be admitted to hospital. In hospital, you'll have antibiotic injections and you may also be given fluids and nutrients directly into a vein through an intravenous drip. Surgery may be needed if you develop life-threatening complications of typhoid fever, such as internal bleeding or a section of your digestive system splitting. However, this is very rare in people being treated with antibiotics. Most people respond well to hospital treatment and improve within three to five days. However, it may be several weeks until you're well enough to leave hospital.

Vaccines

Two types of vaccines are available

Injected
Oral
The injected vaccine is more commonly used and is also known as inactivated typhoid shot . It is injected in one single shot an it can easily provide protection against typhoid. This type is widely prevalent in cases where one has to travel to a typhoid infected place. However, one must be careful and should keep a tab as to what they eat or drink at the time of travelling. Also, this type of vaccine should not be administered on kids below 2 years old.
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Ayurveda and Monsoon Disease

Pulse Reader, Panchakarma, Naturopathy, Ayurveda, Keralian Therapy, Yoga, Dietitian
Ayurveda, Delhi
Ayurveda and Monsoon Disease
Being an agriculture based country, India awaits the arrival of the monsoons. The monsoon rains are the most beneficial source of water for the crops in India. But with the advent of the monsoons, a variety of diseases also approach the country. Diseases like malaria and typhoid are very common during the monsoons. These diseases make you terribly weak when afflicted with them.

Given below are a few of the monsoon diseases and how Ayurveda will help you combat with them:

Cholera: The presence of the bacteria V.Cholerae causes you to suffer from cholera. Lemon renders the bacteria inoperative and cucumber helps to ease the symptoms of cholera. Liquefied onion with mint and vinegar is extremely essential to recover from cholera.
Typhoid: Ambarbaris is composed of citric and malice acids which help in treating the fevers caused while suffering from typhoid. It also controls the occurrence of diarrhea. Apart from ambarbaris, neem also helps to treat the typhoid inflicted fevers.
Dysentery: The most basic treatment available for dysentery is the bark of kurchi or kantaja. In case you are suffering from constipation, isabgol will be extremely helpful in that case. For chronic dysentery, a preparation made of mercury and sulphur, called 'rasa parpati' might be advised.
Hepatitis A: Hepatitis A is a water and food borne disease, which is very common during the monsoons. One of the symptoms of Hepatitis A is jaundice. Ambarbaris is very efficient in curing jaundice. Kanphool or dandelion is very powerful in curing Hepatitis A along with other liver conditions. Kasni improves bile secretion in the liver. Hence it is useful while recovering from Hepatitis A.
Malaria: Malaria is a disease which is borne by mosquitoes. It is another common monsoon disease. Afsanthin is an Ayurvedic component which helps to diminish the effects of the fevers caused due to malaria. Amla, which has a high quantity of Vitamin C, helps to restore the lost Vitamin C content in the body. Neem can also be used to recover from malaria. Shikakai is another Ayurvedic remedy that helps curtail the fever caused by malaria.
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3 Tropical Fevers - How to Differentiate Between Them?

MD, MBBS
General Physician, Bangalore
3 Tropical Fevers - How to Differentiate Between Them?
The rains almost always bring about a plethora of diseases with fevers of different kinds. Dengue, typhoid and chikungunya can be regarded as the top three tropical fevers and diagnosing them sometimes become quite tricky as all of them have similar symptoms and the laboratory tests are not always precise. The best you can do is be aware of the early symptoms and signs as successful treatment is heavily dependent on the detection of early symptoms of the fever you are suffering from.

Dengue

Causes: Dengue is considered as a serious viral ailment and is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. This fever occurs in two varieties, uncomplicated fever and the more serious haemorrhagic fever. The latter is the second leading form of the viral disease, leading to bleeding and shock and in the most severe instances. It can also be fatal, especially for children.
Symptoms: The symptoms may vary as per the age and physical condition of the patient. If you are affected with a sudden onset of very high fever along with headaches, rashes and pain behind the eyes, with loss of appetite and vomiting tendencies, then you must consult a doctor. It can also cause weak pulses, difficulty in breathing, restlessness and bleeding from the nose or gums along with blotchiness under the skin.

Typhoid
Causes: Typhoid is a bacterial ailment and mainly occurs due to unhygienic toilet habits, impure drinking water, and it can be transmitted to others through flies, food, faeces, touch and fornication.
Symptoms: The most common symptoms of typhoid fever include high fever, rashes all over the skin, cough, headache and loss of appetite. You may also experience coated tongue, malaise and diarrhoea or constipation. In case you are experiencing any of these signs, then you must seek medical help.

Chikungunya
Causes: Chikungunya fever is a viral ailment that is transmitted to human beings by infected mosquito bites. It is the leading cause of human epidemics in some parts of the African and Asian continents and it has now recently moved to some parts of Europe.
Symptoms: The chikungunya virus infection leads to symptoms that may be debilitating for some people. Fever, rash, fatigue and headaches along with muscle and joint pains are some of the most common symptoms of chikungunya. Some patients have reported excruciating joint pain and arthritis that can last for a week or even months together.

If you are faced with any of these symptoms for over three to four days, then you should not ignore them and seek medical assistance without any delay.
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Typhoid Fever - Follow These Steps and Prevent It!

MBBS, DNB (General Medicine), Certified in Evidence Based Diabetes Management, MNAMS, MRCP (UK)
Internal Medicine Specialist, Kolkata
Typhoid Fever - Follow These Steps and Prevent It!
Typhoid is an infectious bacterial fever with an eruption of red spots on the chest and abdomen and severe intestinal irritation, brought about by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. It can also be brought about by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that generally causes a less extreme sickness. The bacteria are stored in water or in the food by a human carrier and are then spread to other individuals around them.

There are many ways to avoid typhoid fever:

Vaccination: Take one dose of the vaccine one week before travelling. The other is given orally in four cases, with one container to be taken every alternate day. Neither one of the vaccines is 100% effective. Both require repetitive immunisation since the effect of vaccines diminishes over time.
Washing your hands: Frequently washing your hands in hot, soapy water is the most ideal approach to control contamination. Wash before eating or cooking food and after using the toilet. Use a hand sanitiser in cases where water isn't accessible.
Drinking clean water: There are a few ways in which you can avoid getting typhoid fever spread by contaminated water.
Abstain from drinking untreated water.
Contaminated drinking water is a specific issue in areas where typhoid fever is endemic. Thus, drink only boiled or filtered water, or canned or packaged carbonated drinks.
Carbonated filtered water is more secure than non-carbonated filtered water.
Request drinks without ice.
Use filtered water to brush your teeth and try not to swallow water in the shower.
Clean water can get contaminated again in case it is not put away securely.
Store the clean drinking water in a container with a little opening and use it within four hours.
Staying away from raw fruits and vegetables: Maintain a strategic distance from crude foods grown in the ground. Since crude produce may have been washed away in water, maintain distance from products of the soil that you cannot peel, particularly lettuce. To be totally protected, you might need to stay away from street food completely.
Cooking: Pick hot foods. Keep away from food that is put away or served at room temperature. Steaming hot nourishments are ideal. Also, in spite of all precautions, there is no assurance that the food served at the finest restaurants is safe for your health. It is best to stay away from foods served by street side vendors. Completely cook all meats, fish and vegetables. Eat them while they are still hot.
Washing: Wash your dishes and utensils with proper dish washing soap and water. Wash your cutting board particularly well with a cleanser and water.
Peeling: Peeling fruits and vegetables protects you from typhoid. Eat natural products that have been freshly washed and peeled, for example, oranges and bananas.
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Vitiligo - Symptoms and Ayurvedic Treatments

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine & Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Faridabad
Vitiligo - Symptoms and Ayurvedic Treatments
Vitiligo, often known as leukoderma, is a specific kind of skin whitening disease resulting in white patches all over the skin. A gradual loss of pigment layers on the skin surface results in the patches. This type of skin disorder becomes socially challenging for the sufferers. As the discolouration of skin and the patches all over the body start getting noticed by people, the patients get depressed. But they should stay positive as the treatment of vitiligo with Ayurveda has proven to be one of the safest cure methodologies.

Symptoms

Vitiligo generally starts with small spots on exposed areas; especially the bone joints, which are the first areas to be affected by vitiligo. Due to the lack of blood circulation, the bone joints are inclined to get affected by vitiligo. Gradually the spots on the skin turn into white patches. This disease has nothing to do with germs or bad blood. Rather it is caused by de-pigmentation issues on skin layers.

Factors responsible for vitiligo

Women are more prone to vitiligo than men. The factors that cause vitiligo are:

Jaundice
Liver problems
Mental worry
Typhoid
Burn injuries
Parasites in alimentary canal
Apart from these above mentioned factors, hereditary factors also trigger this type of skin disorder.

Ayurvedic Treatment For Vitiligo

Decades of research and practices have established Ayurveda as one of the most ancient and holistic ways of treatment. Ayurveda means the goodness of all the natural elements and herbs. So treating vitiligo with Ayurveda doesn't only mean curing the disorder, but also the Ayurvedic medicines are known to enhance skin tones.

According to Ayurveda, Leucoderma is caused due to the aggravation of Pitta Dosha. Pitta is an Ayurvedic humor which symbolizes heat or fire, and is manifested in the skin. Aggravated Pitta leads to accumulation of ama (toxins) in deep layers of the skin, leading to the condition of Leucoderma.

Pitta is of five types; one of them is Bhrajak Pitta that gives coloration to skin. In the case of Leucoderma, Bhrajak Pitta is in an imbalanced state, and therefore, the skin starts losing its color and white patches appear. Along with Pitta Dosha, deeper body tissues like Rasa Dhatu (nutrient plasma), Rakta (blood), Mansa (muscles), Lasika (lymph) are also involved in the disease.

Treatment consists of pacifying imbalanced body energies, cleansing the blood and administrating herbs that restore skin color. Poor digestion is the root cause of this disease, as it causes the build-up of toxins in the tissues. An essential part of treatment, therefore, is restoring digestion. The patient will also be advised on the correct diet and lifestyle adjustments to prevent recurrence of the disorder.

One of the most effective Ayurvedic medicine for vitiligo is Agnijith. Its capability of producing pigmentation on needed areas is scientifically proven. It is capable of blocking the de-pigmentation issue on skin layers. This cream-based medicine is also known for contacting rich microbial properties, which get easily absorbed in skin and increase the level of blood circulation. Vitiligo is almost an autoimmune disorder, thus the Ayurvedic anti-vitiligo medicines are the best way to cure it.

There are a few Ayurvedic home remedies that are effective enough in removing the white patches. Turmeric is a common herb in everyone's kitchen. Applying a mixture of turmeric and mustard oil on the affected areas can help you cure vitiligo.

Bakuchi and coconut oil s mixture is another effective remedy for vitiligo. Apply the mixture, keep it for 15 minutes and then wash it off.

Vitiligo is a special case of skin disorder, which is triggered by a low immune system or pitta dosha. So leading a good lifestyle and eating healthy food are equally important in order to get cured.
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Hair Fall - 6 Homeopathic Remedies For It!

DHMS (Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery)
Homeopath, Kolkata
Hair Fall - 6 Homeopathic Remedies For It!
Hairfall is a condition, which is also known as Alopecia and is known to include the aspect of thinning of hair as well. Genetics and hormones play a vital role in hairfall in both women and men. Few other factors are also responsible for hairfall. The hair growth consists of 3 phases.

The anagen phase-active phase in hair growth. This phase lasts for 2-7 yrs.
The second phase - catagen phase. This phase immediately follows the anagen phase. It lasts for around 10- 14 days and the hair stops getting blood supply and this leads the hair to become dead.
The last phase is telogen phase. It is a resting phase.
The entire cycle is repeated after the last stage and it continues. Every single hair undergoes this process.

Causes/ factors to hair loss

Genetic factors
Skin diseases such as fungal infection, seborrhea (dandruff), tinea capitis ,eczema of scalp and lichen planus etc.
Nutritional deficiencies like iron (leading to anemia) and protein
Hormonal changes after childbirth, during menopause
Drug in treating high blood pressure, cancer, joint pains or depression. Hair loss due to chemotherapy in a cancer patient is called as Anagen effluvium
General diseases like Tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus, AIDS, Hypothyroidism
Auto-immune hair loss
Hairstyles and frequent usage of hair straighteners and hair colors
Recovery from erysipelas and typhoid leads to diffuse hair loss
Physical trauma or injury to head
Emotional trauma - loss of a family member / close friend
Trichotillomania, -a mental disorder of the affected person voluntarily pulls out his / her scalp hair
Homeopathy remedies
The treatment for the disease could be based on the cause of the disease. Understanding the cause and treating it accordingly will increase the effectiveness of the medicine.

Psorinum is the medicine useful to treat the hair fall that is caused due to skin diseases in scalp.
Mezereum is also another medicine that is good in treating hair fall due to dandruff and other skin disease.
Mercurius Solubilis is another homeopathic medicine that plays a wonderful role in treating the hair loss due to eruptions on scalp.
Kali sulphuricum and Thuja occidentalis are best medicines to treat hair fall due to dandruff exclusively.
Pulsatilla pratensis, Natrum muriaticum, Pulsatilla pratensis and Sepia officinalis are medicines used to control hair fall in women after childbirth.
Cinchona officinalis , Calcarea phosphorica and Borax are medicines that helps in treating hair fall problem for anemic patients.
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Typhoid Fever in Hindi - जाने क्या है टाइफाइड फीवर

MBBS, M.Sc - Dietitics / Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Delhi
Typhoid Fever in Hindi - जाने क्या है टाइफाइड फीवर
टाइफायड साल्मोनेला बैक्टीरिया से फैलने वाली खतरनाक बीमारी है। इसे मियादी बुखार भी कहते हैं। टाइफायड बुखार पाचन तंत्र और ब्लटस्ट्रीम में बैक्टीरिया के इंफेक्शन की वजह से होता है। गंदे पानी, संक्रमित जूस या पेय के साथ साल्मोनेला बैक्टीरिया हमारे शरीर के अंदर प्रवेश कर जाता है। टायफायड की संभावना किसी संक्रमित व्यक्ति के जूठे खाद्य-पदार्थ के खाने-पीने से भी हो सकती है। वहीं दूषित खाद्य पदार्थ के सेवन से भी ये संक्रमण हो जाता है। पाचन तंत्र में पहुंचकर इन बैक्टीरिया की संख्या बढ़ जाती है। शरीर के अंदर ही ये बैक्टीर िया एक अंग से दूसरे अंग में पहुंचते हैं। टाइफायड के इलाज में जरा भी लापरवाही नहीं बरतनी चाह िए। दवाओं का कोर्स पूरा न किया जाए तो इसके वापस आने की भी संभावना रहती है।

क्या है टाइफायड
टाइफायड के बैक्टीरिया इंसानों के शरीर में ही पाया जाता है। इससे संक्रमित लोगों के मल से सप्लाई का पानी दूषित हो जाता है। ये पानी खाद्य पदार्थों में भी पहुंच सकता है। बैक्टीरिया पानी और सूखे मल में हफ्तों तक जिंदा रहता है। इस तरह ये दूषित पानी और खाद्य पदार्थों के जरिए शरीर में पहुंचकर संक्रमण पहुंचाता है। संक्रमण बहुत अधिक हो जाने पर 3 से 5 फीसदी लोग इस बीमारी के कैरियर हो जाते हैं। जहां कुछ लोगों को हल्की से परेशानी होती है, जिसके लक्षण पहचान में भी नहीं आते वहीं कैरियर लंबे समय के लिए इस बीमारी से ग्रसित रहते हैं। उनमें भी ये लक्षण दिखाई नहीं देते लेकिन कई सालों तक इनसे टाइफायड का संक्रमण हो सकता है।

लक्षण
संक्रमित पानी या खाना खाने के बाद साल्मोनेला छोटी आंत के जरिए ब्लड स्ट्रीम में मिल जाता है। लिवर, स्प्लीन और बोनमैरो की श्वेत रुधिर क णिकाओं के जरिए इनकी संख्या बढ़ती रहती है और ये रक्त धारा में फिर से पहुंच जाते हैं। बुखार टाइफायड का प्रमुख लक्षण है। इसके बाद संक्रमण बढ़ने के साथ भूख कम होना, सिरदर्द, शरीर में दर्द होना, तेज बुखार, ठंड लगना, दस्त लगना, सुस्ती, कमजोरी और उल्टी जैसे लक्षण दिखाई देते हैं। आंतों के संक्रमण के कारण शरीर के हर भाग में संक्रमण हो सकता है, जिससे कई अन्य संक्रमित बीमारियां होने का खतरा भी बढ़ जाता है।

सामान्यता टाइफायड 1 महीने तक चलता है, लेकिन कमजोरी ज्यादा होने पर ज्यादा समय ले सकता है। इस दौरान शरीर में बहुत कमजोरी आ जाती है और जिससे रोगी को सामान्य होने में लंबा समय लग सकता है।

टाइफायड की जांच
शुरुआती स्टेज में रोगी के ब्लड सैंपल की जांच करके उसका इलाज शुरू किया जाता है। इसके अलावा रोगी का स्टूल टेस्ट करके उसके शरीर में टाइफायड के बैक्टीरिया की मौजूदगी का पता लगाया जाता है। विडाल टेस्ट भी टाइफायड के टेस्ट का प्रचलित तरीका है लेकि न कई बार टाइफायड ठीक होने के बाद भी सालों-साल मरीज के ब्लड में विडाल टेस्ट पॉजिटिव आता रहता है। इसके लिए स्टूल और टा इफायड टेस्ट कराना बेहतर विकल्प है। कभी-कभी संक्रमण ज्यादा होने पर अगर मरीज को ज्यादा पेट दर्द या उल्टी हो तो सोनोग्राफी भी करनी पड़ सकती है।

इलाज
टाइफायड का इलाज एंटी बायोटिक दवाओं के जरिये किया जाता है। शुरुआती अवस्था का टाइफायड एंटीबायोटिक गोलियों और इंजेक्शन की मदद से दो हफ्ते के अंदर ठीक हो जाता है। इसके साथ परहेज रखना बेहद जरूरी है।

ऐसे करें मरीज की देख-रेख

टाइफायड के दौरान तेज बुखार आता है। ऐसे में किसी कपड़े को ठंडे पानी में भिगोकर शरीर को पोंछे। इसके अलावा ठंडे पानी की पट्टियां सिर पर रखने से भी शरीर का तापमान कम होता है। कपड़े को समय समय पर बदलते रहना चाहिए। ये ध्यान रखना बेहद जरूरी है कि पानी बर्फ का ना हो। पट्टी रखने के ल िए साधारण पानी का इस्तेमाल करें।

घरेलू उपचार
1. तुलसी और सूरजमुखी के पत्तों का रस निकालकर पीने से टाइफायड में राहत मिलती है।

2. लहसुन की तासीर गर्म होती है और यह प्राकृतिक एंटीबायोटिक है। घी में 5 से 7 लहसुन की कलियां पीसकर तलें और सेंधा नमक मिलाकर खाएं।

3. सेब का जूस निकालकर इसमें अदरक का रस मिलाकर प िएं, इससे हर तरह के बुखार में राहत मिलती है।

4. पके हुए केले को पीसकर इसमें एक चम्मच शहद मिलाकर दिन में दो बार खाएं।

5. लौंग में टाइफायड ठीक करने के गुण होते हैं। लौंग के तेल में एंटीबैक्टीरियल गुण होते हैं। आठ कप पानी में 5 से 7 लौंग डालकर उबाल लें। जब पानी आधा रह जाए इसे छान लें। इस पानी को पूरा दिन पीएं। इस उपचार को एक हफ्ते लगातार करें।
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BHMS
Homeopath, Sindhudurg
Typhoid fever or simply typhoid is also called enteric fever. Basically it is a disease of the abdomen, which also affects the liver and spleen.

Typhoid is one of the many diseases that are caused by use of contaminated food and drinks. The bacteria also spreads through utensils washed with contaminated water. It is a contagious disease and is potentially life-threatening. It may occur alongside some other diseases including dengue fever in which case it becomes more alarming.

Typhoid symptoms
Commonly observed symptoms are:

Continued fever, which may be low but can rise up to 40 degrees celsius (104 degrees fahrenheit) and also fluctuate.
Loss of appetite or poor appetite
Diarrhea or constipation. Diarrhea in most cases, constipation in some cases
Rash on the body
Abdominal pain particularly in the liver area
Headache
Feeling of general weakness
In the advanced stage bleeding in intestines may occur.
In most cases, typhoid fever is not fatal but if it remains untreated for long time or is handled badly, it can become fatal. In the advanced stage, intestinal perforation and hemorrhage can occur, which become difficult to treat. Such condition can frequently cause death.

Prevention of typhoid fever
Since typhoid spreads mainly through use of contaminated food and drinks, it is important to maintain good hygiene and sanitation.
Always wash your hands before eating and after defecation. Even if you live in clean environments, this aspect of hygiene should never be ignored.
Avoid eating from unclean places.
If you happen to live in or visit a high risk area, have yourself vaccinated for protection against typhoid.
Homeopathic treatment
Typhoid fever is curable through different medical systems including homeopathy, herbal and allopathic systems. As soon as you feel the symptoms, go for medical examination and have the treatment started promptly, if diagnosed with typhoid. It is much easier to treat typhoid in its early stages. Homeopathy has many medicines to treat different conditions of typhoid that include arsenicum album, baptisia, muriaticum acidum, rhus toxicodendron, hyoscyamus etc. Homeopathic treatment is usually very effective and prompt in treating typhoid fever.
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Symptoms Of Typhoid In Hindi - टाइफाइड के लक्षण

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Lakhimpur Kheri
Symptoms Of Typhoid In Hindi -  टाइफाइड के लक्षण
टाइफाइड के जीवाणु को साल्मोनेला टाइफी कहा जाता है. यह हमारे मुंह से हमारे शरीर के अंदर प्रवेश करता है. अधिकतम 3 सप्ताह तक हमारी आंतों में अपना घर बनाता है. उसके बाद यह आंतों की दीवार से होते हुए खून में प्रवेश कर जाता है. खून की सहायता से यह अन्य को और शरीर के कई अंगों में फैल जाता है. हमारे शरीर का प्रतिरक्षा तंत्र साल्मोनेला टाइफी से मुकाबला नहीं कर पाता है. क्योंकि यह जीवाणु हमारी कोशिकाओं में बिना प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली से प्रभावित हुए सुरक्षित रूप से निवास कर सकता है.

जीवाणुओं के कारण दुनिया भर में होने वाला टाइफाइड, भारत की भी एक आम बीमारी है. टाइफाइड के जीवाणु हमारी आंखों और रक्त प्रवाह में संक्रमण करते हैं. यह एक संक्रामक बीमारी है जो एक मनुष्य से दूसरे मनुष्य में फैलता है. एक अनुमान के अनुसार टाइफाइड के मरीज़ का यदि उपचार नहीं किया जाए तो 4 में से एक इंसान की मौत भी हो सकती है. टाइफाइड के आम तौर पर कई लक्षण होते हैं जिनके आधार पर चिकित्सक या फिर कोई भी इसके होने का अनुमान लगा सकता है. आइए देखें ऐसे ही कुछ लक्षणों को

टाइफाइड के लक्षणों को 3 चरणों में समझें-

1. प्रथम चरण:- टाइफाइड बुखार के लक्षणों को हम तीन चरणों में समझ सकते हैं. पहले चरण में हल्की बुखार आती है और और शरीर ज्यादातर गर्म रहने लगता है. इसके साथ ही सर दर्द पेट दर्द बदन दर्द आदि जैसे लक्षण भी दिखाई देने लगते हैं
2. द्वितीय चरण:- दूसरे चरण में मरीज का बुखार बहुत ज्यादा हो जाता है. यह 40 डिग्री से लेकर 104 डिग्री के बीच हो सकता है. उसे अपने शरीर में कमजोरी महसूस होती है वह आलस महसूस करने लगता है.
3. तृतीय चरण:- तीसरे चरण में मरीज की सेहत बहुत खराब हो जाती है. तेज बुखार साथी बहुत ज्यादा शारीरिक कमजोरी 24 घंटे आंत ज्वर का बने रहना और सांस लेने में दिक्कत आने लगना आज जैसे लक्षण दिखाई देने लगते हैं.

टाइफाइड के लक्षण
टाइफाइड एक ऐसी बीमारी है जिसके लक्षण लगभग 1 से 2 सप्ताह तक बढ़ती है और 3 से 4 सप्ताह तक रह सकती है.

1. दर्द और बेचैनी की समस्या
टाइफाइड के दौरान मरीज के शरीर मैं मरीज के पूरे शरीर में दर्द रहता है इस दर्द के कारण आपको बेचैनी भी हो सकती है.
2. तेज बुखार होना
टाइफाइड में जैसा कि हमने पहले ही देखा है कि तेज बुखार होता है यह बुखार 104 डिग्री फारेनहाइट से भी ज्यादा हो सकता है.
3. भूख न लगना
इस बीमारी में भूख न लगने की भी समस्या देखी जाती है इसलिए टाइफाइड के दौरान कुछ भी खाने का मन नहीं करता है.
4. दस्त होना
टाइफाइड में दस्त जैसी समस्याएं भी देखी जाती हैं. दस्त रहने के कारण आपके पुरे शरीर में डिहाइड्रेशन यानी पानी की कमी भी हो जाती है.
5. सर दर्द का होना
सर में दर्द का होना भी टाइफाइड के कई कारणों में से एक है. टाइफाइड में सरदर्द होना या सर भारी रहना आम बात है.
6. सुस्ती या आलस आना
इस दौरान होने वाली कई परेशानियों में एक है आलस रहना. यानी कि टाइफाइड में आपके पूरे शरीर में आलस रहता है. आपका मन स्वस्थ रहेगा और कुछ भी करने का मन नहीं करता है
7. छाती में काफ जमा
टाइफाइड बुखार की स्थिति में कई लोगों के छाती में कफ जमा हो सकता है. इस दौरान छाती में कफ़ जमा हो जाने से भी कई तरह की समस्याएं उत्पन्न हो जाती हैं.
8. पेट में दर्द होना
टाइफाइड बुखार में आपके अंदर पेट दर्द की भी समस्या देखी जा सकती है. इस दौरान आपके पेट में लगातार दर्द रह सकता है.
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All About Typhoid Fever!

MBBS
General Physician, Chittorgarh
What is typhoid fever?
Typhoid fever or enteric fever is a digestive tract infection in which there is fever, headache, and abdominal pain or discomfort. It is very common in developing countries like india.

What are the causes and risk factors?
Typhoid fever is caused by a bacterium called salmonella typhi which is transmitted through contaminated water or food (feco-oral or urine-oral route).

Risk factors include:

Travelling to areas where typhoid fever is a common disease.
Being in a profession where contamination with bacteria is likely. Like those working in laboratories.
Coming in close contact with a person suffering from typhoid.
Drinking/ eating contaminated water or food.
How will you know if you have typhoid fever?
Signs and symptoms develop gradually over the period of 10-14 days after exposure to the bacteria.
Signs and symptoms include an irregular fever that can go up to 104.9 f (40.5 c), headache, pain in abdomen, tiredness, muscle pain, loss of appetite, nausea, constipation or diarrhoea, skin rash.

How is typhoid fever diagnosed?
Your doctor will do a physical examination and carry out some tests.
Physical findings in early stages include abdominal tenderness, enlarged spleen and liver, enlarged lymph nodes, and development of a rash (also known as rose spots because of their appearance).

Investigations include:

Blood tests: typhidot test igm and igg antibodies, blood culture to test for salmonella typhi.
Stool and urine analysis
Bone marrow culture: it is the most sensitive test, but it is rarely required except in patients who have already received antibiotics and not getting any better.
Widal antigen test: this test can be done, but there is a longer waiting phase of about 10 days till results can be seen, it is time-consuming and could give false positive results.
What is the treatment for typhoid fever?

Antibiotics are the only effective treatment option for typhoid fever.
Due to increased resistance to ciprofloxacin the new drugs of choice are azithromycin and ceftriaxone.
In some cases, chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and amoxicillin may also be effective.
Fluid intake should be increased to prevent dehydration.
What are the complications of typhoid fever?
If not treated and sometimes even after treatment, there can be serious complications due to typhoid like pneumonia, meningitis (inflammation of meninges of brain), infection in bones (osteomyelitis), intestinal perforation and intestinal haemorrhage.

A doctor needs to be consulted if a person starts developing the symptoms few days after travelling to a place where typhoid is prevalent.

How can typhoid fever be prevented?

Typhoid fever can be prevented by improving sanitation facilities and drinking clean drinking water.
Always wash your hands with soap and warm water after using restrooms, before eating or cooking food.
Maintaining optimum personal hygiene is the key to preventing this disease.
Travellers should not drink untreated water; avoid adding ice to their drinks and should not eat ice creams or milk products or street foods that are a rich source of the infection.
Vaccines are available that give partial protection. Vaccines usually are reserved for those who may be exposed to the disease or are travelling to areas where typhoid fever is common.
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